EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

propylene glycol alginate
alginic acid ester with 1,2-propane diol

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 9005-37-2
Other(deleted CASRN):1476717-42-6
Formula:C3 H8 O2.xUnspecified
Category:emulsifiers, flavoring adjuvants, stabilizers, thickeners
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
1973 Propylene glycol alginate View - review
EU SANCO Propane-1, 2-diol alginate View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Propylene Glycol Alginate
GSFA Codex: Propylene glycol alginate (405)
DG SANTE Food Additives:propylene glycol alginate
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:propylene glycol alginate
FEMA Number:2941 propylene glycol alginate
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.

Subpart C--Coatings, Films and Related Substances
Sec. 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.858 Propylene glycol alginate.

Subpart D--Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 173.340 Defoaming agents.

Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.170 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to yellowish brown powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Soluble in:
Similar Items:note
alginic acid
alginic acid ammonium salt
alginic acid calcium salt
alginic acid calcium sodium salt
alginic acid potassium salt
alginic acid sodium salt
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. bland
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: binding agents
viscosity controlling agents
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Propylene Glycol Alginate
Foodchem International
Propylene Glycol Alginate
IRO Alginate Industry
Propylene Glycol Alginate
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
TIC Gums
Saladizer® MAX
Flavor: characteristic
Saladizer® Max is a patented hydrocolloid technology designed to improve textural attributes while providing superior emulsification in full fat, reduced fat, and fat free dressings, sauces, and dips. The inclusion of Saladizer® Max does not have a significant impact on viscosity; for applications that require more viscosity, consider adding Saladizer® FB-50 or Ticaxan® Xanthan.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: PGA has special functions in emulsifying, stabilizing, thickening and decentralizing, which allow it to be widely used in juice, beer, salad dressing, emulsified essence, acidic protein drinks, cosmetic, condiments, etc. It is also the most efficient and commonly used beer foam stablizer worldwide with its use well understood and documented. PGA beer foam stablizer has the highest level of esterification availabale on the market, giving superior head retention and greater protection against foam collapse caused by foam-negative contaminants.
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 7200 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-mouse LD50 7800 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-rabbit LD50 7600 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

oral-hamster LD50 7000 mg/kg
Food & Drug Research Laboratories, Inc., Papers. Vol. 124, Pg. -, 1976.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
emulsifiers, flavoring adjuvants, stabilizers, thickeners
Recommendation for propylene glycol alginate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): -200.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: 1000.0000050000.00000
confectionery froastings: -150.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 800.000002100.00000
fruit ices: 800.000002100.00000
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Re-evaluation of propane-1,2-diol alginate (E 405) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9005-37-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
Canada Domestic Sub. List:9005-37-2
Pubchem (sid):135308285
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB39860
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FAO:Propylene glycol alginate
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 binding agents
 viscosity controlling agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 alginic acid ester with 1,2-propane diol
 hydroxypropyl alginate
 manucol ester e/rep
1,2-propane diol alginate
 propane-1,2-diol alginate
 propylene alginate
1,2-propylene glycol alginate
 propylene glycol alginate high viscosity
 propylene glycol alginate low viscosity
 propyleneglycol alginate


PubMed:Effects of propylene glycol alginate and sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of modified starch-stabilized beverage emulsions.
PubMed:Facile fabrication processes for hydrogel-based microfluidic devices made of natural biopolymers.
PubMed:New ethanol and propylene glycol free gel formulations containing a minoxidil-methyl-β-cyclodextrin complex as promising tools for alopecia treatment.
PubMed:Determination of M/G ratio of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate by HPLC with pre-column derivatization.
PubMed:Design and evaluation of polysaccharide-based transdermal films for the controlled delivery of nifedipine.
PubMed:Tailoring of alginate-gelatin microspheres properties for oral Ciprofloxacin-controlled release against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Alginate/PEO-PPO-PEO composite hydrogels with thermally-active plasticity.
PubMed:Enamel matrix derivative in propylene glycol alginate for treatment of infrabony defects with or without systemic doxycycline: 12- and 24-month results.
PubMed:Alginate lyase and ciprofloxacin co-immobilization on biopolymeric microspheres for cystic fibrosis treatment.
PubMed:Biosynthetic hydrogels--studies on chemical and physical characteristics on long-term cellular response for tissue engineering.
PubMed:Fast-dissolving sublingual films of terbutaline sulfate: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.
PubMed:Crosslinked ionic polysaccharides for stimuli-sensitive drug delivery.
PubMed:An HPLC method for microanalysis and pharmacokinetics of marine sulfated polysaccharide PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles in rat plasma.
PubMed:Investigation of potential injectable polymeric biomaterials for bone regeneration.
PubMed:Effects of enamel matrix derivative on remineralisation of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro.
PubMed:Enamel matrix derivative and transforming growth factor-beta1 in Class III furcation defects. A histomorphometric study in dogs.
PubMed:Morphology and structure of polymer layers protecting dental enamel against erosion.
PubMed:Transdermal delivery of venlafaxine hydrochloride: the effects of enhancers on permeation across pig ear skin.
PubMed:Interfacial and foaming interactions between casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) and propylene glycol alginate.
PubMed:Thermo-responsive non-woven scaffolds for "smart" 3D cell culture.
PubMed:Acceleration of tendon-bone healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using an enamel matrix derivative in a rat model.
PubMed:Exploratory study on the effectiveness of a standardized extract from Ageratina pichinchensis in patients with chronic venous leg ulcers.
PubMed:Drug-carrier/hydrogel scaffold for controlled growth of cells.
PubMed:Integrative design of a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol)-alginate hydrogel to control three dimensional biomineralization.
PubMed:Cytotoxicity effects of cryoprotectants as single-component and cocktail vitrification solutions.
PubMed:Biodegradable microfibers deliver the antitumor drug temozolomide to glioma C6 cells in vitro.
PubMed:Formulations of zero-order, pH-dependent, sustained release matrix systems by ionotropic gelation of alginate-containing mixtures.
PubMed:Effects of enamel matrix derivative on vascular endothelial growth factor expression and microvessel density in gingival tissues of periodontal pocket: a comparative study.
PubMed:Pectin, alginate and gum arabic polymers reduce citric acid erosion effects on human enamel.
PubMed:Local application of fluvastatin improves peri-implant bone quantity and mechanical properties: a rodent study.
PubMed:Investigation of curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complexation in aqueous solutions containing various alcoholic co-solvents and alginates using an UV-VIS titration method. Studies of curcumin and curcuminoides, XXXV.
PubMed:Evaluation of polymeric films for buccal drug delivery.
PubMed:In vitro release of curcumin from vehicles containing alginate and cyclodextrin. Studies of curcumin and curcuminoides. XXXIII.
PubMed:Synthesis and rheological properties of responsive thickeners based on polysaccharide architectures.
PubMed:Topical application of statin affects bone healing around implants.
PubMed:The role of macrophages in the periodontal regeneration using Emdogain gel.
PubMed:Effect of amelogenin extracellular matrix protein and compression on hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers: follow-up data.
PubMed:How to improve the storage stability of aqueous polymeric film coatings.
PubMed:pH-sensitive film coatings: towards a better understanding and facilitated optimization.
PubMed:Albumin-alginate-coated microspheres: resistance to steam sterilization and to lyophilization.
PubMed:Emdogain-gel stimulates proliferation of odontoblasts and osteoblasts.
PubMed:Solubility and stability of curcumin in solutions containing alginate and other viscosity modifying macromolecules. Studies of curcumin and curcuminoids. XXX.
PubMed:The effect of enamel matrix proteins and deproteinized bovine bone mineral on heterotopic bone formation.
PubMed:The effect of amelogenins (Xelma) on hard-to-heal venous leg ulcers.
PubMed:Effect of enamel matrix protein derivative on healing of surgical supra-infrabony periodontal defects in the rat molar: a histomorphometric study.
PubMed:Coverage of Miller class I and II recession defects using enamel matrix proteins versus coronally advanced flap technique: a 2-year report.
PubMed:Formation of microcapsules from polyelectrolyte and covalent interactions.
PubMed:Moderate effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain Gel) on Porphyromonas gingivalis growth in vitro.
PubMed:The effect of Emdogain on ectopic bone formation in tubes of rat demineralized dentin matrix.
PubMed:Effects of the combination of hydrophobic polypeptides, iso-alpha acids, and malto-oligosaccharides on beer foam stability.
PubMed:Dental pulp capping: effect of Emdogain Gel on experimentally exposed human pulps.
PubMed:Coating alginate microspheres with a serum albumin-alginate membrane: application to the encapsulation of a peptide.
PubMed:Effect of penetration enhancers on the release and skin permeation of bupranolol from reservoir-type transdermal delivery systems.
PubMed:Oesophageal bioadhesion of sodium alginate suspensions: particle swelling and mucosal retention.
PubMed:Effect of heat treatment on bioactivities of enamel matrix derivatives in human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells.
PubMed:Towards a fully-synthetic substitute of alginate: development of a new process using thermal gelation and chemical cross-linking.
PubMed:Effects of a topical enamel matrix derivative on skin wound healing.
PubMed:Effects of enamel matrix derivative on Porphyromonas gingivalis.
PubMed:Porcine enamel matrix derivative enhances the formation of reparative dentine and dentine bridges during wound healing of amputated rat molars.
PubMed:Enamel matrix derivative and titanium implants.
PubMed:Effects of enamel matrix derivative on mineralized tissue formation during bone wound healing in rat parietal bone defects.
PubMed:Antibacterial effect of an enamel matrix protein derivative on in vivo dental biofilm vitality.
PubMed:Effects of cellulose derivatives and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) tri-block copolymers (Pluronic)surfactants) on the properties of alginate based microspheres and their interactions with phagocytic cells.
PubMed:Calcium-alginate gel bead cross-linked with gelatin as microcarrier for anchorage-dependent cell culture.
PubMed:Effects of enamel matrix derivative to titanium implantation in rat femurs.
PubMed:Effect of the enamel matrix derivative Emdogain on the growth of periodontal pathogens in vitro.
PubMed:Comparative study of Emdogain and coronally advanced flap technique in the treatment of human gingival recessions. A prospective controlled clinical study.
PubMed:Effect of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) on ex vivo dental plaque vitality.
PubMed:Injectable gels for tissue engineering.
PubMed:Polymers for use in controlled release systems: the effect of surfactants on their swelling properties.
PubMed:Serum albumin-alginate coated beads: mechanical properties and stability.
PubMed:Comparative study of the use of poly(glycolic acid), calcium alginate and pluronics in the engineering of autologous porcine cartilage.
PubMed:Antioxidative activities of several marine polysaccharides evaluated in a phosphatidylcholine-liposomal suspension and organic solvents.
PubMed:Enamel matrix derivative (EMDOGAIN) in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects.
PubMed:Periodontal regeneration with enamel matrix derivative in one human experimental defect. A case report.
PubMed:Formulation of enamel matrix derivative for surface coating. Kinetics and cell colonization.
PubMed:Periodontal regeneration in a buccal dehiscence model in monkeys after application of enamel matrix proteins.
PubMed:Survival, proliferation, and functions of porcine hepatocytes encapsulated in coated alginate beads: a step toward a reliable bioartificial liver.
PubMed:Coating alginate beads with cross-linked biopolymers: a novel method based on a transacylation reaction.
PubMed:The controlled release of prednisolone using alginate gel.
PubMed:Preparation and evaluation of a controlled-release formulation of nifedipine using alginate gel beads.
PubMed:Viscoelasticity of anionic polymers and their mucociliary transport on the frog palate.
PubMed:Dietary effects of propylene glycol alginate in humans.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of an alginate lyase from Klebsiella aerogenes.
PubMed:Inhibition of lipolytic activity in milk by polysaccharides.
PubMed:[The analysis of polysaccharides used as food additives. VIII. Simple qualitative and semiquantitative procedures for the determination of alginates in food].
PubMed:The use of alginate ester films on solid supports in the preparation of water-insoluble immunoadsorbents for purification of antigens.
used to coat potential column supports for the preparation of water-insoluble immunoadsorbents. Stabiliser, emulsifier, thickener, formulation aid, surface active agent and flavouring adjunct or adjuvant for foodstuffs Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used in food products. It is a food additive with E number E405. Chemically, propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid, which is derived from kelp. Some of the carboxyl groups are esterified with propylene glycol, some are neutralized with an appropriate alkali, and some remain free.
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