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CAS Number: 9036-66-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):113956-37-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:232-910-0
CoE Number:10175
XlogP3-AA:-4.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:500.49572000
Formula:C20 H36 O14
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:carrier solvents, encapsulating agent for food additives, flavorings, stabilizers and absorbents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
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Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
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US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 17 Arabinogalactan View - notice PDF
GRN 84 Arabinogalactan from Eastern Larch (Larix laricina) View - notice PDF
GRN 47 Arabinogalactan from Larix occidentalis View - notice PDF
FEMA Number:3254 arabinogalactan
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):9036-66-2 ; ARABINOGALACTAN
FDA Regulation:
Subpart C--Coatings, Films and Related Substances
Sec. 172.230 Microcapsules for flavoring substances.

Subpart G--Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances
Sec. 172.610 Arabinogalactan.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white powder (est)
Assay: 78.00 to 98.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 200.00 to 204.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: balsamic
Odor Strength:low
balsamic resinous pine
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. very mild balsam pine resin
Luebke, William tgsc, (1992)
Odor sample from: Sigma-Aldrich
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: film formers
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Larch arabinogalactan
ECSA Chemicals
Penta International
Reincke & Fichtner
Larch Gum
TRI-K Industries
TRIspire Enhance
Odor: characteristic
Use: It is a natural, mild, non-irritating and water dispersible polymer which reduces transepidermal water loss (TEWL), improves moisture control in formulations and provides SPF enhancement.
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
carrier solvents, encapsulating agent for food additives, flavorings, stabilizers and absorbents
Recommendation for arabinogalactan usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 5
Click here to view publication 5
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -9000.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on taxifolin-rich extract from Dahurian Larch (Larix gmelinii)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9036-66-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):24847856
Pubchem (sid):135283020
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00569
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB32861
Export Tariff Code:3505.10.0090
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Potential Blenders and core components note
For Odor
benzoin absolute
benzoin resinoid
cotinus coggygria branch/leaf oil
spruce oil
galbanum oleoresin
mastic absolute
pine needle oil dwarf
pinus nigra twig leaf oil
woody amylene
For Flavor
No flavor group found for these
cotinus coggygria branch/leaf oil
benzoin resinoid
galbanum oleoresin
pine needle oil dwarf
mastic absolute
benzoin absolute
Potential Uses:
 film formers
FRfir balsam
FRfir needle oil replacer
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 larch wood
Search Trop Picture
 monterrey pine
Search PMC Picture
 pine jack pine
Search PMC Picture
 pine white
Search PMC Picture
 soybean seed
Search Trop Picture
 arabino galactan
 arabinogalactan from larix occidentalis
 galacto-L-arabinan, L-
 larch gum
 larch gum (larix decidua)
 larix decidua gum
larch turpentine
venetian turpentine


PubMed:Structure-specificity relationships in Abp, a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6.
PubMed:Improved starch recovery from potatoes by enzymes and reduced water holding of the residual fibres.
PubMed:Healing efficiency of oligosaccharides generated from almond gum (Prunus amygdalus) on dermal wounds of adult rats.
PubMed:Honeybee apisimin and plant arabinogalactans in honey costimulate monocytes.
PubMed:Characterisation and immunomodulating activities of exo-polysaccharides from submerged cultivation of Hypsizigus marmoreus.
PubMed:Crystal structure and characterization of the glycoside hydrolase family 62 α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Streptomyces coelicolor.
PubMed:Structurally characterized arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus as an immuno-modulator against CT26 colon cancer in BALB/c mice.
PubMed:Composition and physicochemical properties of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia.
PubMed:Thermal stability of spent coffee ground polysaccharides: galactomannans and arabinogalactans.
PubMed:A Type II Arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus for G-CSF Production in Macrophages and Leukopenia Improvement in CT26-Bearing Mice Treated with 5-Fluorouracil.
PubMed:Polysaccharides from prunes: gastroprotective activity and structural elucidation of bioactive pectins.
PubMed:Differences between easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. Part III: free sugar and non-starch polysaccharide composition.
PubMed:Characterisation of cell wall polysaccharides from rapeseed (Brassica napus) meal.
PubMed:Phase separation induced molecular fractionation of gum arabic--sugar beet pectin systems.
PubMed:Characterization of a Yariv precipitated arabinogalactan-protein from fruits of rye (Secale cereale L.).
PubMed:A review of the occurrence of Grain softness protein-1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).
PubMed:Microwave superheated water extraction of polysaccharides from spent coffee grounds.
PubMed:Roasting-induced changes in arabinotriose, a model of coffee arabinogalactan side chains.
PubMed:Polysaccharides from peach pulp: structure and effects on mouse peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Structural analysis of a pectic polysaccharide from boat-fruited sterculia seeds.
PubMed:Characterization of an α-L-Rhamnosidase from Streptomyces avermitilis.
PubMed:Functional characterization of the galactan utilization system of Geobacillus stearothermophilus.
PubMed:Structure of arabinogalactan-protein from Acacia gum: from porous ellipsoids to supramolecular architectures.
PubMed:Structural characterization of an arabinogalactan-protein from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum.
PubMed:Insight into the mechanism of coffee melanoidin formation using modified "in bean" models.
PubMed:Tissue-specific and developmental modifications of grape cell walls influence the adsorption of proanthocyanidins.
PubMed:Characterization and prebiotic activity of aqueous extract and indigestible polysaccharide from Anoectochilus formosanus.
PubMed:The abp gene in Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 encodes a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase.
PubMed:The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity.
PubMed:Isolation and structural characterisation of okara polysaccharides.
PubMed:Arabinogalactan proteins contribute to the immunostimulatory properties of New Zealand honeys.
PubMed:Ethambutol-mediated cell wall modification in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum increases the biotransformation rates of cyclohexanone derivatives.
PubMed:Foamability and foam stability of molecular reconstituted model sparkling wines.
PubMed:Investigation of a His-rich arabinogalactan-protein for micronutrient biofortification of cereal grain.
PubMed:Effects of cooking on the cell walls (dietary fiber) of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) studied by polysaccharide linkage analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR.
PubMed:[Gummi armeniacae collected from apricot trees in armenia - perspective source of arabinogalactan].
PubMed:Arabinoxylans and arabinogalactans: a comprehensive treatise.
PubMed:Arabinogalactan present in the mountain celery seed extract potentiated hypolipidemic bioactivity of coexisting polyphenols in hamsters.
PubMed:Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a molasses byproduct of pine ( Pinus taeda ) fiberboard production.
PubMed:Structural characterization and hypoglycemic effects of arabinogalactan-protein from the tuberous cortex of the white-skinned sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).
PubMed:First characterization of bioactive components in soybean tempe that protect human and animal intestinal cells against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection.
PubMed:In vitro modulation of the human gastrointestinal microbial community by plant-derived polysaccharide-rich dietary supplements.
PubMed:Characterization of a pectic polysaccharide from the leaves of Diospyros kaki and its modulating activity on lymphocyte proliferation.
PubMed:Structural investigations on arabinogalactan-protein from wheat, isolated with Yariv reagent.
PubMed:Arabinogalactan-folic acid-drug conjugate for targeted delivery and target-activated release of anticancer drugs to folate receptor-overexpressing cells.
PubMed:Oxidation of polysaccharides by galactose oxidase.
PubMed:Inhibition of binding of the AB5-type enterotoxins LT-I and cholera toxin to ganglioside GM1 by galactose-rich dietary components.
PubMed:Modulation of immunoresponse in BALB/c mice by oral administration of Fag e 1-glucomannan conjugate.
PubMed:A beta-l-Arabinopyranosidase from Streptomyces avermitilis is a novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 27.
PubMed:FT-IR methodology for quality control of arabinogalactan protein (AGP) extracted from green tea (Camellia sinensis ).
PubMed:Quantitative prediction of cell wall polysaccharide composition in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and apple (Malus domestica) skins from acid hydrolysis monosaccharide profiles.
PubMed:Content and molecular-weight distribution of dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye flour and bread.
PubMed:Inhibition of pathogen adhesion to host cells by polysaccharides from Panax ginseng.
PubMed:Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.
PubMed:Nonstarch polysaccharides in wheat flour wire-cut cookie making.
PubMed:New insights into the structural characteristics of the arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) fraction of gum arabic.
PubMed:Novel plant and fungal AGP-like proteins in the Medicago truncatula-Glomus intraradices arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
PubMed:Roasting effects on formation mechanisms of coffee brew melanoidins.
PubMed:Characterization of a modular enzyme of exo-1,5-alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and arabinan binding module from Streptomyces avermitilis NBRC14893.
PubMed:Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies on the formation of roasting-induced antioxidative structures in coffee brews at different degrees of roast.
PubMed:Characterization of an endo-beta-1,6-Galactanase from Streptomyces avermitilis NBRC14893.
PubMed:Coffee dietary fiber contents and structural characteristics as influenced by coffee type and technological and brewing procedures.
PubMed:Bifidobacterium carbohydrases-their role in breakdown and synthesis of (potential) prebiotics.
PubMed:Polysaccharide profile and content during the vinification and aging of Tempranillo red wines.
PubMed:Cereal non-cellulosic polysaccharides: structure and function relationship - an overview.
PubMed:Effects of soluble tea polysaccharides on hyperglycemia in alloxan-diabetic mice.
PubMed:Inhibition of galectin-3 mediated cellular interactions by pectic polysaccharides from dietary sources.
PubMed:Melanoidins from coffee infusions. Fractionation, chemical characterization, and effect of the degree of roast.
PubMed:An impression of coffee carbohydrates.
PubMed:Arabinogalactan proteins are incorporated in negatively charged coffee brew melanoidins.
PubMed:Characterization of an exo-beta-1,3-D-galactanase from Streptomyces avermitilis NBRC14893 acting on arabinogalactan-proteins.
PubMed:Influence of wine pectic polysaccharides on the interactions between condensed tannins and salivary proteins.
PubMed:High molecular weight melanoidins from coffee brew.
PubMed:Effects of cell wall components on the functionality of wheat gluten.
PubMed:Efficient digestion and structural characteristics of cell walls of coffee beans.
PubMed:Pectin isolated from white cabbage--structure and complement-fixing activity.
PubMed:Characterization of an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase from Clostridium thermocellum.
PubMed:Characterization of a thermostable endo-beta-1,4-D-galactanase from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima.
PubMed:Immunomodulating activity of arabinogalactan and fucoidan in vitro.
PubMed:Water-soluble polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels: Preparation, characterization and bioactivity.
PubMed:Type I arabinogalactan contains beta-D-Galp-(1-->3)-beta-D-Galp structural elements.
PubMed:Dietary fiber as a versatile food component: an industrial perspective.
PubMed:An exo-beta-1,3-galactanase having a novel beta-1,3-galactan-binding module from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
PubMed:Beta-D-glucosyl and alpha-D-galactosyl Yariv reagents: syntheses from p-nitrophenyl-D-glycosides by transfer reduction using ammonium formate.
PubMed:Cytochemistry and immunolocalisation of polysaccharides and proteoglycans in the endosperm of green Arabica coffee beans.
PubMed:No long-term benefits of supplementation with arabinogalactan on serum lipids and glucose.
PubMed:Morphology of Western larch arabinogalactan.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of the high-molecular-weight material extracted with hot water from green and roasted robusta coffees as affected by the degree of roast.
PubMed:The beta-1,4-endogalactanase A gene from Aspergillus niger is specifically induced on arabinose and galacturonic acid and plays an important role in the degradation of pectic hairy regions.
PubMed:Modification of polysaccharides and plant cell wall by endo-1,4-beta-glucanase and cellulose-binding domains.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of galactomannans and arabinogalactans from two arabica coffee infusions as affected by the degree of roast.
PubMed:Effect of roasting on degradation and structural features of polysaccharides in Arabica coffee beans.
PubMed:Arabinogalactan-proteins: structure, expression and function.
PubMed:Effects of dietary arabinogalactan on gastrointestinal and blood parameters in healthy human subjects.
PubMed:Complexes of arabinogalactan of Pereskia aculeata and Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+.
PubMed:Behavior of Triticum durum Desf. arabinoxylans and arabinogalactan peptides during industrial pasta processing.
PubMed:The occurrence of internal (1 --> 5)-linked arabinofuranose and arabinopyranose residues in arabinogalactan side chains from soybean pectic substances.
PubMed:Larch arabinogalactan.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a novel alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Pichia capsulata X91.
PubMed:Characterization of two Acacia gums and their fractions using a langmuir film balance.
PubMed:Fermentation of plant cell wall derived polysaccharides and their corresponding oligosaccharides by intestinal bacteria.
PubMed:Production of substrate for galactose oxidase by depolymerization of an arabinogalactan-peptide from wheat flour.
PubMed:Influence of wine structurally different polysaccharides on the volatility of aroma substances in a model system.
PubMed:Consequences of biofilm and sessile growth in the large intestine.
PubMed:A new arabinofuranohydrolase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis able to remove arabinosyl residues from double-substituted xylose units in arabinoxylan.
PubMed:A comparison of the physicochemical and immunological properties of the plant gum exudates of Acacia senegal (gum arabic) and Acacia seyal (gum tahla).
PubMed:Purification and properties of endo-beta-1,4-D-galactanase from Aspergillus niger.
PubMed:Degradation of complex carbohydrates by Bifidobacterium spp.
PubMed:[Isolation and characterization of colloidal soluble polysaccharides in raspberry juice].
PubMed:Antigens of the Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare complex.
PubMed:Digestion of larch arabinogalactan by a strain of human colonic Bacteroides growing in continuous culture.
PubMed:[Quantitative determination of some thickeners in dairy products (author's transl)].
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of arabinogalactan from black gram (Phaseolus mungo).
Larch Turpentine or Venetian Turpentine is a turpentine type of a natural oleoresin. It occurs as a physiological secretion in the larch tree, Larix Decidua, a conifer. The tree is quite common in Central and Southern Europe, Austria, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia, etc. Larch Turpentine is a very viscous liquid, just pourable at room temperature. It is of light amber or pale yellow color and possesses a soft, balsamic terpenic odor, reminiscent of fresh conifer resins and cones. Larch Turpentine is used in Europe, when and where it is available, as a fixative for pine or fir needle fragrances, low cost fougeres and industrial perfumes. It is an very good fixative. polysaccharide in cell wall of nocardia asteroides; also found in plants. Emulsifier, stabiliser Approximately one of the three arabinosyl chains attached to the galactan chain contains succinyl groups. Although one succinyl group is most common, up to three succinyl groups per released arabinan fragment can be found on oligo-arabinans. However, arabinan fragments substituted with GalNH2 are not succinylated. Importantly, in the case of M. tuberculosis, and most likely in all slow growers, both positive charge (protonated GalNH2 as GalNH3+) and negative charge (succinyl) are present in the middle regions of the arabinan, specifically at O-2 of the inner 3,5-?-D-Araf units. The succinyl residues are on the non-mycolylated chain. Recently a complete primary model of arabinogalactan has been proposed.; Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. Two classes of arabinogalctans are found in nature: plant arabinogalactan and microbial arabinogalactan. In plants, it is a major constituents of many gums, including gum arabic, gum gutti and so on. It occasionally attached to proteins and the resulted proteoglycan functions as signaling molecules betweens cells as well as glue to seal wounded part of plants.; The microbial arabinogalactan is a major structural component of the mycobacterial cell wall. Both the arabinose and galactose are solely in the furanose configuration. The galactan portion of the microbial arabinogalactan is linear, consisting of approximately 30 units with alternating ?-(1-5) and ?-(1-6) glycosidic linkages. The arabinan chain, which consist of about 30 residues, are attached at three branch points within the galactan chain (believed to be at residues 8, 10 and 12).The arabinan portion of the polymer is a complex branched structure, usually capped with mycolic acids. The arabinan glycosidic linkages are ?-(1-3), ?-(1-5), and ?-(1-2).; The non-reducing end of arabinogalactan is covalently attached to the mycolic acids of the outer membrane. The hydrophobicity of mycolic acids is a barrier to drug entry. Additionally, the mycolyl arabinogalactan peptidiglycan is responsible for aspects of disease pathogenesis and much of the antibody response in infections. The mycolyl substituents are selectively and equally distributed on the 5-hydroxyl functions of terminal- and the penultimate 2-linked Araf residues. The mycolyl residues are clustered in groups of four on the non reducing terminal pentaarabinosyl unit (?-Araf-(1?2)-?-Araf)2-3,5-?-Araf. Thus, the major part (66%) of the pentaarabinosyl units are substituted by mycolic acids, leaving the unsubstituted minor region (33%), that is available for interaction with the immune system.
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