EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

piperazine
hexahydro-1,4-diazine

Supplier Sponsors

Name:piperazine
CAS Number: 110-85-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-808-3
FDA UNII: 1RTM4PAL0V
Nikkaji Web:J1.981J
Beilstein Number:0102555
MDL:MFCD00005953
XlogP3:-1.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:86.13770000
Formula:C4 H10 N2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1615 piperazine
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:14.141 piperazine
FEMA Number:4250 piperazine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):110-85-0 ; PIPERAZINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.320 Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2550 Reverse osmosis membranes.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to yellow solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 106.00 to 109.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 146.00 to 149.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:4.049000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 229.00 °F. TCC ( 109.44 °C. )
logP (o/w): -1.171 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 1.00E+06 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: ammoniacal
ammoniacal
Odor Description:at 0.10 % in dipropylene glycol. ammoniacal
Flavor Type: salty
salty
Taste Description: salty
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Piperazine 97%
BASF
Piperazine chips
Charkit Chemical
PIPERAZINE ANHYDROUS
Dow Chemical
DOW Specialty Amines - Piperazine 68% Aqueous (PIP)
Penta International
PIPERAZINE ANHYDROUS
Sigma-Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Piperazine ReagentPlus®, 99%
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Piperazine Anhydrous >98.0%(GC)(T)
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
C N - Corrosive, Dangerous for the environment.
R 34 - Causes burns.
R 42/43 - May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact.
R 52/53 - Harmful to qauatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 1900 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 15, Pg. 116, 1979.

oral-mouse LD50 600 mg/kg
Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico. Vol. 103, Pg. 414, 1964.

intravenous-rat LD50 1340 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 635, 1982.

intravenous-mouse LD50 1180 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 635, 1982.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 1900 mg/kg
Progress in Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol. 1, Pg. 542, 1965.

oral-child TDLo 75 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SLEEP GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 478, 1969.

intramuscular-rat LD50 > 2500 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 635, 1982.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 4 ml/kg
Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 7/16/1965

subcutaneous-rat LD50 3700 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 635, 1982.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-mouse LC50 5400 mg/m3/2H
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 15, Pg. 116, 1979.

 
Safety in Use Information:
Category:
flavoring agents
Recommendation for piperazine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.012 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.002 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 600 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:540 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: II
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 22
Click here to view publication 22
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 2.0000010.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: 0.200001.00000
cheese: 0.400002.00000
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: 0.100000.50000
confectionery froastings: 1.000005.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: 0.100000.50000
fish products: 0.200001.00000
frozen dairy: 0.400002.00000
fruit ices: 0.400002.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 0.200001.00000
milk products: 0.400002.00000
nut products: --
other grains: 0.200001.00000
poultry: 0.200001.00000
processed fruits: 0.400002.00000
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: 0.100000.50000
snack foods: 1.000005.00000
soft candy: --
soups: 0.100000.50000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 0.400002.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 0.100000.50000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 0.400002.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 0.400002.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 1.000005.00000
Chewing gum (05.3): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 0.200001.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 2.0000010.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 0.200001.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 0.200001.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 0.100000.50000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 0.200001.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): --
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 1.000005.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 1.000005.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 0.200001.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, (FGE.86)[1] - Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting) - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives - Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, Revision 1 (FGE.86Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, Revision 2 (FGE.86Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and arylalkyl amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):110-85-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :4837
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 2579
WGK Germany:1
piperazine
Chemidplus:0000110850
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:110-85-0
 
References:
 piperazine
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:110-85-0
Pubchem (cid):4837
Pubchem (sid):134974700
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C07973
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB14730
FooDB:FDB012189
Export Tariff Code:2933.59.9500
MedlinePlusSupp:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•u.s.- not commercially available. canada-2 grams per packet (rx) (entacyl (sodium <19.2 mg)). piperazine adipate granules for oral solution •u.s.- not commercially available. canada- 600 mg per 5 ml (rx) (entacyl (sodium <0.8 mg)). •u.s.- 250 mg (hexahydrate) (275.75 mg piperazine citrate anhydrous) (rx) (generic). canada- not commercially available. piperazine citrate tablets usp •piperazine salts are available as tablets & wafers, each containing 500 mg, & as syrups & suspensions containing 100 mgml, calculated as hexahydrate. piperazine citrate, usp, and piperazine phosphate, nf, are official preparations. trade names include antepar (citrate & phosphate), multifuge citrate and pipizan citrate. •piperazine calcium edathamil (perin) syrup, 500 mg (of piperazine hexahydrate) per 5 ml. tablets, 500 mg (of piperazine hexahydrate). •piperazine gluconate (vermizine gluconate) syrup, 500 mg (hexahydrate) per 5 ml. •vet: piperazine hexahydrate 43%, adipate 37%, citrate 40%, dihydrochloride 53% & phosphate 42.5% are popular in drinking water medication; piperazine phosphate 42.5% & dihydrochloride 53% are popular in dry feed or drinking water medication. •vet: other less commonly used forms are dithiocarbamate, gluconate, glycolylarsanilate, monochloride, & sulfate. these above forms are considered equally effective in terms of their piperazine base . a number of complexes of mixtures with other drugs have been made to theoretically improve drug's activity. •pipertab 2: composition: each tablet contains: piperazine dihydrochloride equivalent to 50 mg piperazine base. available in 500 tablet bottles. pipertab 10: composition: each tablet contains: piperazine dihydrochloride equivalent to 250 mg piperazine base. piperazine dihydrochloride •52% piperazine base grades piperazine hydrochloride
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
herbal
jambu oleoresin
FL/FR
nutty
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
hexyl amine
FL
1-
pyrroline
FL
(R)-N,N,alpha-
trimethyl benzyl amine
FL
ammoniacal
ammoniacal
2-
methyl piperidine
FL
pyrrolidine
FL
cooling
jambu oleoresin
FL/FR
corn chip
2-
acetyl-2-thiazoline
FL
fatty
dimethyl sulfoxide
FL
nutty
2,6-
lutidine
FL/FR
salty
1-(2-
hydroxy-4-isobutoxyphenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)propan-1-one
FL
1-(2-
hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(pyridin-2-yl)propan-1-one
FL
3-[3-(2-iso
propyl-5-methyl cyclohexyl)ureido]-butyric acid ethyl ester
FL
salt enhancers
FL
sodium chloride replacers
FL
spilanthol
FL
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 mangliaia aromatica
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 antiren
1,4-diazacyclohexane
1,4-diethylene diamine
 diethyleneimine
 dispermine
 DOW specialty amines - piperazine 68% aqueous (PIP)
 entacyl
 eraverm
 hexahydro-1,4-diazine
 hexahydropyrazine
 lumbrical
1,4-piperazine
 piperazine anhydrous
 piperazine anhydrous-flakes
 piperazine chips
 pipersol
 pyrazine hexahydride
 uvilon
 vermex
 vermizine
 worm-a-ton
 wormelix
 wurmirazin
 

Articles:

Info:aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides derivatives
PubMed:"Not for human consumption": a review of emerging designer drugs.
PubMed:Discovery of the highly potent fluoroquinolone-based benzothiazolyl-4-thiazolidinone hybrids as antibacterials.
PubMed:["Legal highs" from the German internet--"bath salt drugs" on the rise].
PubMed:Regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and sulphotransferase 2A1 gene expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected sex-steroids and plant secondary metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and wormwood (Artemisia sp.).
PubMed:An evolving role of piperazine moieties in drug design and discovery.
PubMed:Fabrication and application of a new modified electrochemical sensor using nano-silica and a newly synthesized Schiff base for simultaneous determination of Cd2+, Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions in water and some foodstuff samples.
PubMed:Development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli adapted to biocides.
PubMed:Resistance to bile salts and sodium deoxycholate in macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-susceptible and resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains.
PubMed:Rapid-screening detection of acetildenafils, sildenafils and avanafil by ion mobility spectrometry.
PubMed:The exposure of highly toxic aconitine does not significantly impact the activity and expression of cytochrome P450 3A in rats determined by a novel ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method of a specific probe buspirone.
PubMed:One-step cyclization: synthesis of N-heteroalkyl-N'-tosylpiperazines.
PubMed:Effects of efflux pump inhibitors on erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolates.
PubMed:A novel LC-MS application to investigate oxidation of peptides isolated from β-lactoglobulin.
PubMed:Direct fluorimetric sensing of UV-excited analytes in biological and environmental samples using molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles and fluorescence polarization.
PubMed:Prevalence of new psychoactive substances: A retrospective study in hair.
PubMed:Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of the M-current in hypothalamic POMC neurons.
PubMed:Involvement of efflux mechanisms in biocide resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.
PubMed:Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily trazodone extended-release caplets in healthy subjects.
PubMed:Estradiol increases the anorexia associated with increased 5-HT(2C) receptor activation in ovariectomized rats.
PubMed:Serotonin 2C receptor activates a distinct population of arcuate pro-opiomelanocortin neurons via TRPC channels.
PubMed:Identification of novel sildenafil-analogues in an adulterated herbal food supplement.
PubMed:An analysis of legal highs: do they contain what it says on the tin?
PubMed:Dimerization of azomethine ylides: an alternate route to pyrazine formation in the Maillard reaction.
PubMed:Species-dependent degradation of ciprofloxacin in a membrane anodic Fenton system.
PubMed:Hypothalamic orexin and pro-opiomelanocortin activities are essential for the anorexic effects of m-chlorophenylpiperazine in mice.
PubMed:Three new dioxopiperazine metabolites from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Fres.
PubMed:Synthesis and biological activity of some novel trifluoromethyl-substituted 1,2,4-triazole and bis(1,2,4-triazole) Mannich bases containing piperazine rings.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of endogenous phytohormones in vegetable samples based on chemical derivatization with 6-oxy(acetylpiperazine) fluorescein.
PubMed:Molecular modeling studies on the human neuropeptide S receptor and its antagonists.
PubMed:Design and synthesis of novel insecticides based on the serotonergic ligand 1-[(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]piperazine (PAPP).
PubMed:Use of a hydrolytic procedure and spectrometric methods in the structure elucidation of a thiocarbonyl analogue of sildenafil detected as an adulterant in an over-the-counter herbal aphrodisiac.
PubMed:Neurobiology, pharmacology, and medicinal chemistry of neuropeptide S and its receptor.
PubMed:Use of antipsychotics during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
PubMed:Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor-independent expression of hypothalamic NOR1, a novel modulator of food intake and energy balance, in mice.
PubMed:Characterizing the effects of 5-HT(2C) receptor ligands on motor activity and feeding behaviour in 5-HT(2C) receptor knockout mice.
PubMed:Evaluation of the extent of protein binding by means of NMR diffusion and relaxation experiments, and automated continuous ultrafiltration.
PubMed:Structural characterization of sulfoaildenafil, an analog of sildenafil.
PubMed:Ghrelin receptor modulators and their therapeutic potential.
PubMed:Analysis of protein oxidation markers alpha-aminoadipic and gamma-glutamic semialdehydes in food proteins using liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS).
PubMed:Acaricidal properties of piperazine and its derivatives against house-dust and stored-food mites.
PubMed:Inhibition of oxidant-induced biochemical changes of pork myofibrillar protein by hydrolyzed potato protein.
PubMed:Direct intramolecular gas-phase transfer reactions during fragmentation of sildenafil and thiosildenafil analogs in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Blockade of hindbrain NMDA receptors containing NR2 subunits increases sucrose intake.
PubMed:Responsiveness of 5-HT2C receptors in repeatedly diazepam-injected rats: a behavioral and neurochemical study.
PubMed:Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors modify physiological gastrointestinal motor activities via 5-HT2c receptor and acyl ghrelin.
PubMed:Activation of serotonin 5-HT1-receptors decreased gripping-induced immobility episodes in taiep rats.
PubMed:Fluvoxamine exerts anorexic effect in 5-HT2C receptor mutant mice with heterozygous mutation of beta-endorphin gene.
PubMed:Prevalence of ergot derivatives in natural ryegrass pastures: detection and pathogenicity in the horse.
PubMed:An approach for mapping the number and distribution of Salmonella contamination on the poultry carcass.
PubMed:Distribution and neurochemical characterization of neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract responsive to serotonin agonist-induced hypophagia.
PubMed:2-Substituted piperazine-derived imidazole carboxamides as potent and selective CCK1R agonists for the treatment of obesity.
PubMed:Transformation of N-phenylpiperazine by mixed cultures from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.
PubMed:Effect of putative efflux pump inhibitors and inducers on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.
PubMed:Taste-dependent sociophobia: when food and company do not mix.
PubMed:Serotonin systems upregulate the expression of hypothalamic NUCB2 via 5-HT2C receptors and induce anorexia via a leptin-independent pathway in mice.
PubMed:Effects of chemotherapeutic agents 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate alone and combined in a mouse model of learning and memory.
PubMed:Rikkunshito, an herbal medicine, suppresses cisplatin-induced anorexia in rats via 5-HT2 receptor antagonism.
PubMed:Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of 2-piperazine-alpha-isopropyl benzylamine derivatives as melanocortin-4 receptor antagonists.
PubMed:Food restriction alters N'-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-2,6-diamine dihydrochloride (pramipexole)-induced yawning, hypothermia, and locomotor activity in rats: evidence for sensitization of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated effects.
PubMed:Effects of a Cannabinoid1 receptor antagonist and Serotonin2C receptor agonist alone and in combination on motivation for palatable food: a dose-addition analysis study in mice.
PubMed:Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of piperazine analogues as CB1 cannabinoid receptor ligands.
PubMed:Role of dopamine D3 receptors in the expression of conditioned fear in rats.
PubMed:Discovery of 1-[2-[(1S)-(3-dimethylaminopropionyl)amino-2-methylpropyl]-4-methylphenyl]-4-[(2R)-methyl-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-propionyl]piperazine as an orally active antagonist of the melanocortin-4 receptor for the potential treatment of cachexia.
PubMed:Catecholamine reuptake inhibition causes weight loss by increasing locomotor activity and thermogenesis.
PubMed:Effect of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine and cholecystokinin on food intake of Osborne-Mendel and S5B/P1 rats.
PubMed:Structure determination of new analogues of vardenafil and sildenafil in dietary supplements.
PubMed:Genotoxicity of 2-(3-chlorobenzyloxy)-6-(piperazinyl)pyrazine, a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine2c receptor agonist for the treatment of obesity: role of metabolic activation.
PubMed:Identification of metabolites produced from N-phenylpiperazine by Mycobacterium spp.
PubMed:Gastric mucosal damage following repeat administration of melanocortin subtype-4 receptor ligands to Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed:Hyperphagia alters expression of hypothalamic 5-HT2C and 5-HT1B receptor genes and plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels in Ay mice.
PubMed:Inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake produces additive effects on energy balance in lean and obese mice.
PubMed:Effects of soybean food pellets on m-CPP-induced anxiety model of mice.
PubMed:Biochemical changes in myofibrillar protein isolates exposed to three oxidizing systems.
PubMed:Serotonin 1B and 2C receptor interactions in the modulation of feeding behaviour in the mouse.
PubMed:Medial parabrachial nucleus neurons modulate d-fenfluramine-induced anorexia through 5HT2C receptors.
PubMed:The receptor of an oyster juice-borne coliphage OJ367 in the outer membrane of Salmonella derby.
PubMed:Effects of mu-CPP and mesulergine on dietary choices in deprived rats: possible mechanisms of their action.
PubMed:Organophosphorus derivatives containing piperazine dithiosemicarbazones as chemotherapeutants against fungal pathogens of sugarcane.
PubMed:Melanocortin subtype-4 receptor agonists containing a piperazine core with substituted aryl sulfonamides.
PubMed:1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine libraries: from the discovery of classical chloroquine-like antimalarials to the identification of new targets.
PubMed:Agonist diversity in 5-HT(2C) receptor-mediated weight control in rats.
PubMed:NAN-190, a possible specific antagonist for methamphetamine.
PubMed:Discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in rats using a three-choice ethanol-midazolam-water discrimination.
PubMed:Anxiety-like state associates with taste to produce conditioned taste aversion.
PubMed:A 5-HT2C agonist elicits hyperactivity and oral dyskinesia with hypophagia in rabbits.
PubMed:Reduced hypophagic effects of d-fenfluramine and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist mCPP in 5-HT1B receptor knockout mice.
PubMed:Modification by dopaminergic drugs of choice behavior under concurrent schedules of intravenous saline and food delivery in monkeys.
PubMed:Effects of food on the bioavailability of gepirone from extended-release tablets in humans: results of two open-label crossover studies.
PubMed:Oral administration of the 5-HT2Creceptor agonist, mCPP, reduces body weight gain in rats over 28 days as a result of maintained hypophagia.
PubMed:Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the induction of thioredoxin reductase 1 requires both transcriptional and translational modulation.
PubMed:5-HT1B receptor knockout mice show a compensatory reduction in 5-HT2C receptor function.
PubMed:Effects of GABA(A) compounds on mCPP drug discrimination in rats.
PubMed:mCPP-induced hypophagia in rats is unaffected by the profile of dietary unsaturated fatty acids.
PubMed:Role of 5-hT2C receptors in the hypophagic effect of m-CPP, ORG 37684 and CP-94,253 in the rat.
PubMed:Ziprasidone: the fifth atypical antipsychotic.
PubMed:Serotonin 2C receptor agonists and the behavioural satiety sequence in mice.
PubMed:Mechanism-based design of parasite-targeted artemisinin derivatives: synthesis and antimalarial activity of new diamine containing analogues.
PubMed:Pre- and postsynaptic responses to 1-(1-naphthylpiperazine) following adaptation to stress in rats.
PubMed:Sex-dependent toxicity of a novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, YIC-C8-434, in relation to sex-specific forms of cytochrome P450 in rats.
PubMed:Requirements for the application of protein sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses to product speciation.
PubMed:Vanoxerine National Institute on Drug Abuse.
PubMed:Manipulation of operant responding for an ethanol-paired conditioned stimulus in the rat by pharmacological alteration of the serotonergic system.
PubMed:Effects of serotonin(1/2) receptor agonists on dark-phase food and water intake in rats.
PubMed:Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of NADPH: azodicarbonyl/quinone oxidoreductase, a plant zeta-crystallin.
PubMed:Comparative effects of continuous infusion of mCPP, Ro 60-0175 and d-fenfluramine on food intake, water intake, body weight and locomotor activity in rats.
PubMed:Sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of m-chlorophenylpiperazine and ethanol withdrawal.
PubMed:Comparison of either norepinephrine-uptake inhibitors or phentermine combined with serotonergic agents on food intake in rats.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of buspirone HCl and its potential impurities.
PubMed:Activation of 5-HT2A receptors impairs response control of rats in a five-choice serial reaction time task.
PubMed:Comparative behavioral pharmacology of cocaine and the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor RTI-113 in the squirrel monkey.
PubMed:Oxygenated analogues of 1-[2-(Diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]- and 1-[2-[Bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazines (GBR 12935 and GBR 12909) as potential extended-action cocaine-abuse therapeutic agents.
PubMed:Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of buspirone, an anxiolytic drug.
PubMed:Discriminative stimulus properties of the novel serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor agonist, RO 60-0175: a pharmacological analysis.
PubMed:Effects of phentermine on responding maintained under multiple fixed-ratio schedules of food and cocaine presentation in the rhesus monkey.
PubMed:Synthesis of 7-benzylamino-6-chloro-2-piperazino-4-pyrrolidinopteridine and novel derivatives free of positional isomers. Potent inhibitors of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase and of malignant tumor cell growth.
PubMed:Evidence for overshadowing by components of the heterogeneous discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol.
PubMed:Citalopram-induced hypophagia is enhanced by blockade of 5-HT(1A) receptors: role of 5-HT(2C) receptors.
PubMed:Sigma receptor ligands (+)-SKF10,047 and SA4503 improve dizocilpine-induced spatial memory deficits in rats.
PubMed:5-Hydroxytryptaminergic receptor agonists: effects on neuropeptide Y potentiation of feeding and respiratory quotient.
PubMed:Limited access to ethanol in genetic drinking rats is suppressed while feeding is enhanced by the mixed 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2A antagonist FG5938.
PubMed:Reversal of fenfluramine and fluoxetine anorexia by 8-OH-DPAT is attenuated following raphe injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine.
PubMed:Efficacy of administration of dexfenfluramine and phentermine, alone and in combination, on ingestive behavior and body weight in rats.
PubMed:Effect of chronic m-CPP on locomotion, hypophagia, plasma corticosterone and 5-HT2C receptor levels in the rat.
PubMed:Discriminative stimulus effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin in pigeons and rats: species similarities and differences.
PubMed:RS-102221: a novel high affinity and selective, 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.
PubMed:SB 242084, a selective and brain penetrant 5-HT2C receptor antagonist.
PubMed:Heteroaromatic analogs of 1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]- and 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazines (GBR 12935 and GBR 12909) as high-affinity dopamine reuptake inhibitors.
PubMed:The mixed 5-HT 1A/2A receptor drug FG5938 suppresses alcohol drinking while enhancing feeding in P rats.
PubMed:Daily administration of m-chlorophenylpiperazine to healthy human volunteers rapidly attenuates many of its behavioral, hormonal, cardiovascular and temperature effects.
PubMed:Differential effects of the 5-HT 1B/2C receptor agonist mCPP and the 5-HT1A agonist flesinoxan on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in the rat: evidence that NPY may mediate serotonin's effects on food intake.
PubMed:MDMA (Ecstasy) substitutes for the ethanol discriminative cue in HAD but not LAD rats.
PubMed:Lack of cross-tolerance for hypophagia induced by DOI versus m-CPP suggests separate mediation by 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors, respectively.
PubMed:Enhanced anorexic responses to m-chlorophenylpiperazine during lithium administration to fawn-hooded rats.
PubMed:m-Chlorophenylpiperazine decreases food intake in a test meal.
PubMed:Testmeal responses following m-chlorophenylpiperazine and L-tryptophan in bulimics and controls.
PubMed:Evidence that 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane-induced hypophagia and hyperthermia in rats is mediated by serotonin-2A receptors.
PubMed:Anti-atherosclerotic and plasma lipid lowering effects of the novel calcium blocker with alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonistic activity, monatepil, in high cholesterol diet-fed Japanese Macaca fuscata monkeys.
PubMed:In vivo properties of SB 200646A, a 5-HT2C/2B receptor antagonist.
PubMed:Evidence that 5-HT2c receptor antagonists are anxiolytic in the rat Geller-Seifter model of anxiety.
PubMed:Assessment of the dependence potential of the potent high-efficacy 5-HT1A agonist S-14506 in rats.
PubMed:An examination of the behavioural specificity of hypophagia induced by 5-HT1B, 5-HT1C and 5-HT2 receptor agonists using the post-prandial satiety sequence in rats.
PubMed:Radiofrequency lesions of the PVN fail to modify the effects of serotonergic drugs on food intake.
PubMed:The discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in pigeons.
PubMed:d-Fenfluramine- and d-norfenfluramine-induced hypophagia: differential mechanisms and involvement of postsynaptic 5-HT receptors.
PubMed:Effect of food on the bioavailability of gepirone in humans.
PubMed:Effect of chronic treatment with TFMPP, a 5-HT1 receptor agonist, on food intake, weight gain, plasma insulin and neuropeptide mRNA expression in obese Zucker rats.
PubMed:Effects of food deprivation and mCPP treatment on the microstructure of ingestive behaviour of male and female rats.
PubMed:Function specific supersensitivity of m-chlorophenyl piperazine-induced serotonergic neurotransmission in female compared to male rats.
PubMed:Substitution of the 5-HT1 agonist trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) for the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol: effect of training dose.
PubMed:Effects of the putative 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190 on free feeding and on feeding induced by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT in the rat.
PubMed:Weight gain associated with cinnarizine.
PubMed:A comparison of the effects of the 5-HT1 agonists TFMPP and RU 24969 on feeding following peripheral or medial hypothalamic injection.
PubMed:Discriminative stimulus properties of the serotonergic compound eltoprazine.
PubMed:Stereoselective behavioral effects of Lu 19-005 in monkeys: relation to binding at cocaine recognition sites.
PubMed:Effects of the 5HT(1A) agonist anxiolytic gepirone on benzodiazepine withdrawal signs in rats.
PubMed:Possible serotonergic and dopaminergic mediation of the N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine discriminative stimulus.
PubMed:Potencies of antagonists indicate that 5-HT1C receptors mediate 1-3(chlorophenyl)piperazine-induced hypophagia.
PubMed:Pharmacological characterization of the discriminative-stimulus effects of GBR 12909.
PubMed:Hypothalamic monoamines and food intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.
PubMed:Effects of tryptophan and of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype agonists on feeding.
PubMed:Behavioral mechanisms for the anorectic action of the serotonin (5-HT) uptake inhibitor sertraline in rats: comparison with directly acting 5-HT agonists.
PubMed:Effects of serotonin agonists on operant behavior in the squirrel monkey: quipazine, MK-212, trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine, and chlorophenylpiperazine.
PubMed:Regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis: correlations with actin polymerization.
PubMed:Anorexia induced by M-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) in rats.
PubMed:Serotonin and appetite.
PubMed:Control of food intake by kainate/quisqualate receptors in the median raphe nucleus.
PubMed:Long-term cortisol treatment impairs behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to 5-HT1 agonists in the rat.
PubMed:Serotonin-antagonist effects of 1-(1-naphthyl)piperazine on operant behavior of squirrel monkeys.
PubMed:Long-term lithium treatment in rats attenuates m-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced decreases in food intake but not locomotor activity.
PubMed:A comparison of feeding and locomotion responses to serotonin agonists in three rat strains.
PubMed:Determination of dimetridazole and ipronidazole in feeds at cross-contamination levels.
PubMed:[Chromatographic separation of mono- and oligomeric carbohydrates from biological materials with the use of HPLC glass columns].
PubMed:The antiemetic drug trimethobenzamide prevents hypophagia due to acetyl salicylate, but not to 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C agonists.
PubMed:Infusion of the 5-hydroxytryptamine agonists RU24969 and TFMPP into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus causes hypophagia.
PubMed:1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) exerts an anorexic action that is blocked by 5-HT2 antagonists in rats.
PubMed:Fawn hooded rats are subsensitive to the food intake suppressant effects of 5-HT agonists.
PubMed:Evidence that hypophagia induced by mCPP and TFMPP requires 5-HT1C and 5-HT1B receptors; hypophagia induced by RU 24969 only requires 5-HT1B receptors.
PubMed:Inhibition of human neutrophil chemotaxis by the protein kinase inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl) piperazine.
PubMed:5-HT1B agonists induce anorexia at a postsynaptic site.
PubMed:Long-term imipramine treatment enhances locomotor and food intake suppressant effects of m-chlorophenylpiperazine in rats.
PubMed:The effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin and other serotonergic agonists on performance in a radial maze: a possible role for 5-HT1A receptors in memory.
PubMed:Neurochemical and behavioural evidence for an agonist action of 1-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (LY 165163) at central 5-HT receptors.
PubMed:Discriminative stimulus properties of buspirone in the pigeon.
PubMed:Behavioral studies with anxiolytic drugs. III. Antipunishment actions of buspirone in the pigeon do not involve benzodiazepine receptor mechanisms.
PubMed:Anthelmintics for swine.
PubMed:Neurochemical mechanism of action of drugs which modify feeding via the serotoninergic system.
PubMed:Effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists on schedule-controlled behavior of squirrel monkeys.
PubMed:Two novel agents affecting eating through an action on monoaminergic systems.
PubMed:Long-term clorgyline treatment antagonizes the eating and motor function responses to m-chlorophenylpiperazine.
PubMed:Mutagenicity of pyrolysates from guanidine, ureide, secondary amines and polyamines found by the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome test.
PubMed:Toxicity of aspartame and its diketopiperazine for Wistar rats by dietary administration for 104 weeks.
PubMed:Further studies on the mechanism of serotonin-dependent anorexia in rats.
PubMed:Induction of mouse lung adenomas by amines or ureas plus nitrite and by N-nitroso compounds: effect of ascorbate, gallic acid, thiocyanate, and caffeine.
PubMed:Polarographic determination of piperazine in animal feeds.
PubMed:[Effect of piperazine (hexahydropyrazone) on various developmental stages of Trichinella spiralis (Owen) in experimentally infected mice].
 
Notes:
Used as a food additive [EAFUS]
Please share your Comments.
Email Address:
Top of Page Home
Copyright © 1980-2021 The Good Scents Company (tgsc) ™ Disclaimer Privacy Policy