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frankincense gum
olibanum gum

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Name:boswellia carteri birdw. gum
CAS Number: 8050-07-5
ECHA EC Number:232-474-1
FDA UNII: Search
Category:flavor and fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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FDA Regulation:
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:pale yellow to amber orange tears (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
Soluble in:
 water, 4.071 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: woody
Odor Strength:low
frankincense woody old wood fresh woody
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. olibanum old wood fresh woody
Luebke, William tgsc, (1992)
Odor sample from: Herbarium Inc.
Flavor Type: woody
frankincense woody
Taste Description: frankincense
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: perfuming agents
BMV Fragrances
Olibanum Crystals - 100% Pure & Natural
Bristol Botanicals
Frankincense (African) Boswellia carterii, Ethiopia
Hermitage Oils
Frankincense Sacra Resin
Odor: characteristic
Use: Adam Michael has this to say “Despite what many businesses say about frankincense sacra the truth is no morphological differences exist between Boswellia carterii and Boswellia sacra, they are from the same species. What actually separates these two supposed species apart from each other is nothing more than habitat and time of harvest. Boswellia carterii is harvested in the summer months of March to late June (xagaag), Boswellia sacra in the winter months of September to late November (jiilaal).
Indenta Group
Olibanum Gum
Pangaea Sciences
Pride International
Reincke & Fichtner
Olibanum Gum
William Bernstein Company
Gum Olibanum (Frankincense)
Odor: characteristic
Use: An aromatic (tree) resin used for incense, perfume, and aromatherapy. Harvested by “tapping” the tree and thereby extracting the sap. Quality determined by color, aroma, size, and purity. A species of great Biblical significance.
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 20 - Harmful by inhalation.
R 36/37 - Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.
R 42 - May cause sensitisation by inhalation.
R 48 - Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
S 23 - Do not breath fumes.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavor and fragrance agents
RIFM Fragrance Material Safety Assessment: Search
IFRA Code of Practice Notification of the 49th Amendment to the IFRA Code of Practice
Recommendation for frankincense gum usage levels up to:
  3.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):8050-07-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
boswellia carteri birdw. gum
 boswellia carteri birdw. gum
Canada Domestic Sub. List:8050-07-5
Pubchem (sid):135283383
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Export Tariff Code:1301.90.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
frankincense absolute
incense fragrance
mastic gum resin
terpinyl isovalerate
frankincense gum papyrifera
cypress oil replacer
boswellia serrata wood tar oil
croton eluteria bark oil
cypress leaf oil
frankincense oil
frankincense oil CO2 extract
boswellia carteri gum extract
boswellia carteri resin extract
boswellia carteri tincture
boswellia neglecta resin oil
boswellia rivae oil
boswellia serrata gum extract
boswellia serrata resin extract
cedarwood oil
cistus twig/leaf oil molecular distilled
cyperus root oil (cyperus scariosus)
frankincense fragrance
frankincense gum (boswellia serrata)
frankincense oil (boswellia serrata)
frankincense oil CO2 extract (boswellia serrata)
frankincense oil replacer
frankincense resin
frankincense resinoid
frankincense resinoid (boswellia serrata)
frankincense resinoid replacer
frankincense wood specialty
incense specialty
olibanum specialty
patchouli fragrance
patchouli oil CO2 extract
patchouli oil molecular distilled
patchouli oil replacer
patchouli specialty
For Flavor
frankincense gum papyrifera
terpinyl isovalerate
frankincense absolute
croton eluteria bark oil
boswellia neglecta resin oil
boswellia rivae oil
cistus twig/leaf oil molecular distilled
frankincense gum (boswellia serrata)
frankincense oil
frankincense oil (boswellia serrata)
frankincense oil CO2 extract
frankincense oil CO2 extract (boswellia serrata)
frankincense resin
frankincense resinoid
frankincense resinoid (boswellia serrata)
patchouli oil CO2 extract
patchouli oil molecular distilled
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 boswellia carteri
Search Trop Picture
 boswellia carteri gum
 boswellia sacra gum
 boswellia serrata gum
 frankincense crystals
 frankincense gum
 olibanum crystals
 olibanum gum


PubMed:An α-Acetoxy-Tirucallic Acid Isomer Inhibits Akt/mTOR Signaling and Induces Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer Cells.
PubMed:A Randomized Clinical Trial Study: Anti-Oxidant, Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effects of Olibanum Gum in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
PubMed:Effect of boswellia thurifera gum methanol extract on cytotoxicity and p53 gene expression in human breast cancer cell line.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with gum ghatti and gum olibanum: a comparative study.
PubMed:Extract from gum resin of Boswellia serrata decreases IA(2)-antibody in a patient with "Late onset Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult" (LADA).
PubMed:Boswellia serrata extract attenuates inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress in collagen induced arthritis.
PubMed:The comparative study of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) and aspirin in the prevention of intestinal adenomatous polyposis in APC(Min/+) mice.
PubMed:Effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on the morphology of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in aged rat.
PubMed:Effect of Boswellia serrata supplementation on blood lipid, hepatic enzymes and fructosamine levels in type2 diabetic patients.
PubMed:Major constituents of Boswellia carteri resin exhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition and antiproliferative activity.
PubMed:Identification of archaeological triterpenic resins by the non-separative techniques FTIR and 13C NMR: the case of Pistacia resin (mastic) in comparison with frankincense.
PubMed:Hepatoprotective prenylaromadendrane-type diterpenes from the gum resin of Boswellia carterii.
PubMed:Systematic review: the efficacy of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed:Biotransformation of 11-keto-β-boswellic acid by Cunninghamella blakesleana.
PubMed:A new cytochrome P450 system from Bacillus megaterium DSM319 for the hydroxylation of 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA).
PubMed:Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) inhibits human gastric carcinoma growth through modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
PubMed:Frankincense essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins induces human pancreatic cancer cell death in cultures and in a xenograft murine model.
PubMed:Resin secretory structures of Boswellia papyrifera and implications for frankincense yield.
PubMed:Chemoprevention of intestinal adenomatous polyposis by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid in APC(Min/+) mice.
PubMed:In vitro metabolism, permeation, and brain availability of six major boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata gum resins.
PubMed:An in vitro study of the role of β-boswellic acid in the microtubule assembly dynamics.
PubMed:Enhanced absorption of boswellic acids by a lecithin delivery form (Phytosome(®)) of Boswellia extract.
PubMed:Effect of phospholipid-based formulations of Boswellia serrata extract on the solubility, permeability, and absorption of the individual boswellic acid constituents present.
PubMed:Boswellic acid exerts antitumor effects in colorectal cancer cells by modulating expression of the let-7 and miR-200 microRNA family.
PubMed:Proteoglycans from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and B. carteri Birdw. and identification of a proteolytic plant basic secretory protein.
PubMed:A novel C(28)-hydroxylated lupeolic acid suppresses the biosynthesis of eicosanoids through inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A(2).
PubMed:Boswellia serrata, a potential antiinflammatory agent: an overview.
PubMed:Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of four commercial grades of Omani luban, the oleo-gum resin of Boswellia sacra FLUECK.
PubMed:A novel synergistic galactomannan-based unit dosage form for sustained release of acarbose.
PubMed:Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Boswellic acid suppresses growth and metastasis of human pancreatic tumors in an orthotopic nude mouse model through modulation of multiple targets.
PubMed:A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study evaluates the early efficacy of aflapin in subjects with osteoarthritis of knee.
PubMed:Evaluation of the efficacy of ginger, Arabic gum, and Boswellia in acute and chronic renal failure.
PubMed:Boswellic acids from frankincense inhibit lipopolysaccharide functionality through direct molecular interference.
PubMed:Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA); targeting oral cavity pathogens.
PubMed:Determination of major boswellic acids in plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Prevention of multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) diabetes in mice by an extract from gum resin of Boswellia serrata (BE).
PubMed:Gum resin of Boswellia serrata inhibited human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation and platelet aggregation.
PubMed:Boswellic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human colorectal cancer in orthotopic mouse model by downregulating inflammatory, proliferative, invasive and angiogenic biomarkers.
PubMed:Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data.
PubMed:Cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effect of Aflapin: a novel Boswellia serrata extract.
PubMed:Identifying frankincense impact by biochemical analysis and histological examination on rats.
PubMed:Complete structural assignment of serratol, a cembrane-type diterpene from Boswellia serrata, and evaluation of its antiprotozoal activity.
PubMed:[Identification methods of terpenoid gum bases using TLC and GC/MS].
PubMed:Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 5-Loxin and AflapinAgainst osteoarthritis of the knee: a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study.
PubMed:Four new ursane-type triterpenes, olibanumols K, L, M, and N, from traditional egyptian medicine olibanum, the gum-resin of Boswellia carterii.
PubMed:New terpenoids, olibanumols D-G, from traditional Egyptian medicine olibanum, the gum-resin of Boswellia carterii.
PubMed:Safety and toxicological evaluation of Aflapin: a novel Boswellia-derived anti-inflammatory product.
PubMed:A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed:Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 as a molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acids from frankincense.
PubMed:Modulation of the immune system by Boswellia serrata extracts and boswellic acids.
PubMed:Complexation with phosphatidyl choline as a strategy for absorption enhancement of boswellic acid.
PubMed:Isolation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitors from frankincense using a molecularly imprinted polymer.
PubMed:The enhancement effect of beta-boswellic acid on hippocampal neurites outgrowth and branching (an in vitro study).
PubMed:Topical Boswellic acids for treatment of photoaged skin.
PubMed:Effects of topical boswellic acid on photo and age-damaged skin: clinical, biophysical, and echographic evaluations in a double-blind, randomized, split-face study.
PubMed:Absolute stereostructures of olibanumols A, B, C, H, I, and J from olibanum, gum-resin of Boswellia carterii, and inhibitors of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of a plant based antiarthritic and anticancer therapeutic agent Boswelic acids in rodents.
PubMed:Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity.
PubMed:An update review on Commiphora molmol and related species.
PubMed:Bosellia serrata-induced apoptosis is related with ER stress and calcium release.
PubMed:In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.
PubMed:A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of boswellic acids from the market formulations containing Boswellia serrata extract.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid on androgen receptor by interference of Sp1 binding activity in prostate cancer cells.
PubMed:Bioactive constituents of myrrh and frankincense, two simultaneously prescribed gum resins in chinese traditional medicine.
PubMed:Comparison of the irritation potentials of Boswellia serrata gum resin and of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid by in vitro cytotoxicity tests on human skin-derived cell lines.
PubMed:Boswellic acids: A leukotriene inhibitor also effective through topical application in inflammatory disorders.
PubMed:Commiphora molmol in human welfare (review article).
PubMed:Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.
PubMed:Olibanum bezoar: complication of a traditional popular medicine.
PubMed:Compression coated systems for colonic delivery of 5-fluorouracil.
PubMed:Boswellic acids: biological actions and molecular targets.
PubMed:Characterization of 3alpha-acetyl-11-keto-alpha-boswellic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Effect of hexane extract of Boswellia serrata oleo-gum resin on chemically induced liver damage.
PubMed:Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity.
PubMed:Effect of Boswellia serrata on intestinal motility in rodents: inhibition of diarrhoea without constipation.
PubMed:Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acid derivatives in experimental colitis.
PubMed:Safety and Toxicological Evaluation of a Novel, Standardized 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-beta-Boswellic Acid (AKBA)-Enriched Boswellia serrata Extract (5-Loxin(R)).
PubMed:Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry after automated on-line extraction.
PubMed:Extract of gum resins of Boswellia serrata L. inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide production in rat macrophages along with hypolipidemic property.
PubMed:Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on adjuvant-induced arthritis in lewis rats.
PubMed:Effects of an acetone extract of Boswellia carterii Birdw. (Burseraceae) gum resin on rats with persistent inflammation.
PubMed:Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells.
PubMed:Effect of food intake on the bioavailability of boswellic acids from a herbal preparation in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:Headspace solid phase microextraction for screening for the presence of resins in Egyptian archaeological samples.
PubMed:Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb.
PubMed:Coupling of boswellic acid-induced Ca2+ mobilisation and MAPK activation to lipid metabolism and peroxide formation in human leucocytes.
PubMed:Analysis of pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense gum resins and related phytopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of lupeolic acid, a novel pentacyclic triterpene.
PubMed:[Study on the detecting methods of the imported materia medica--olibanum].
PubMed:Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is cytotoxic for meningioma cells and inhibits phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1 and 2.
PubMed:Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial.
PubMed:Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines in vitro.
PubMed:Boswellic acids trigger apoptosis via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation but independent on Fas/Fas ligand interaction in colon cancer HT-29 cells.
PubMed:[Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases].
PubMed:Keto- and acetyl-keto-boswellic acids inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in Hep G2 cells via a caspase-8 dependent pathway.
PubMed:Cytotoxic action of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) on meningioma cells.
PubMed:High-performance thin layer chromatographic analysis of anti-inflammatory triterpenoids from Boswellia serrata Roxb.
PubMed:Boswellic acids activate p42(MAPK) and p38 MAPK and stimulate Ca(2+) mobilization.
PubMed:Effects of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in patients with chronic colitis.
PubMed:Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, a constituent of a herbal medicine from Boswellia serrata resin, attenuates experimental ileitis.
PubMed:Anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic activities of triterpenoid, beta-boswellic acid.
PubMed:Acetyl-boswellic acids are novel catalytic inhibitors of human topoisomerases I and IIalpha.
PubMed:Concentration-dependent potentiating and inhibitory effects of Boswellia extracts on 5-lipoxygenase product formation in stimulated PMNL.
PubMed:Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study.
PubMed:Effects of boswellic acids extracted from a herbal medicine on the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
PubMed:Inhibitory activity of boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata against human leukemia HL-60 cells in culture.
PubMed:Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis.
PubMed:Special extract of BOSWELLIA serrata (H 15) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
PubMed:Mechanism of antiinflammatory actions of curcumine and boswellic acids.
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory activity of resins from some species of the plant family Burseraceae.
PubMed:Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase.
PubMed:The effect of a plants mixture extract on liver gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
PubMed:Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata.
PubMed:Studies on the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans under the influence of new herbal anti-inflammatory agents.
PubMed:Studies on the activity of individual plants of an antidiabetic plant mixture.
PubMed:CHEMICAL STANDARDIZATION OF 'KUNDUR' (Oleo-Gum-Resin of Boswellia serrata Roxb).
PubMed:Analgesic and psychopharmacological effects of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata.
PubMed:Analgesic effect of the gum resin of Boswellia serata Roxb.
a plant genus of the family burseraceae used medicinally since ancient times. it is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin) and boswellic acid (ursane type triterpenes). extractives and their physically modified derivatives. it is a product which may contain resin acids and their esters, terpenes, and oxidation or polymerization products of these terpenes. (boswellia, burseraceae).
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