EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

tripalmitin
hexadecanoic acid, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester

Sponsors

Name:2,3-di(hexadecanoyloxy)propyl hexadecanoate
CAS Number: 555-44-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:209-098-1
FDA UNII:D133ZRF50U
Nikkaji Web:J6.469F
Beilstein Number:1811188
MDL:MFCD00008995
XlogP3-AA:21.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:807.33726000
Formula:C51 H98 O6
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:cosmetic agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 
Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 66.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 315.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 547.00 °F. TCC ( 286.10 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 21.615 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 7.958e-018 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: emollients
refatting agents
skin conditioning
solvents
viscosity controlling agents
 
Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Glyceryl tripalmitate 95%
Carbosynth
For experimental / research use only.
Glycerol tripalmitate
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
Tripalmitin
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Tripalmitoylglycerol ≥85%
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Glyceryl tripalmitate ≥99%
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Tripalmitin >85.0%(GC)
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD > 500 mg/kg
"Summary Tables of Biological Tests," National Research Council Chemical-Biological Coordination Center. Vol. 4, Pg. 380, 1952.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic agents
Recommendation for tripalmitin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for tripalmitin flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):555-44-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :11147
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:nwg
2,3-di(hexadecanoyloxy)propyl hexadecanoate
Chemidplus:0000555442
RTECS:RT4953500 for cas# 555-44-2
 
References:
 2,3-di(hexadecanoyloxy)propyl hexadecanoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):11147
Pubchem (sid):134976521
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB05356
FooDB:FDB002911
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00809
Export Tariff Code:2917.19.7050
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 emollients
 solvents
 viscosity controlling agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 palm oil
Search PMC Picture
 
Synonyms:
 barolub
2,3-di(hexadecanoyloxy)propyl hexadecanoate
 dynasan 116
 glycerin tripalmitate
 glycerol tripalmitate
 glyceryl tripalmitate
 hexadecanoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester
 hexadecanoic acid, 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester
1,2,3-tris(hexadecanoyl oxy) propane
 palmitic acid triglycerin ester
 palmitic triglyceride
 palmitin
 propane-1,2,3-triyl trihexadecanoate
1,2,3-propanetriol trihexadecanoate
1,2,3-propanetriol tris(hexadecanoate)
1,2,3-propanetriyl trihexadecanoate
 speziafett 116
 triglyceryl palmitate
 trihexadécanoate de 1,2,3-propanetriyle
1,2,3-trihexadecanoyl-sn-glycerol
 tripalmitoyl glycerol
 tripalmitoylglycerol
 

Articles:

PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of trilaurin, triarachidin, tribehenin, tricaprin, tricaprylin, trierucin, triheptanoin, triheptylundecanoin, triisononanoin, triisopalmitin, triisostearin, trilinolein, trimyristin, trioctanoin, triolein, tripalmitin, tripalmitolein, triricinolein, tristearin, triundecanoin, glyceryl triacetyl hydroxystearate, glyceryl triacetyl ricinoleate, and glyceryl stearate diacetate.
PubMed:Enzymatic Synthesis of Refined Olive Oil-Based Structured Lipid Containing Omega -3 and -6 Fatty Acids for Potential Application in Infant Formula.
PubMed:Immobilization, Regiospecificity Characterization and Application of Aspergillus oryzae Lipase in the Enzymatic Synthesis of the Structured Lipid 1,3-Dioleoyl-2-Palmitoylglycerol.
PubMed:Lipid nanocarriers containing sorafenib inhibit colonies formation in human hepatocarcinoma cells.
PubMed:Preparation of O/I1-type Emulsions and S/I1-type Dispersions Encapsulating UV-Absorbing Agents.
PubMed:Computer-Assisted Drug Formulation Design: Novel Approach in Drug Delivery.
PubMed:Developing a reference measurement procedure for free glycerol in human serum by two-step gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Thermal oxidation of cholesterol: Preliminary evaluation of 2-methyl-6-heptanone and 3-methylbutanal as volatile oxidation markers.
PubMed:S-layer fusion protein as a tool functionalizing emulsomes and CurcuEmulsomes for antibody binding and targeting.
PubMed:Evaluation of ibuprofen loaded solid lipid nanoparticles and its combination regimens for pancreatic cancer chemoprevention.
PubMed:Gene Cloning, High-Level Expression, and Characterization of an Alkaline and Thermostable Lipase from Trichosporon coremiiforme V3.
PubMed:Ultrasonic pretreatment in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of structured lipids with high 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol content.
PubMed:Influence of surfactant and lipid type on the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Design and evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles modified with peptide ligand for oral delivery of protein drugs.
PubMed:Mesoscopic structures of triglyceride nanosuspensions studied by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering and computer simulations.
PubMed:Formation of liquid crystalline phases in aqueous suspensions of platelet-like tripalmitin nanoparticles.
PubMed:Morphology and functions of astrocytes cultured on water-repellent fractal tripalmitin surfaces.
PubMed:Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs III - the effect of fed state conditions on the in vitro release and degradation of desmopressin.
PubMed:Candesartan cilexetil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery: characterization, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.
PubMed:Identification of triacylglycerols in archaelogical organic residues by core-shell reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs II--the digestion of trilaurin protects desmopressin from proteolytic degradation.
PubMed:Promotional effects of new types of additives on fat crystallization.
PubMed:In vitro comparative evaluation of monolayered multipolymeric films embedded with didanosine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: a potential buccal drug delivery system for ARV therapy.
PubMed:An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:An improved reference measurement procedure for triglycerides and total glycerides in human serum by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:High-level expression of pro-form lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and its purification and characterization.
PubMed:Characterization of CurcuEmulsomes: nanoformulation for enhanced solubility and delivery of curcumin.
PubMed:Optimization of curcumin loaded lipid nanoparticles formulated using high shear homogenization (HSH) and ultrasonication (US) methods.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of extra virgin olive oil based infant formula fat analogues containing ARA and DHA: one-stage and two-stage syntheses.
PubMed:Prandial hypertriglyceridemia in metabolic syndrome is due to an overproduction of both chylomicron and VLDL triacylglycerol.
PubMed:Controlled polymorphic transformation of continuously crystallized solid lipid nanoparticles in a microstructured device: a feasibility study.
PubMed:Solid lipid particles for oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs I--elucidating the release mechanism of lysozyme during lipolysis.
PubMed:Structural characterization of the phospholipid stabilizer layer at the solid-liquid interface of dispersed triglyceride nanocrystals with small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering.
PubMed:Structure-guided modification of Rhizomucor miehei lipase for production of structured lipids.
PubMed:Drug solubilisation in lipid nanoparticles containing high melting point triglycerides.
PubMed:S-layer coated emulsomes as potential nanocarriers.
PubMed:Synthesis of structured lipid enriched with omega fatty acids and sn-2 palmitic acid by enzymatic esterification and its incorporation in powdered infant formula.
PubMed:A novel method for measuring intestinal and hepatic triacylglycerol kinetics.
PubMed:Co-encapsulating nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal application: from experimental design to the molecular detail.
PubMed:Oxidation reactions of steryl esters in a saturated lipid matrix.
PubMed:Solid lipid nanoparticle preparation by a warm microemulsion based process: influence of microemulsion microstructure.
PubMed:Chemical imaging of drug delivery systems with structured surfaces-a combined analytical approach of confocal raman microscopy and optical profilometry.
PubMed:Identification of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and their fatty acid esters in residues and distillates of structured lipids purified by short-path distillation.
PubMed:Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans IBRL-nra.
PubMed:Orally delivered salmon calcitonin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by micelle-double emulsion method via the combined use of different solid lipids.
PubMed:Biodegradable donepezil lipospheres for depot injection: optimization and in-vivo evaluation.
PubMed:Characterization of biomolecular nanoconjugates by high-throughput delivery and spectroscopic difference.
PubMed:[Taste-masking possibilities in solid dosage forms].
PubMed:[Study of novel artificial lung surfactants incorporating partially fluorinated amphiphiles].
PubMed:Selective cannabinoid-1 receptor blockade benefits fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism significantly in weight-stable nonhuman primates.
PubMed:Temperature- and pressure-dependent densities, self-diffusion coefficients, and phase behavior of monoacid saturated triacylglycerides: toward molecular-level insights into processing.
PubMed:Lipase-catalyzed incorporation of different Fatty acids into tripalmitin-enriched triacylglycerols: effect of reaction parameters.
PubMed:Characterization of ergocalciferol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Baicalein loaded in tocol nanostructured lipid carriers (tocol NLCs) for enhanced stability and brain targeting.
PubMed:New surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles using N-glutaryl phosphatidylethanolamine as the outer shell.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of catalase-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles based on soybean phosphatidylcholine.
PubMed:Modifications of stearidonic acid soybean oil by enzymatic acidolysis for the production of human milk fat analogues.
PubMed:Application of waste frying oils in the biosynthesis of biodemulsifier by a demulsifying strain Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1.
PubMed:Dissolution of solid lipid extrudates in biorelevant media.
PubMed:Lipid nanoparticles containing oryzalin for the treatment of leishmaniasis.
PubMed:13C tracer recovery in human stools after digestion of a fat-rich meal labelled with [1,1,1-13C3]tripalmitin and [1,1,1-13C3]triolein.
PubMed:Solid lipid nanoparticles comprising internal Compritol 888 ATO, tripalmitin and cacao butter for encapsulating and releasing stavudine, delavirdine and saquinavir.
PubMed:Identification of mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas.
PubMed:Characterization of stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid produced by solvent-free enzymatic interesterification.
PubMed:Development of novel sustained release matrix pellets of betahistine dihydrochloride: effect of lipophilic surfactants and co-surfactants.
PubMed:Development and evaluation of tripalmitin emulsomes for the treatment of experimental visceral leishmaniasis.
PubMed:Transesterification to biodiesel with superhydrophobic porous solid base catalysts.
PubMed:One-step preparation of efficient and reusable SO4(2-)/ZrO(2)-based hybrid solid catalysts functionalized by alkyl-bridged organosilica moieties for biodiesel production.
PubMed:Analysis of matrix dosage forms during dissolution testing using raman microscopy.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of nitrendipine solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid at the sn-2 position by enzymatic interesterification for use as human milk fat analogues.
PubMed:Cellular uptake of coumarin-6 as a model drug loaded in solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Development of solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced solubility of poorly soluble drugs.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of ibuprofen solid lipid nanoparticles with enhanced solubility.
PubMed:Topical delivery and photodynamic evaluation of a multivesicular liposomal Rose Bengal.
PubMed:Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols using silver-ion liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry: comparison of five different mass analyzers.
PubMed:Solid lipid extrusion with small die diameters--electrostatic charging, taste masking and continuous production.
PubMed:Short chain saturated fatty acids decrease circulating cholesterol and increase tissue PUFA content in the rat.
PubMed:Myristate is selectively incorporated into surfactant and decreases dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine without functional impairment.
PubMed:High-fat feeding stimulates endocrine, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-expressing cell hyperplasia in the duodenum of Wistar rats.
PubMed:Optimisation of tripalmitin-rich fractionation from palm stearin by response surface methodology.
PubMed:A rapid separation technique for overcoming suppression of triacylglycerols by phosphatidylcholine using MALDI-TOF MS.
PubMed:Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of tripalmitin with capric acid in organic solvent medium: Analysis of the effect of experimental conditions through factorial design and analysis of multiple responses.
PubMed:Two-step solid lipid extrusion as a process to modify dissolution behavior.
PubMed:Nondestructive rheological measurement of aqueous dispersions of solid lipid nanoparticles: effects of lipid types and concentrations on dispersion consistency.
PubMed:Lithographically patterned silicon nanowire arrays for matrix free LDI-TOF/MS analysis of lipids.
PubMed:Optimized synthesis of 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol-rich triacylglycerol via interesterification catalyzed by a lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus.
PubMed:Fatty acid selectivity of lipases during acidolysis reaction between oleic acid and monoacid triacylglycerols.
PubMed:Impact of surfactant properties on oxidative stability of beta-carotene encapsulated within solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Investigating the relationship between drug distribution in solid lipid matrices and dissolution behaviour using Raman spectroscopy and mapping.
PubMed:Influence of structural variations on drug release from lipid/polyethylene glycol matrices.
PubMed:Effect of surfactant surface coverage on formation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).
PubMed:Tailor-made dissolution profiles by extruded matrices based on lipid polyethylene glycol mixtures.
PubMed:Screening of food grade lipases to be used in esterification and interesterification reactions of industrial interest.
PubMed:Polaron hopping in some biomolecular solids and their charge transfer complexes.
PubMed:Effect of electromagnetic field and surface modification on the electrical behavior of novel solid lipid nanoparticles covered with l-arginine.
PubMed:Temperature scanning ultrasonic velocity study of complex thermal transformations in solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Modeling of the triglyceride-rich core in lipoprotein particles.
PubMed:Understanding the solid-state behaviour of triglyceride solid lipid extrudates and its influence on dissolution.
PubMed:Influence of lipid physical state on the in vitro digestibility of emulsified lipids.
PubMed:High saturated-fat diet induces apoptosis in rat enterocytes and blunts GIP and insulin-secretive response to oral glucose load.
PubMed:Ultrasonic scattering in chocolate and model systems containing sucrose, tripalmitin and olive oil.
PubMed:[Effect of crystallization temperature of palm oil on its crystallization. IV. The influence of tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) on the crystallization of 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-glycerol (POO)].
PubMed:Slow recrystallization of tripalmitoylglycerol from MCT oil observed by 2H NMR.
PubMed:Tripalmitin-based cationic lipospheres: preparation, characterization and in Lab-on-a-chip applications.
PubMed:Production of solid lipid nanoparticle suspensions using supercritical fluid extraction of emulsions (SFEE) for pulmonary delivery using the AERx system.
PubMed:Enzymatic production of infant milk fat analogs containing palmitic acid: optimization of reactions by response surface methodology.
PubMed:Biodegradation kinetics and toxicity of vegetable oil triacylglycerols under aerobic conditions.
PubMed:Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin with vegetable oil blends for formulation of caprine milk infant formula analogs.
PubMed:High-temperature micro liquid chromatography for lipid molecular species analysis with evaporative light scattering detection.
PubMed:Development and evaluation of nitrendipine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: influence of wax and glyceride lipids on plasma pharmacokinetics.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioavailability of nitrendipine solid lipid nanoparticles after intravenous and intraduodenal administration.
PubMed:Development of a spray congealing process for the preparation of insulin-loaded lipid microparticles and characterization thereof.
PubMed:Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.
PubMed:New insights into lung surfactant monolayers using vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy.
PubMed:The benefits of oestrogens on postprandial lipid metabolism are lost in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:Candida rugosa lipase LIP1-catalyzed transesterification to produce human milk fat substitute.
PubMed:Tumoricidal effects of etoposide incorporated into solid lipid nanoparticles after intraperitoneal administration in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice.
PubMed:Tamoxifen citrate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN): preparation, characterization, in vitro drug release, and pharmacokinetic evaluation.
PubMed:Human milk fat substitutes containing omega-3 fatty acids.
PubMed:Development of a respirable, sustained release microcarrier for 5-fluorouracil II: In vitro and in vivo optimization of lipid coated nanoparticles.
PubMed:Lipidic implants for controlled release of bioactive insulin: effects on cartilage engineered in vitro.
PubMed:Biocompatibility and erosion behavior of implants made of triglycerides and blends with cholesterol and phospholipids.
PubMed:In vitro investigation of lipid implants as a controlled release system for interleukin-18.
PubMed:Paclitaxel-loaded microparticles and implants for the treatment of brain cancer: preparation and physicochemical characterization.
PubMed:The in vivo effects of the Pro12Ala PPARgamma2 polymorphism on adipose tissue NEFA metabolism: the first use of the Oxford Biobank.
PubMed:Enhancement of melatonin photostability by encapsulation in lipospheres.
PubMed:Adverse physicochemical properties of tripalmitin in beta cells lead to morphological changes and lipotoxicity in vitro.
PubMed:Saturated phospholipids promote crystallization but slow down polymorphic transitions in triglyceride nanoparticles.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioavailability of clozapine solid lipid nanoparticles after intravenous and intraduodenal administration.
PubMed:Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of tripalmitin with hazelnut oil fatty acids and stearic acid to produce human milk fat substitutes.
PubMed:Severely dysregulated disposal of postprandial triacylglycerols exacerbates hypertriacylglycerolemia in HIV lipodystrophy syndrome.
PubMed:Effect of 1-butanol on the microstructure of lecithin/water/tripalmitin system.
PubMed:Influence of administration route on tumor uptake and biodistribution of etoposide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in Dalton's lymphoma tumor bearing mice.
PubMed:New surface-modified lipid nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for salmon calcitonin.
PubMed:Design and characterization of a new drug nanocarrier made from solid-liquid lipid mixtures.
PubMed:Raman spectroscopy investigation of various saturated monoacid triglycerides.
PubMed:Etoposide-incorporated tripalmitin nanoparticles with different surface charge: formulation, characterization, radiolabeling, and biodistribution studies.
PubMed:The effects of rosiglitazone on fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism in type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:Adaptation of an evaporative light-scattering detector to micro and capillary liquid chromatography and response assessment.
PubMed:Investigation on the flow behavior of dispersions of solid triglyceride nanoparticles.
PubMed:Application of NMR spectroscopy to the characterization of PEG-stabilized lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Evaluation of the physical stability of SLN and NLC before and after incorporation into hydrogel formulations.
PubMed:Maldigestion and malabsorption of 13C labelled tripalmitin in gastrostomy-fed patients with cystic fibrosis.
PubMed:Investigation on particle self-assembly in solid lipid-based colloidal drug carrier systems.
PubMed:Soiling of pure PVC studied by FTIR, optical microscopy, and AFM.
PubMed:Preparation, characterization and in vitro release kinetics of clozapine solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Effect of triglyceride structure on fecal excretion of 13C-labeled triglycerides.
PubMed:Effect of meal sequence on postprandial lipid, glucose and insulin responses in young men.
PubMed:Premenopausal advantages in postprandial lipid metabolism are lost in women with type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:Alternative NMR method for quantitative determination of acyl positional distribution in triacylglycerols and related compounds.
PubMed:Effect of enzymatic interesterification on melting point of palm olein.
PubMed:Influence of emulsifiers on the crystallization of solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Dietary fats differentially modulate the expression of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, apoprotein-A1 and scavenger receptor b1 in rats.
PubMed:Normal mode analyses of methyl palmitate all-trans and disordered forms in wagging progressive region.
PubMed:A supercritical fluid-based coating technology. 2: solubility considerations.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a novel cholesterol esterase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with its application to cleaning lipid-stained contact lenses.
PubMed:Chylomicron particle size and number, factor VII activation and dietary monounsaturated fatty acids.
PubMed:How to make things work again--troubleshooting using the GC-IDMS determination of triacylglycerols as an example.
PubMed:Using simple 13C NMR linewidth and relaxation measurements to make detailed chemical shift assignments in triacylglycerols and related compounds.
PubMed:Modeling biochemical aspects of energy metabolism in mammals.
PubMed:Evaluation of cationic solid lipid microparticles as synthetic carriers for the targeted delivery of macromolecules to phagocytic antigen-presenting cells.
PubMed:Rapid thermogravimetric measurements of boiling points and vapor pressure of saturated medium- and long-chain triglycerides.
PubMed:Base-catalyzed derivatization methodology for FA analysis. application to milk fat and celery seed lipid TAG.
PubMed:Triacylglycerol molecular weight and to a lesser extent, fatty acid positional distribution, affect chylomicron triacylglycerol composition in women.
PubMed:Lipase degradation of Dynasan 114 and 116 solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)--effect of surfactants, storage time and crystallinity.
PubMed:Component-specific surface and physiological activity in bovine-derived lung surfactants.
PubMed:Final report on the safety assessment of trilaurin, triarachidin, tribehenin, tricaprin, tricaprylin, trierucin, triheptanoin, triheptylundecanoin, triisononanoin, triisopalmitin, triisostearin, trilinolein, trimyristin, trioctanoin, triolein, tripalmitin, tripalmitolein, triricinolein, tristearin, triundecanoin, glyceryl triacetyl hydroxystearate, glyceryl triacetyl ricinoleate, and glyceryl stearate diacetate.
PubMed:Bulk shear viscosities of endogenous and exogenous lung surfactants.
PubMed:Comparative effects of dietary fat types on hepatic enzyme activities related to the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acid and to lipogenesis in rats.
PubMed:Modeling of alpha-tocopherol loss and oxidation products formed during thermoxidation in triolein and tripalmitin mixtures.
PubMed:Analysis of fatty acids by graphite plate laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Incorporation of the model drug ubidecarenone into solid lipid nanoparticles.
PubMed:Gastrointestinal handling and metabolic disposal of 13C-labelled tripalmitin during rehabilitation from childhood malnutrition.
PubMed:The exchange rate between dissolved tripalmitin and tripalmitin crystals.
PubMed:Organotin-induced hyperglycemia in the crab, Oziotelphusa senex senex Fabricius.
PubMed:Development and characterization of lipid microparticles as a drug carrier for somatostatin.
PubMed:Analysis of olive oil and seed oil triglycerides by capillary gas chromatography as a tool for the detection of the adulteration of olive oil.
PubMed:Quantitative analysis of surface-located triacylglycerol in intact emulsion particles.
PubMed:Effects of prior moderate exercise on exogenous and endogenous lipid metabolism and plasma factor VII activity.
PubMed:Accelerative effect of olive oil on adrenal corticosterone secretion in rats loaded with single or repetitive immersion-restraint stress.
PubMed:Interactive effects of dietary cholesterol and different saturated fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in the hamster.
PubMed:Diabetes-induced changes in specific lipid molecular species in rat myocardium.
PubMed:Dietary fat modulates serum paraoxonase 1 activity in rats.
PubMed:Determination of the conjugated linoleic acid-containing triacylglycerols in New Zealand bovine milk fat.
PubMed:Structure of mono-acid even-numbered beta-triacylglycerols.
PubMed:Rheologic and NMR characterization of monoglyceride-based formulations.
PubMed:The biosynthesis of hepatic cholesterol esters and triglycerides is impaired in mice with a disruption of the gene for stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanospheres containing paclitaxel.
PubMed:Correlation between DNA or protein adducts and benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I-triglyceride adduct detected in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Surface hydrophobicity of the rat colonic mucosa is a defensive barrier against macromolecules and toxins.
PubMed:Influence of spin probe structure on its distribution in SLN dispersions.
PubMed:Effect of synthetic triglycerides of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acid on serum lipoprotein metabolism.
PubMed:Triglyceride oxidation in cystic fibrosis: a comparison between different 13C-labeled tracer substances.
PubMed:"Mixed" triglyceride breath test: methodological problems and clinical applications.
PubMed:Highly selective synthesis of 1,3-oleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol by lipase catalysis.
PubMed:Preparation of chylomicrons and VLDL with monoacid-rich triacylglycerol and characterization of kinetic parameters in lipoprotein lipase-mediated hydrolysis in chickens.
PubMed:Effect of tamoxifen on cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells and cultured rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:Metabolic handling of 13C labelled tripalmitin in healthy controls and patients with cystic fibrosis.
PubMed:Isolation and characterisation of obligately anaerobic, lipolytic bacteria from the rumen of red deer.
PubMed:Influence of lipid content of testmeal on gastrointestinal handling and metabolic partitioning of dietary lipid in young men.
PubMed:Suppression of endothelin-3-induced nitric oxide synthesis by triglyceride in human endothelial cells.
PubMed:The effect of different dietary fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism: concentration-dependent effects of diets enriched in oleic, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids.
PubMed:Genetic determinants of plasma lipoprotein levels and their dietary response.
PubMed:Dietary arachidonic acid increases eicosanoid production in the presence of equal amounts of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid.
PubMed:Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes affects iron absorption in rats.
PubMed:Hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein messenger RNA concentrations are increased by dietary cholesterol in hamsters.
PubMed:Recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha suppresses synthesis, activity and secretion of lipoprotein lipase in cultures of a human osteosarcoma cell line.
PubMed:Effect of degree of unsaturation in dietary fatty acids on arachidonic acid mobilization by peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Interactive effects of dietary cholesterol and saturated fat on low density lipoprotein cholesterol.
PubMed:Modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein B, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor mRNA and plasma lipoprotein concentrations by defined dietary fats. Comparison of trimyristin, tripalmitin, tristearin and triolein.
PubMed:Use of gas chromatography/isotope ratio-mass spectrometry to study triglyceride metabolism in humans.
PubMed:Regulation of hamster hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA levels by dietary fats.
PubMed:Dietary lipid and iron status modulate lipid peroxidation in rats with induced adjuvant arthritis.
PubMed:Effect of the lipase inhibitor orlistat and of dietary lipid on the absorption of radiolabelled triolein, tri-gamma-linolenin and tripalmitin in mice.
PubMed:Is vernix caseosa a protective material to the newborn? A biochemical approach.
PubMed:Isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a candidate definitive method for determining total glycerides and triglycerides in serum.
PubMed:Enzymatic interesterification of triglyceride with surfactant-coated lipase in organic media.
PubMed:Response of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (Acari: Sarcoptidae) to lipids of mammalian skin.
PubMed:Glycolipid receptors for attachment of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to porcine respiratory ciliated cells.
PubMed:Phosphatidylcholines as mediators of adaptive cytoprotection of the rat duodenum.
PubMed:Determination of the lipase stereoselectivities using circular dichroism (CD); lipases produce chiral di-O-acylglycerols from achiral tri-O-acylglycerols.
PubMed:Dietary n-3 fatty acids alter murine peritoneal macrophage cytotoxicity.
PubMed:Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy.
PubMed:Potential organ or tumor imaging agents. 32. A triglyceride ester of p-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid as a potential hepatic imaging agent.
PubMed:Linoleoyl-enriched triacylglycerol species increase in maternal liver during late pregnancy in the rat.
PubMed:A new ultrasound contrast agent based on biodegradable polymeric microballoons.
PubMed:Lipoprotein secretion by the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2: differential rates of accumulation of apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein lipids in tissue culture media in response to albumin, glucose and oleate.
PubMed:Effects of glycerol tripalmitate and glycerol trioleate on intestinal absorption of glycerol tristearate.
PubMed:[Improvement of gastrointestinal absorption of 2-[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin- 1-yl]ethyl acetate, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent].
PubMed:Suppression of rat hepatic fatty acid synthase and S14 gene transcription by dietary polyunsaturated fat.
PubMed:Gastric protective activity of mixtures of saturated polar and neutral lipids in rats.
PubMed:Multicenter trial of single-dose modified bovine surfactant extract (Survanta) for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. Ross Collaborative Surfactant Prevention Study Group.
PubMed:A new approach to determine the stereospecificity in lipase catalysed hydrolysis using circular dichroism (CD): lipases produce optically active diglycerides from achiral triglycerides.
PubMed:Dietary polyunsaturated fats uniquely suppress rat liver fatty acid synthase and S14 mRNA content.
PubMed:Effect of cholesterol on structural and dynamic properties of tripalmitoyl glyceride. A high-pressure infrared spectroscopic study.
PubMed:Formation of crystalline tripalmitin-rich spicules in isolated hepatocytes.
PubMed:[Lung lavage and artificial surfactant replacement therapy--animal experimentation and clinical application].
PubMed:The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on liver retinyl ester (vitamin A ester) composition in the rat.
PubMed:Interactions of triglycerides with phospholipids: incorporation into the bilayer structure and formation of emulsions.
PubMed:Appearance of circulating and tissue 14C-lipids after oral 14C-tripalmitate administration in the late pregnant rat.
PubMed:Utilization of medium-chain triglycerides and octanoic acid by cultured human fibroblasts and lymphoblasts.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic quantitation of triacylglycerols containing fenoprofen from biological samples.
PubMed:Human lactation: maternal transfer of dietary triglycerides labeled with stable isotopes.
PubMed:Liver subcellular fatty acid profiles of chicks fed diets containing hydrogenated fats and varying linoleate levels.
PubMed:Correlations between physical and physiological properties of various preparations of lung surfactant.
PubMed:Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin.
PubMed:Effects of dietary triglycerides on serum and liver lipids and sterol excretion of rats.
PubMed:Effect of dietary medium chain triglyceride on lipogenic enzyme activity in rat liver.
PubMed:Comparison of the thin layer chromatography/flame ionization detection system with other methods for the quantitative analysis of liver lipid contents in alcohol-fed rats and controls.
PubMed:X-ray studies on phospholipid bilayers. V. Interactions with DDT.
PubMed:Dietary fat dependence of intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity in rats.
PubMed:Malabsorption and mucosal abnormalities of the small intestine in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
PubMed:Chemical blockade of the reticuloendothelial system results in arteriolar spasms: possible role of endothelial cells.
PubMed:Acyl chain and headgroup specificity of human plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. Separation of matrix and molecular specificities.
PubMed:Effect of free fatty acids on renal metabolism of very low density lipoprotein triglyceride.
PubMed:Calculation of short-term changes in body fat from measurement of respiratory gas exchange.
PubMed:A low molecular weight zinc-copper lipolytic protein from chick liver.
PubMed:A competitive ligand binding assay for measurement of thyroid hormone-binding inhibitor in serum and tissues.
PubMed:The effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on pulmonary alveolar macrophage function.
PubMed:Some Enzymic Activities in the Germinating Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Seedling.
PubMed:Targeting of asialofetuin sugar chain-bearing liposomes to liver lysosomes.
PubMed:Effect of dietary triglycerides on lymphocyte transformation in rats.
PubMed:1H NMR studies of lymph chylomicra and very low density lipoproteins from nonhuman primates.
PubMed:Complexities in lipid quantitation using thin layer chromatography for separation and flame ionization for detection.
PubMed:Deuterium magnetic resonance of triacylglycerols in phospholipid bilayers.
PubMed:Lipoprotein lipase and lipid metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues of Zucker rats.
PubMed:Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of wax esters by cell-free preparations from Sinapis alba L roots.
PubMed:Fatty acid breath test values in the malabsorption range in cancer patients.
PubMed:Partial purification and characterization of lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) from Propionibacterium acnes.
PubMed:Effect of fluoride on the absorption of dietary fat in rats.
PubMed:Fatty acid desaturation in lung: inhibition by unsaturated fatty acids.
PubMed:Regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by dietary maize oil or tripalmitin in the meal-fed mouse.
PubMed:The incorporation and utilization of radiolabelled lipids by adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro.
PubMed:Clinical Experiences in 14C-tripalmitin breath test for fat malabsorption.
PubMed:Effect of dietary long-chain fatty acids on the rates of cholesterol turnover processes, cholesterol origin and distribution in the rat intestinal lumen.
PubMed:Effects of diets of homogeneous saturated triglycerides on cholesterol balance in rats.
PubMed:Evaluation of impaired triglyceride fatty acid transport and oxidation for the detection of cancer in mice.
PubMed:Triolein breath test: a sensitive and specific test for fat malabsorption.
PubMed:Studies on acid lipase, and E 600-resistant acid esterase activities in human tissue homogenates.
PubMed:Fat digestion in the stomach of premature infants. I. Characteristics of lipase activity.
PubMed:Regulation by dietary fats of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase in rat liver.
PubMed:Subcellular distribution of steryl ester biosynthesis in spinach leaves.
PubMed:Effect of different dietary triglycerides on 7alpha-hydroxylation of cholesterol and other mixed-function oxidations.
PubMed:Diet and sterol biohydrogenation in the rat: occurrence of epicoprostanol.
PubMed:The relationship of fatty acid composition and surface activity of lung extracts.
PubMed:Is the fat breath test effective in the diagnosis of fat malabsorption and pancreatic disease?
PubMed:A new system for lipid analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Glycerol conformation and the crystal structure of lipids. I. An electron diffraction study of tripalmitin and conformationally fixed analogs.
PubMed:The effect of various dietary factors on the size distribution of lymph fat particles in rat.
PubMed:Cycloalkanones. 9. Comparison of analogues which inhibit cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis.
PubMed:Sensitive colorimetric determination of cholesterol in dairy products.
PubMed:Effects of human and experimental cancer on the conversion of 14C tripalmitin to 14CO2.
PubMed:Radiation damage in tripalmitin layers studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy.
PubMed:[Breath-analysis tests in gastroenetrological diagnosis].
PubMed:Instability of Langmuir-Blodgett layers of barium stearate, cadmium arachidate and tripalmitin, studied by means of electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy.
PubMed:14C-tripalmitin breath test as a diagnostic aid for fat malabsorption due to pancreatic insufficiency.
PubMed:Fat absorption in essential fatty acid deficiency: a model experimental approach to studies of the mechanism of fat malabsorption of unknown etiology.
PubMed:Effects of acidic phospholipids, nucleotides, and heparin on the activity of lipase from rat liver lysosomes.
PubMed:Compartmental utilization of carboxyl-C-tripalmitin by tissue homogenate of pine seeds.
PubMed:Lung surface-active fraction as a model system for macromolecular ultrastructural studies with Crotalus atrox venom.
PubMed:Four-directional-development thin-layer chromatography of lipids using trimethyl borate.
PubMed:Interaction of beef liver lipase with mixed micelles of tripalmitin and Triton X-100.
PubMed:Glycerol Ester Hydrolase Activity of Microbacterium thermosphactum.
PubMed:Effect of DL-ethionine on the intestinal absorption and transport of palmitic acid-1-14C and tripalmitin-14C. Role of intramucosal factors in the uptake of luminal lipids.
PubMed:Lipase from Pseudomonas fragi. II. Properties of the Enzyme.
PubMed:Effects of dietary triolein, tripalmitin, and L-phenylalanine on calcium absorption in the rat.
PubMed:The absorption of tristearin and stearic acid and tripalmitin and palmitic acid. Studies on the rate-limiting steps in rats.
PubMed:Lipoprotein synthesis. I. rat plasma lipoprotein composition and synthesis from radioactive precursors.
PubMed:METABOLISM OF TRIPALMITIN-1-C14-LABELED SERUM LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS BY THE ISOLATED PERFUSED GOAT LIVER.
PubMed:STUDIES WITH FAT EMULSIONS: METABOLISM OF INTRAVENOUSLY ADMINISTERED C14-TRIPALMITIN.
PubMed:THE EFFECT OF AGE ON THE CLEARANCE OF C14-LABELED TRIPALMITIN IN DOGS AFTER ORAL FEEDING.
PubMed:Lipid metabolism of rumen ciliates and bacteria. II. Uptake of fatty acids and lipid analysis of Isotricha intestinalis and rumen bacteria with further information on Entodinium simplex.
PubMed:Effect of dextrothyroxine on metabolism of C-14-labeled cholesterol and tripalmitin.
PubMed:Intravenous triolein-I 131 and tripalmitin-C14 emulsions in humans.
PubMed:A comparison of the oxidation of cholesterol-26-14C, palmitate-1-14C and tripalmitin-1-14C by macrophages in vitro.
PubMed:The transport and dynamic state of exogenous glycerol- and palmitic acid-labeled tripalmitin.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of C14-palmitic acid and C14-tripalmitin in the rat.
PubMed:Lipid absorption: palmitic acid-I-C13 and tripalmitin-car-boxyl C14.
PubMed:Lipid absorption: palmitic acid-1-C-13 and tripalmitin-carboxyl C-14.
PubMed:Secretion of intravenously administered tripalmitin-1-C14 and octanoate-1-C14 into milk by the lactating rat.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of unhydrolyzed tripalmitin.
PubMed:The fate of C14-labeled palmitic acid administered intravenously as a tripalmitin emulsion.
PubMed:Oxidation of Parenterally Administered C14-labeled Tripalmitin Emulsions.
PubMed:The synthesis of palmitic acid and tripalmitin labeled with carbon fourteen.
 
Notes:
Present in palm oil TG(16:0/16:0/16:0) or Tripalmitin is a monoacid triglyceride. Triglycerides (TGs) are also known as triacylglycerols or triacylglycerides. TGs are fatty acid triesters of glycerol and may be divided into three general types with respect to their acyl substituents. They are simple or monoacid if they contain only one type of fatty acid, diacid if they contain two types of fatty acids and triacid if three different acyl groups. Chain lengths of the fatty acids in naturally occurring triglycerides can be of varying lengths and saturations but 16, 18 and 20 carbons are the most common. TGs are the main constituent of vegetable oil and animal fats. TGs are major components of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons, play an important role in metabolism as energy sources and transporters of dietary fat. They contain more than twice the energy (9 kcal/g) of carbohydrates and proteins. In the intestine, triglycerides are split into glycerol and fatty acids (this process is called lipolysis) (with the help of lipases and bile secretions), which can then move into blood vessels. The triglycerides are rebuilt in the blood from their fragments and become constituents of lipoproteins, which deliver the fatty acids to and from fat cells among other functions. Various tissues can release the free fatty acids and take them up as a source of energy. Fat cells can synthesize and store triglycerides. When the body requires fatty acids as an energy source, the hormone glucagon signals the breakdown of the triglycerides by hormone-sensitive lipase to release free fatty acids. As the brain cannot utilize fatty acids as an energy source, the glycerol component of triglycerides can be converted into glucose for brain fuel when it is broken down. (www.cyberlipid.org, www.wikipedia.org); ; TAGs can serve as fatty acid stores in all cells, but primarily in adipocytes of adipose tissue. The major building block for the synthesis of triacylglycerides, in non-adipose tissue, is glycerol. Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and so must use another route to TAG synthesis. Specifically, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which is produced during glycolysis, is the precursor for TAG synthesis in adipose tissue. DHAP can also serve as a TAG precursor in non-adipose tissues, but does so to a much lesser extent than glycerol. The use of DHAP for the TAG backbone depends on whether the synthesis of the TAGs occurs in the mitochondria and ER or the ER and the peroxisomes. The ER/mitochondria pathway requires the action of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to convert DHAP to glycerol-3-phosphate. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase then esterifies a fatty acid to glycerol-3-phosphate thereby generating lysophosphatidic acid. The ER/peroxisome reaction pathway uses the peroxisomal enzyme DHAP acyltransferase to acylate DHAP to acyl-DHAP which is then reduced by acyl-DHAP reductase. The fatty acids that are incorporated into TAGs are activated to acyl-CoAs through the action of acyl-CoA synthetases. Two molecules of acyl-CoA are esterified to glycerol-3-phosphate to yield 1,2-diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid). The phosphate is then removed by phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP1), to generate 1,2-diacylglycerol. This diacylglycerol serves as the substrate for addition of the third fatty acid to make TAG. Intestinal monoacylglycerols, derived from dietary fats, can also serve as substrates for the synthesis of 1,2-diacylglycerols.
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