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saffron oleoresin
crocus sativus flower oleoresin

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Name:crocus sativus l. flower oleoresin
CAS Number: 8022-19-3
FDA UNII: Search
Also Contains:crocus sativus flower extract
Category:flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
 water, 134.2 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: herbal
herbal saffron
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. herbal saffron
Flavor Type: herbal
Taste Description: saffron
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Saffron Oleoresin
NAT arom®, in Ez-Caps™, AquaReady™ or Classic forms
Pure & Nat
Seasons and Harvest / Crop calendar
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
isophorone Max. Found: 0.2 % and Reason: Insufficint data
Recommendation for saffron oleoresin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
crocus sativus l. flower oleoresin
 crocus sativus l. flower oleoresin
Pubchem (sid):135306740
Other Information:
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
saffron absolute
saffron indenone
saffron oil
crocus sativus flower extract
saffron oil CO2 extract
saffron resinoid
For Flavor
saffron absolute
saffron indenone
saffron oil
crocus sativus flower extract
saffron oil CO2 extract
saffron resinoid
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
Search Trop Picture
 crocus sativus flower oleoresin


PubMed:Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review.
PubMed:Application of response surface methodology to optimise supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile compounds from Crocus sativus.
PubMed:The Synergic Effects of Crocus Sativus L. and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on VEGFR2 Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells.
PubMed:Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity evaluation of Crocus sativus stigmas in neonates of nursing mice.
PubMed:A comparative study of saffron aqueous extract and its active ingredient, crocin on the in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro culture of mouse oocytes.
PubMed:Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients.
PubMed:Saffron improves epididymal sperm parameters in rats exposed to cadmium.
PubMed:Hepatoprotective herbs, avicenna viewpoint.
PubMed:Evaluation of lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid oxidative stress indices for assessing the preventing effects of safranal on respiratory distress in diabetic rats.
PubMed:Proposed cytotoxic mechanisms of the saffron carotenoids crocin and crocetin on cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat.
PubMed:Antidepressant Effect of Crocus sativus Aqueous Extract and its Effect on CREB, BDNF, and VGF Transcript and Protein Levels in Rat Hippocampus.
PubMed:Safranal, a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in C2C12 myotubes and improves glucose tolerance in diabetic KK-A(y) mice.
PubMed:A review of the chemistry and uses of crocins and crocetin, the carotenoid natural dyes in saffron, with particular emphasis on applications as colorants including their use as biological stains.
PubMed:FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.
PubMed:Flavonoid Determination in the Quality Control of Floral Bioresidues from Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats.
PubMed:Effects of chronic crocin treatment on desoxycorticosterone acetate (doca)-salt hypertensive rats.
PubMed:Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?
PubMed:Crocetin, a Carotenoid from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Protects against Hypertension and Cerebral Thrombogenesis in Stroke-prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
PubMed:Antidepressant effects of crocin and its effects on transcript and protein levels of CREB, BDNF, and VGF in rat hippocampus.
PubMed:An improvement in sexual function is related to better quality of life, regardless of urinary function improvement: results from the IDIProst® Gold Study.
PubMed:In-chain neutral hydrocarbon loss from crocin apocarotenoid ester glycosides and the crocetin aglycon (Crocus sativus L.) by ESI-MS(n) (n=2, 3).
PubMed:Effective isolation protocol for secondary metabolites from saffron: semi-preparative scale preparation of crocin-1 and trans-crocetin.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
PubMed:A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. with fluoxetine for improving mild to moderate depression in post percutaneous coronary intervention patients.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma aqueous extract induces apoptosis in alveolar human lung cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.
PubMed:Effect of split foliar fertilisation on the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: a comprehensive review.
PubMed:Saffron and natural carotenoids: Biochemical activities and anti-tumor effects.
PubMed:Acute and subacute toxicity of safranal, a constituent of saffron, in mice and rats.
PubMed:Determination of Metal Content in Crocus sativus L. Corms in Dormancy and Waking Stages.
PubMed:Cytotoxic effect against 3T3 fibroblasts cells of saffron floral bio-residues extracts.
PubMed:The Extract of Crocus sativus and Its Constituent Safranal, Affect Serum Levels of Endothelin and Total Protein in Sensitized Guinea Pigs.
PubMed:Evaluation of teratogenic effects of crocin and safranal, active ingredients of saffron, in mice.
PubMed:Crocins, the active constituents of Crocus Sativus L., counteracted ketamine-induced behavioural deficits in rats.
PubMed:Relative expression of CsZCD gene and apocarotenoid biosynthesis during stigma development in Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line.
PubMed:Crocins with high levels of sugar conjugation contribute to the yellow colours of early-spring flowering crocus tepals.
PubMed:Protective effect of saffron extract against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in isolated rabbit heart.
PubMed:Cytotoxic effects of crocin on MOLT-4 human leukemia cells.
PubMed:An overview on saffron, phytochemicals, and medicinal properties.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) powder as an ingredient of rye bread: an anti-diabetic evaluation.
PubMed:Crocus sativus stigma extract and its major constituent crocin possess significant antiproliferative properties against human prostate cancer.
PubMed:A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update.
PubMed:Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.
PubMed:Saffron administration prevents selenite-induced cataractogenesis.
PubMed:Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on coagulation and anticoagulation systems in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:The effect of the crocus sativus L. Carotenoid, crocin, on the polymerization of microtubules, in vitro.
PubMed:Protective Effect of Safranal, a Constituent of Crocus sativus, on Quinolinic Acid-induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Hippocampus.
PubMed:Crocin restores hypotensive effect of subchronic administration of diazinon in rats.
PubMed:Cardioprotective effect of saffron extract and safranal in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in wistar rats.
PubMed:Development and Validation of HPLC Method for Determination of Crocetin, a constituent of Saffron, in Human Serum Samples.
PubMed:Safety Evaluation of Crocin (a constituent of saffron) Tablets in Healthy Volunteers.
PubMed:Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat.
PubMed:Safranal: from an aromatic natural product to a rewarding pharmacological agent.
PubMed:A survey on saffron in major islamic traditional medicine books.
PubMed:Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus) against lethal ventricular arrhythmias induced by heart reperfusion in rat: a potential anti-arrhythmic agent.
PubMed:Role of saffron and its constituents on cancer chemoprevention.
PubMed:Antitumor activity of PEGylated nanoliposomes containing crocin in mice bearing C26 colon carcinoma.
PubMed:Protective effect of crocin on diazinon induced cardiotoxicity in rats in subchronic exposure.
PubMed:Affinity-based target deconvolution of safranal.
PubMed:The effect of the extract of Crocus sativus on tracheal responsiveness and plasma levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, total NO and nitrite in ovalbumin sensitized guinea-pigs.
PubMed:Assessment of cytotoxic properties of safranal and nanoliposomal safranal in various cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.
PubMed:Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of crocin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed:Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.
PubMed:Alleviation of viper venom induced platelet apoptosis by crocin (Crocus sativus): implications for thrombocytopenia in viper bites.
PubMed:Multitarget drugs of plants origin acting on Alzheimer's disease.
PubMed:Crocetin administration ameliorates endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation in rabbits.
PubMed:Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.
PubMed:The potential effect of the extract of Crocus sativus and safranal on the total and differential white blood cells of ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs.
PubMed:Crocin prevents retinal ischaemia/reperfusion injury-induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells through the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.
PubMed:Protective effect of crocin against cerebral ischemia in a dose-dependent manner in a rat model of ischemic stroke.
PubMed:New minor glycoside components from saffron.
PubMed:Investigation of the neuroprotective action of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in aluminum-exposed adult mice through behavioral and neurobiochemical assessment.
PubMed:Revisiting extraction of bioactive apocarotenoids from Crocus sativus L. dry stigmas (saffron).
PubMed:Effect of Aqueous Extract of Crocus sativus L. on Morphine-Induced Memory Impairment.
PubMed:Increasing the applications of Crocus sativus flowers as natural antioxidants.
PubMed:Quality control of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): development of SCAR markers for the detection of plant adulterants used as bulking agents.
PubMed:Effects of the active constituents of Crocus Sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.
PubMed:A dietary colorant crocin mitigates arthritis and associated secondary complications by modulating cartilage deteriorating enzymes, inflammatory mediators and antioxidant status.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of a first set of polymorphic microsatellite markers in saffron, Crocus sativus (Iridaceae).
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus.
PubMed:Anti-arthritic effects of crocin in interleukin-1β-treated articular chondrocytes and cartilage in a rabbit osteoarthritic model.
PubMed:Antiproliferative effects of crocin in HepG2 cells by telomerase inhibition and hTERT down-regulation.
PubMed:Safranal, a saffron constituent, attenuates retinal degeneration in P23H rats.
PubMed:Vipera russelli venom-induced oxidative stress and hematological alterations: amelioration by crocin a dietary colorant.
PubMed:In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse.
PubMed:Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening.
PubMed:Avicenna's (Ibn Sina) the Canon of Medicine and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.
PubMed:Radical scavenging activity and LC-MS metabolic profiling of petals, stamens, and flowers of Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:Effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma against subacute effect of diazinon on specific biomarkers in rats.
PubMed:The effect of the extract of Crocus sativus and its constituent safranal, on lung pathology and lung inflammation of ovalbumin sensitized guinea-pigs.
PubMed:Characterization of a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the formation of kaempferol and quercetin sophorosides in Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Effect of saffron on fluoxetine-induced sexual impairment in men: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed:Isolation of a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 homolog in saffron (Crocus sativus L.): characterization and expression analysis.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus) ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, inhibits morphine-induced place preference in mice.
PubMed:Evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron, Crocus sativus L., and its constituents, safranal and crocin in allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats.
PubMed:Crocetin, a carotenoid derivative, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis via suppression of p38 phosphorylation.
PubMed:Quantification of main bioactive metabolites from saffron (Crocus sativus) stigmas by a micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) method.
PubMed:Recovery of crocins from saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus) in aqueous two-phase systems.
PubMed:An evidence-based systematic review of saffron (Crocus sativus) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.
PubMed:Ethnobotanical treatment strategies against Alzheimer's disease.
PubMed:Comparison of different tandem mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-IT, ESI- and IP-MALDI-QRTOF and vMALDI-TOF/RTOF) for the analysis of crocins and picrocrocin from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration.
PubMed:Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus).
PubMed:Identification of differentially accumulated proteins associated with embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous Extract on In vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Embryo Development of Mouse Oocytes.
PubMed:The effect of Crocus sativus extract on human lymphocytes' cytokines and T helper 2/T helper 1 balance.
PubMed:Saponins from the Spanish saffron Crocus sativus are efficient adjuvants for protein-based vaccines.
PubMed:Frequency-dependent electrophysiological remodeling of the AV node by hydroalcohol extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) during experimental atrial fibrillation: the role of endogenous nitric oxide.
PubMed:Developmental and stress regulation of gene expression for a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, CstNCED, isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas.
PubMed:Crocin promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice.
PubMed:Akt/GSK-3β/eNOS phosphorylation arbitrates safranal-induced myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
PubMed:Improvement of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of crocin in cancer cell lines by its nanoliposomal form.
PubMed:Neuroprotective effect of crocin on acrylamide-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.
PubMed:Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.
PubMed:Chemical constituents and bioactivities of the liposoluble fraction from different medicinal parts of Crocus sativus.
PubMed:The role of phytochemicals in the treatment and prevention of dementia.
PubMed:The study of the E-class SEPALLATA3-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and mutant flowers of cultivated saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) and its putative progenitors.
PubMed:Protective effects of saffron extract and its active constituent crocin against oxidative stress and spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic stress in rats.
PubMed:Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence.
PubMed:Conception in unilateral right tubal blockage with herbomineral formulations: a case report.
PubMed:Identification of a quinazoline alkaloid produced by Penicillium vinaceum, an endophytic fungus from Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.
PubMed:Immunomodulatory effects of saffron: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.
PubMed:Determination of some phenolic compounds in Crocus sativus L. corms and its antioxidant activities study.
PubMed:Crocetin: an agent derived from saffron for prevention and therapy for cancer.
PubMed:A new validated SPE-HPLC method for monitoring crocetin in human plasma--application after saffron tea consumption.
PubMed:Saffron extract and trans-crocetin inhibit glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat cortical brain slices.
PubMed:Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pathogenesis-related protein CsPR10 from Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Psychological and neuroendocrinological effects of odor of saffron (Crocus sativus).
PubMed:Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review.
PubMed:Effect of crocus sativus on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.
PubMed:Suppression of pulmonary tumor promotion and induction of apoptosis by Crocus sativus L. extraction.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L. (saffron) attenuates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury via preserving cardiac functions and strengthening antioxidant defense system.
PubMed:Picrocrocin kinetics in aqueous saffron spice extracts (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment.
PubMed:Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in human lung cancer cell line.
PubMed:Biochemical and molecular aspects of aluminium chloride-induced neurotoxicity in mice and the protective role of Crocus sativus L. extraction and honey syrup.
PubMed:In vitro development of microcorms and stigma like structures in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by crocin from kashmiri saffron in a human pancreatic cancer cell line.
PubMed:Crocetin from the tubular calyx of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis.
PubMed:Role of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and honey syrup on aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity.
PubMed:Selective Th2 Upregulation by Crocus sativus: A Neutraceutical Spice.
PubMed:Crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses via inhibition of caspase activity.
PubMed:Microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four different spices.
PubMed:Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. stigma phenolic and flavonoid compounds and its antioxidant activity.
PubMed:The role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders II: Alzheimer's disease.
PubMed:Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a 16-week, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed:New applications and mechanisms of action of saffron and its important ingredients.
PubMed:A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.
PubMed:Comparative analysis of pistil transcriptomes reveals conserved and novel genes expressed in dry, wet, and semidry stigmas.
PubMed:Effects of active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocin on streptozocin-induced model of sporadic Alzheimer's disease in male rats.
PubMed:Genomic analysis and gene structure of the plant carotenoid dioxygenase 4 family: a deeper study in Crocus sativus and its allies.
PubMed:famRCA-RACE: a rolling circle amplification race for isolating a family of homologous cDNAs in one reaction and its application to obtain NAC genes transcription factors from crocus (Crocus sativus) flower.
PubMed:In vitro assay for the anti-Brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis.
PubMed:Extraction of crocin from saffron (Crocus sativus) using molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction.
PubMed:A study into the effectiveness of the application of saffron extract in ocular pathologies in experiment.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review.
PubMed:Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series.
PubMed:Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study of mildly overweight, healthy women.
PubMed:Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.
PubMed:Fibrillation of alpha-lactalbumin: effect of crocin and safranal, two natural small molecules from Crocus sativus.
PubMed:An open label, randomized, fixed-dose, crossover study comparing efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate and saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) for treating erectile dysfunction in men naïve to treatment.
PubMed:Quantification of crocetin esters in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on histamine (H1) receptors of guinea pig tracheal chains.
PubMed:Changes of antioxidant enzyme activities and isoenzyme profiles during in vitro shoot formation in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:The effect of saffron consumption on biochemical and histopathological heart indices of rats with myocardial infarction.
PubMed:Crocin from Kashmiri saffron (Crocus sativus) induces in vitro and in vivo xenograft growth inhibition of Dalton's lymphoma (DLA) in mice.
PubMed:Analysis of beta-carotene hydroxylase gene cDNA isolated from the American oil-palm (Elaeis oleifera) mesocarp tissue cDNA library.
PubMed:Picrocrocin content and quality categories in different (345) worldwide samples of saffron ( Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive rats.
PubMed:A 22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
PubMed:Effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.
PubMed:Saffron yellow: characterization of carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray mass spectrometric detection.
PubMed:Antidepressant properties of bioactive fractions from the extract of Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:Saffron is a monomorphic species as revealed by RAPD, ISSR and microsatellite analyses.
PubMed:The expression of a chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene is involved in the high production of saffron's apocarotenoid precursors.
PubMed:Rolling circle amplification of genomic templates for inverse PCR (RCA-GIP): a method for 5'- and 3'-genome walking without anchoring.
PubMed:Preventive effect of crocin in inflamed animals and in LPS-challenged RAW 264.7 cells.
PubMed:Preventive effect of crocin of Crocus sativus on hemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and ultrastuctural alterations in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.
PubMed:Protective effect of saffron extract and crocin on reactive oxygen species-mediated high glucose-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.
PubMed:Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation.
PubMed:Potential of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituent, crocin, as hypolipidemic and antioxidant in rats.
PubMed:Effect of ethanol extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57bl/6 mice.
PubMed:Cloning and expression of the allergen Cro s 2 profilin from saffron (Crocus sativus).
PubMed:Metabolite and target transcript analyses during Crocus sativus stigma development.
PubMed:Role of caspases and Bax protein in saffron-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
PubMed:Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on male erectile dysfunction: a pilot study.
PubMed:An overview of structural features of DNA and RNA complexes with saffron compounds: Models and antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Further examination of antiradical properties of Crocus sativus stigmas extract rich in crocins.
PubMed:Isolation of a new fungi and wound-induced chitinase class in corms of Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants.
PubMed:Anxiolytic and hypnotic effect of Crocus sativus aqueous extract and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice.
PubMed:The effect of saffron (Crocus sativus) extract for healing of second-degree burn wounds in rats.
PubMed:Effect of saffron on semen parameters of infertile men.
PubMed:Effects of different concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP on somatic embryogenesis induction in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Interaction of safranal and picrocrocin with ctDNA and their preferential mechanisms of binding to GC- and AT-rich oligonucleotides.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) extract and its active constituents (crocin and safranal) on ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle.
PubMed:Effect of safranal on extracellular hippocampal levels of glutamate and aspartate during kainic Acid treatment in anesthetized rats.
PubMed:Antiabsence effects of safranal in acute experimental seizure models: EEG and autoradiography.
PubMed:Production and characterization of monoclonal antibody against Saffron pollen profilin, Cro s 2.
PubMed:Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Protective effect of Crocus sativus stigma extract and crocin (trans-crocin 4) on methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in mice organs.
PubMed:Stimulatory effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on beta2-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal chains.
PubMed:Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety.
PubMed:Bacillus subtilis FZB24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus).
PubMed:Effect of centrifugal ultrafiltration on the composition of aqueous extracts of saffron spice (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Cytosolic and plastoglobule-targeted carotenoid dioxygenases from Crocus sativus are both involved in beta-ionone release.
PubMed:Hormone and microorganism treatments in the cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) plants.
PubMed:Traditional medicinal plants of cold desert Ladakh-used against kidney and urinary disorders.
PubMed:Quality and functionality of saffron: quality control, species assortment and affinity of extract and isolated saffron compounds to NMDA and sigma1 (sigma-1) receptors.
PubMed:Rapid determination of crocetin esters and picrocrocin from saffron spice (Crocus sativus L.) using UV-visible spectrophotometry for quality control.
PubMed:LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.
PubMed:T and B-cell epitopes prediction of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus) profilin by bioinformatics tools.
PubMed:Saffron supplement maintains morphology and function after exposure to damaging light in mammalian retina.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed:Effects of crocus sativus on the fetal development of NMRI mice.
PubMed:Kinetics of individual crocetin ester degradation in aqueous extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment in the dark.
PubMed:Specific IgG antibodies (total and subclasses) against Saffron pollen: a study of their correlation with specific IgE and immediate skin reactions.
PubMed:Effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig isolated heart.
PubMed:Kinetics properties of guaiacol peroxidase activity in Crocus sativus L. corm during rooting.
PubMed:Crocin from Crocus sativus possesses significant anti-proliferation effects on human colorectal cancer cells.
PubMed:The effect of saffron, Crocus sativus stigma, extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin on sexual behaviors in normal male rats.
PubMed:An EST database from saffron stigmas.
PubMed:Effect of safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), on methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA damage in mouse organs: an alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.
PubMed:Saffron in phytotherapy: pharmacology and clinical uses.
PubMed:Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins on recognition and spatial rats' memory.
PubMed:Cloning, structural characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of flower MADS-box genes from crocus (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:[Molecular identity of Crocus sativus and its misused substitutes by ITS sequence].
PubMed:Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.
PubMed:Interaction of tRNA with Safranal, Crocetin, and Dimethylcrocetin.
PubMed:Effects of different hormonal treatments on the callus production and plantlet regeneration in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Effect of ionic detergents, nonionic detergents, and chaotropic agents on polyphenol oxidase activity from dormant saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corms.
PubMed:Heterotopic expression of B-class floral homeotic genes PISTILLATA/GLOBOSA supports a modified model for crocus (Crocus sativus L.) flower formation.
PubMed:Antioxidant enzymes during hypoxia-anoxia signaling events in Crocus sativus L. corm.
PubMed:Effects of crocin on reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative injury to cerebral microvessels after global cerebral ischemia.
PubMed:DNA interaction with saffron's secondary metabolites safranal, crocetin, and dimethylcrocetin.
PubMed:Crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties.
PubMed:Phenolic glucosides and a gamma-lactone glucoside from the sprouts of Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial.
PubMed:Inhibitory activity on amyloid-beta aggregation and antioxidant properties of Crocus sativus stigmas extract and its crocin constituents.
PubMed:Relaxant effect of Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanisms.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L. (petal) in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed:Fusaric acid induces apoptosis in saffron root-tip cells: roles of caspase-like activity, cytochrome c, and H2O2.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L. extracts antagonize memory impairments in different behavioural tasks in the rat.
PubMed:Mechanism of hypolipidemic effect of crocin in rats: crocin inhibits pancreatic lipase.
PubMed:Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats.
PubMed:Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron (Crocus sativus) and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs.
PubMed:Protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: involvement of GABAergic and opioids systems.
PubMed:Effects of crocetin on antioxidant enzymatic activities in cardiac hypertrophy induced by norepinephrine in rats.
PubMed:Use of SPME-GC-MS in the study of time evolution of the constituents of saffron aroma: modifications of the composition during storage.
PubMed:Protective effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract against genetic damage induced by anti-tumor agents in mice.
PubMed:Comparative study of superoxide dismutase activity assays in Crocus sativus L. corms.
PubMed:Crocetin esters, picrocrocin and its related compounds present in Crocus sativus stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Tentative identification of seven new compounds by LC-ESI-MS.
PubMed:Effect of dietary saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on the oxidative stability of egg yolk.
PubMed:Safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus (saffron), attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus.
PubMed:Protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and crocin, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats.
PubMed:Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents.
PubMed:Anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from Crocus sativus in mice.
PubMed:Implications of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in apocarotenoid formation during the stigma development of Crocus sativus and its closer relatives.
PubMed:Neuroprotection by crocetin in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model.
PubMed:Calcium antagonistic effects of Chinese crude drugs: preliminary investigation and evaluation by 45 Ca.
PubMed:Influence of different drying and aging conditions on saffron constituents.
PubMed:Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed:Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial.
PubMed:Hypoxia/anoxia as signaling for increased alcohol dehydrogenase activity in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corm.
PubMed:A modified, economic, sensitive method for measuring total antioxidant capacities of human plasma and natural compounds using Indian saffron (Crocus sativus).
PubMed:Glucosylation of the saffron apocarotenoid crocetin by a glucosyltransferase isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas.
PubMed:Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and chemoprevention trials.
PubMed:Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a pilot double-blind randomized trial [ISRCTN45683816].
PubMed:[Physiological and ecological effects of potassium on expansion of crocus corm].
PubMed:Crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice.
PubMed:Crocin prevents the death of rat pheochromyctoma (PC-12) cells by its antioxidant effects stronger than those of alpha-tocopherol.
PubMed:Saffron can prevent chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.
PubMed:Antityrosinase principles and constituents of the petals of Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Promotion of the growth of Crocus sativus cells and the production of crocin by rare earth elements.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of aqueous crude extract of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on chemical-induced genotoxicity in mice.
PubMed:Crocin prevents the death of PC-12 cells through sphingomyelinase-ceramide signaling by increasing glutathione synthesis.
PubMed:Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Production of crocin using Crocus sativus callus by two-stage culture system.
PubMed:Lectin from bulbs of Crocus sativus recognizing N-linked core glycan: isolation and binding studies using fluorescence polarization.
PubMed:Crocus sativus against cancer.
PubMed:Protective effects of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on genotoxins-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.
PubMed:[Studies on the pharmacological effects of saffron(Crocus sativus L.)--a review].
PubMed:Effects of Crocus sativus petals' extract on rat blood pressure and on responses induced by electrical field stimulation in the rat isolated vas deferens and guinea-pig ileum.
PubMed:[In vitro evaluation of the chemopreventive potential of saffron].
PubMed:[Induction of petal-like structures from petals of Crocus sativus L. and the differentiation of style-stigma-like structures in vitro].
PubMed:Constituents of the stigmas of Crocus sativus and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity.
PubMed:Constituents of the pollen of Crocus sativus L. and their tyrosinase inhibitory activity.
PubMed:Catalytic properties of three L-lactate dehydrogenases from saffron corms (Crocus sativus L).
PubMed:Thermal stability of catalases active in dormant saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corms.
PubMed:Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petal extracts in mice.
PubMed:Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Crocin suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cell death of neuronally differentiated PC-12 cells.
PubMed:Inhibition of genotoxicity by saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in mice.
PubMed:Analytical method for Buddleja colorants in foods.
PubMed:Authentic identification of stigma Croci (stigma of Crocus sativus) from its adulterants by molecular genetic analysis.
PubMed:Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:A glycoconjugate from corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.) inhibits root growth and affects in vitro cell viability.
PubMed:A non-destructive method to determine the safranal content of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography.
PubMed:Crocus sativus lectin recognizes Man3GlcNAc in the N-glycan core structure.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of crocin from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and study of the reactions of crocin with linoleic acid and crocin with oxygen.
PubMed:Effects of saffron extract and its constituent crocin on learning behaviour and long-term potentiation.
PubMed:The cytolytic effect of a glycoconjugate extracted from corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus) on human cell lines in culture.
PubMed:Effects of long-term treatment of colon adenocarcinoma with crocin, a carotenoid from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): an experimental study in the rat.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a mannan-binding lectin specifically expressed in corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Saffron extract prevents acetaldehyde-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo.
PubMed:Flavonols from saffron flower: tyrosinase inhibitory activity and inhibition mechanism.
PubMed:In vitro activation of macrophages by a novel proteoglycan isolated from corms of Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:Production of a cytotoxic proteoglycan using callus culture of saffron corms (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Effects of crocin analogs on ocular blood flow and retinal function.
PubMed:Isolation and cytotoxic properties of a novel glycoconjugate from corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Method to determine the authenticity of aroma of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats.
PubMed:In vitro formation of crocetin glucosyl esters by Crocus sativus callus extract.
PubMed:Crocin, safranal and picrocrocin from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) inhibit the growth of human cancer cells in vitro.
PubMed:Notes on the saffron plant (Crocus sativus,L.).
PubMed:Determination of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) components in crude plant extract using high-performance liquid chromatography-UV-visible photodiode-array detection-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Inhibition of colony formation of Hela cells by naturally occurring and synthetic agents.
PubMed:Saffron chemoprevention in biology and medicine: a review.
PubMed:Post-harvest degradation of carotenoid glucose esters in saffron.
PubMed:Inhibition of growth and induction of differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) by carotenoids from Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of crocetin on intracellular nucleic acid and protein synthesis in malignant cells.
PubMed:Effects of Crocus sativus L. on the ethanol-induced impairment of passive avoidance performances in mice.
PubMed:Antitumour activity of saffron (Crocus sativus).
PubMed:Modulatory effects of Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of Nigella sativa and saffron (Crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice.
PubMed:Characterization of the platelet aggregation inducer and inhibitor isolated from Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Formation of Stigma-Like Structures and Pigment in Cultured Tissues of Crocus sativus.
PubMed:[Effect of increasing the yield of gibberellin-treated Crocus sativus].
PubMed:[Comparison of natural yellow colors extracted from saffron (Crocus sativus Linne) and gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis)].
PubMed:[Quality investigation of Crocus sativus].
PubMed:[Textual research on the origin and development of crocus sativus L., a Chinese medicinal herb] (Chi).
PubMed:[Cultivation of Crocus sativus].
PubMed:[Ontogenesis of saffron plants (Crocus sativus) and changes in their stem apices].
PubMed:Riboflavine and thiamine contents of saffron, Crocus sativus linn.
PubMed:A proving of Crocus sativus.
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