ferula assa-foetida gum
Asafoetida or Asafetida is a natural oleoresin exuded from roots of a big plant, Ferula Asafoetida and other species of Ferula, a plant native to Iran and Afghanistan. The substance is a physiological product of the plant. When overground parts of the plant are cut off, a milky juice flows out and solidifies upon exposure to air. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. it is a product which may contain resin acids and their esters, terpenes, and oxidation or polymerization products of these terpenes. (ferula, umbelliferae).
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      Crops calendar
      ASA FOETIDA Pur & Nat
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Name: ferula assa-foetida l. gum
CAS Number: 9000-04-8
ECHA EC Number: 232-522-1
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients: Read Report
A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients: Read Report
Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology: Read Report
Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances: Read Report
A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils: Read Report
FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry: Read Report
Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials: Read Report
FEMA Number: 2107  asafetida gum
FDA Regulation:
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.20 Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: garlic
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.10 % solution or less
Odor Description:
at 0.10 % in propylene glycol. 
Taste Description:
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
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Gum Asafoetida
Odor: Characteristic
Use: Gum Asafoetida is produced from a plant which is a member of the umbelliferous family named Ferula assa foetida which can grow to a height of 2 meters. Like Gulbanum, this gum is harvested exclusively in Iran and Afghanistan and was introduced to Europe in the 16th century. A characteristic of this product is its strong, garlic-like smell. The plant’s sap, which comes out after cutting the root, becomes a semi-liquid form after drying. This product is used for a series of applications.
Bristol Botanicals
Asafoetida gum powder Ferula asafoetida, Pakistan
asafetida gum
Pur & Nat
Crops calendar
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Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
  Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
  Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
  Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor and fragrance agents
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -15.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -5.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: 3.00000160.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -10.00000
fruit ices: -10.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 15.0000025.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
Daily Med: search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 9000-04-8
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 ferula assa-foetida l. gum
Chemidplus: 0009000048
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 ferula assa-foetida l. gum
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 9000-04-8
Pubchem (sid): 135309999
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Export Tariff Code: 3301.90.0000
Wikipedia: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 allyl propyl sulfideFL
 ferula assa-foetida fluid extractFL
 butyl ethyl disulfideFL
 diethyl disulfideFL
 diisopropyl sulfideFL
 diisopropyl trisulfideFL
 ethyl isothiocyanateFL
 furfuryl propyl disulfideFL
 allium sativum bulb extractFL
 garlic oil mexicoFL/FR
3-mercapto-2-methyl pentanalFL
4-methyl thiobutyraldehydeFL
3-thienyl mercaptanFL
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Potential Uses:
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Natural Occurrence in: note
 ferula asafoetida
GRIN Trop Picture
 ferula assa-foetida
GRIN Trop Picture
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 asa foetida
 asafetida gum
 asafoetida gum
 assafetida gum
 ferula asafoetida gum
 ferula foetida gum
 gum asafoetida
 scorodosma foetidum gum
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PubMed: Impact of Herbal Medicines like Nigella sativa, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Ferula asafoetida, on Cytochrome P450 2C11 Gene Expression in Rat Liver.
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of selected Iranian medicinal plants against a broad spectrum of pathogenic and drug multiresistant micro-organisms.
PubMed: The Relaxant Effect of Seed's Essential Oil and Oleo-Gum-Resin of Ferula Assa-Foetida on Isolated Rat's Ileum.
PubMed: Cytotoxic properties of some medicinal plant extracts from mazandaran, iran.
PubMed: Oleo gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida L. ameliorates peripheral neuropathy in mice.
PubMed: Relaxant effects of asafoetida extract and its constituent umbelliprenin on guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle.
PubMed: Double edged effect of gum-resin of ferula assa-foetida on lifespan of neurons.
PubMed: Double edged effect of gum-resin of ferula assa-foetida on lifespan of neurons.
PubMed: Tertiary combination of freeze-dried urine of Indian breeds of cow with plant products against snail Lymnaea acuminata.
PubMed: Use of complementary and alternative medicine for children: a parents' perspective.
PubMed: Some like it pungent and vile. TRPA1 as a molecular target for the malodorous vinyl disulfides from asafoetida.
PubMed: Effects of Cymbopogon citratus and Ferula assa-foetida extracts on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.
PubMed: Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil obtained from Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin: effect of collection time.
PubMed: New claims in folk veterinary medicines from Uttar Pradesh, India.
PubMed: Ferula asafoetida: Traditional uses and pharmacological activity.
PubMed: Inhibitory effect of Ferula asafoetida L. (Umbelliferae) on Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 growth in vitro.
PubMed: Evaluation of the effect of Ferula asafoetida Linn. gum extract on learning and memory in Wistar rats.
PubMed: Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.
PubMed: Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae).
PubMed: Combination of molluscicides with attractant carbohydrates and amino acids in bait formulation against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.
PubMed: Biological activity of some plant essential oils against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae), an ectoparasitic mite of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).
PubMed: Asimafoetidnol: a new sesquiterpenoid coumarin from the gum resin of Ferula assa-foetida.
PubMed: Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin)-a review.
PubMed: Galbanic acid, a cytotoxic sesquiterpene from the gum resin of Ferula asafoetida, blocks protein farnesyltransferase.
PubMed: Influenza A (H(1)N(1)) Antiviral and Cytotoxic Agents from Ferula assa-foetida.
PubMed: Kinetics of enzyme inhibition by active molluscicidal agents ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene in the nervous tissue of snail Lymnaea acuminata.
PubMed: Development and evaluation of hepatoprotective polyherbal formulation containing some indigenous medicinal plants.
PubMed: Galbanic acid from Ferula szowitsiana enhanced the antibacterial activity of penicillin G and cephalexin against Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed: A new ester isolated from Ferula assa-foetida L.
PubMed: Molluscicidal activity of Ferula asafoetida, Syzygium aromaticum and Carum carvi and their active components against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.
PubMed: Larvicidal activity of plant extracts used alone and in combination with known synthetic larvicidal agents against Aedes aegypti.
PubMed: Antispasmodic and hypotensive effects of Ferula asafoetida gum extract.
PubMed: Chemomodulatory influence of Ferula asafoetida on mammary epithelial differentiation, hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant profiles and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats.
PubMed: Sesquiterpene coumarins from the roots of Ferula assa-foetida.
PubMed: Reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin.
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