• Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
      Email: Info
      Voice: 34 93 379 38 49
      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      14-07000 NAPHTHALENE
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naphthalene (Click)
CAS Number: 91-20-3
ECHA EC Number: 202-049-5
Beilstein Number: 1421310
MDL: MFCD00001742
CoE Number: 11014
XlogP3: 3.30 (est)
Molecular Weight: 128.17376000
Formula: C10 H8
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict
EFSA/JECFA Comments: No longer supported by Industry (DG SANCO, 2012).
Category: fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
Flavis Number: 01.053 (Old)
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystalline solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 80.00 to  82.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 217.00 to  219.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 124.00 to  125.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.159000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density: 4.4 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 174.00 °F. TCC ( 78.89 °C. )
logP (o/w): 3.300
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: pungent
Odor Strength: high ,
recommend smelling in a 1.00 % solution or less
Odor Description:
at 10.00 % in benzyl benzoate. 
pungent dry tarry
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: not used anymore
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Raw Naphthalene
Lluch Essence
Penta International
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
Naphthalene 99%
For experimental / research use only.
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn N - Harmful, Dangerous for the environment.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 40 - Possible risks of irreversable effects.
R 50/53 - Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
S 46 - If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
S 60 - This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
S 61 - Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  > 2000 mg/kg
Study not available
(Hazleton France, 1990a; Hazleton

oral-rat LD50  > 2000 mg/kg
No information on study design
(Vaughn & Keeler, 1976)

oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] 2400 mg/kg
5 animals per dose group
(Birch, 1978a)

oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] 2800 mg/kg
5 animals per dose group
(Birch, 1978b)

oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] 1900 mg/kg
5 animals per dose group. 10% solution in corn oil.
(Birch, 1978c)

oral-rat LD50  2000 mg/kg
Study not available
(Hazleton France, 1990c)

gavage-rat LD50  [sex: F] 9430 mg/kg
(Carpenter et al., 1949)

gavage-mouse LD50  [sex: M,F] M:533 F:710 mg/kg
(Shopp et al., 1984)

oral-cat LDLo  1000 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

oral-child LDLo  100 mg/kg
"Toxicology and Biochemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons," Gerarde, H., New York, Elsevier, 1960Vol. -, Pg. 228, 1960.

oral-dog LDLo  400 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

oral-guinea pig LD50  1200 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 47(11), Pg. 78, 1982.

unreported-human LDLo  29 mg/kg
Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 31, Pg. 1499, 1980.

unreported-man LDLo  74 mg/kg
"Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970Vol. 2, Pg. 73, 1970.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  150 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD691-490

intravenous-mouse LD50  100 mg/kg
U.S. Army Armament Research & Development Command, Chemical Systems Laboratory, NIOSH Exchange Chemicals. Vol. NX#00203

oral-mouse LD50  316 mg/kg
Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. Vol. 4, Pg. 243, 1990.

oral-rabbit LDLo  3000 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

oral-rat LD50  490 mg/kg
"Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 89, 1982.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 20000 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD-A062-138

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 969 mg/kg
Toho Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of Medical Society of Toho University. Vol. 20, Pg. 772, 1973.

skin-rat LD50 > 2500 mg/kg
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 14, Pg. 515, 1969.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 > 340 mg/m3/1H
BIOFAX Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc., Data Sheets. Vol. 16-4/1970

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: fragrance agents
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.013 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 3900 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:90 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: III
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 7.0000035.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 5.0000025.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 10.0000050.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 7.0000035.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 10.0000050.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 10.0000050.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 2.0000010.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 2.0000010.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 5.0000025.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 10.0000050.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 5.0000025.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 10.0000050.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 20.00000100.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 5.0000025.00000
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, (FGE.25)[1] - Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 78 (FGE.78)[1] - Consideration of Aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives,Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25Rev1: Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 78, Revision 1 (FGE.78Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated by EFSA in FGE.25Rev2
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 2 (FGE.25Rev2): Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31
View page or View pdf
Scientific opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 25, Revision 3 (FGE.25Rev3): Aliphatic hydrocarbons from chemical group 31
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View Calculate predicted properties
ECHA Data Sheet: View
ECHA (ESR): View
EPA-Iris: IRIS search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
National Toxicology Program: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 91-20-3
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
SCCNFP: opinion
WISER: UN 1334
WGK Germany: 3
DTP/NCI: 37565
Chemidplus: 0000091203
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 91-20-3
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NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 91-20-3
Pubchem (cid): 931
Pubchem (sid): 134971441
Flavornet: 91-20-3
Pherobase Floral: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
UM BBD: Search
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB29751
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB01393
Export Tariff Code: 2902.90.9000
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
MedlinePlusSupp: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
•trade names: naphthalin, tar camphor •available as flakes, cubes, spheres and powder. •trade names: tar camphor; moth balls; moth flakes; white tar; nci-c52904; mighty 150; camphor tar; mighty rdi; rcra waste number u165; un 1334; un 2304. •dezodorator •albocarbon
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 acacia cassie farnesianaFR
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Natural Occurrence in: note
 beans - 0.003 mg/kg
 beer - 0.02 mg/kg
 bilberry - 0.005 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
 capsicum annuum - up to 0.06 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
 cassie absolute @ 2.50%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 celery seed oil CO2 extract india @ 0.33%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 celery seed oil india @ 0.79%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 cheese - up to 0.035 mg/kg
 chicken - up to 0.0005 mg/kg
 clove stem
GRIN Trop Picture
 cocoa - 0.05 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
 crocus sativus
GRIN Trop Picture
 fish raw fish - 0.02 mg/kg
 grapefruit juice - 0.01 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
 kiwi fruit - 0.001 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
 mango - up to 0.001 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
 milk buffalo milk - 0.004 mg/kg
 milk skim milk powder - 0.0029 mg/kg
 nepeta betonicifolia c.a. meyer oil turkey @ 0.20%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 nut peanut - 0.005 mg/kg
 orange peel oil bitter china @ trace%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 orris root
 papaya - up to 0.01 mg/kg
 passiflora - up to 0.01 mg/kg
 pea - 0.005 mg/kg
 peach - trace amount
 plum - up to 0.005 mg/kg
 plumcot - up to 0.007 mg/kg
 raspberry - up to 0.005 mg/kg
 rice cooked rice
 rue flower oil colombia @ 0.04%
Data  GC  GRIN Trop Picture
 shrimp - 0.0008 mg/kg
 soybean - 0.008 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
 tea - 0.10 mg/kg
 wine port wine - trace amount
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 camphor tar
 moth balls
 moth flakes
 raw naphthalene
white tar
 tar camphor
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
PubMed: Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.
PubMed: The use of flow cytometric applications to measure the effects of PAHs on growth, membrane integrity, and relative lipid content of the benthic diatom, Nitzschia brevirostris.
PubMed: Structural basis for the transformation pathways of the sodium naproxen anhydrate-hydrate system.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.
PubMed: Development of a direct in-matrix extraction (DIME) protocol for MALDI-TOF-MS detection of glycated phospholipids in heat-treated food samples.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generation in heat-processed sundried salt.
PubMed: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee.
PubMed: Theoretical approach to the innovative mutation of naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase: a molecular dynamics and docking study.
PubMed: High-performance n-channel organic thin-film transistor based on naphthalene diimide.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in four fish species from different trophic levels in the Persian Gulf.
PubMed: Attributing population-scale human exposure to various source categories: merging exposure models and biomonitoring data.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distribution in serum of Saudi children using HPLC-FLD: marker elevations in children with asthma.
PubMed: Chemical characterization of Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) using gas chromatographic methods.
PubMed: Analysis of amino acid composition in proteins of animal tissues and foods as pre-column o-phthaldialdehyde derivatives by HPLC with fluorescence detection.
PubMed: Isoflavone Augmentation in Soybean Cell Cultures Is Optimized Using Response Surface Methodology.
PubMed: Determination of plant growth regulators in pears by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed: PCNs (polychlorinated napthalenes): dietary exposure via cereal crops, distribution and screening-level risk assessment in wheat, rice, soil and air along two tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and oxygenated PAHs) and trace metals in fish species from Ghana (West Africa): bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.
PubMed: Liquid-phase exfoliation of graphene in organic solvents with addition of naphthalene.
PubMed: Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in toasted guaraná (Paullinia cupana) by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector.
PubMed: Optimizing separation conditions of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis and applications to edible oils.
PubMed: Spectroscopic analyses of manganese ions effects on the conformational changes of inorganic pyrophosphatase from psychrophilic Shewanella sp. AS-11.
PubMed: Induction of a photomixotrophic plant cell culture of Helianthus annuus and optimization of culture conditions for improved α-tocopherol production.
PubMed: Biodecolorization of a food azo dye by the deep sea Dermacoccus abyssi MT1.1(T) strain from the Mariana Trench.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in European catfish from the upper Po River basin.
PubMed: A simple cassette as point-of-care diagnostic device for naked-eye colorimetric bacteria detection.
PubMed: Efficient regeneration for enhanced steviol glycosides production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rice grain dried by different processes: evaluation of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction method.
PubMed: Solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction.
PubMed: Purple-leaved Ficus lyrata plants produced by overexpressing a grapevine VvMybA1 gene.
PubMed: pH treatment as an effective tool to select the functional and structural properties of yak milk caseins.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial squids from different geographical origins: levels and risks for human consumption.
PubMed: Determination of naphthalene-derived compounds in apples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: [Determination of fluorescent whitening agents in plastic food contact materials by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector].
PubMed: Effect of growth hormones on some antioxidant parameters and gene expression in tomato.
PubMed: Quercetin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate effect on the anisotropy of model membranes with cholesterol.
PubMed: Relations of oxidative stress in freshwater phytoplankton with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
PubMed: Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).
PubMed: Determination of light-medium-heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.
PubMed: Priority PAHs in orthodox black tea during manufacturing process.
PubMed: Headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of naphthalene in the composite food samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study in Ottawa.
PubMed: Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).
PubMed: Determination of cadmium and zinc in vegetables with online FAAS after simultaneous pre-concentration with 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone immobilised on naphthalene.
PubMed: Mechanism for the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by juliprosopine on rat brain mitochondria.
PubMed: The enzymatic lectin of field bean (Dolichos lablab): salt assisted lectin-sugar interaction.
PubMed: In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse.
PubMed: The constituents of essential oil: antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Micromeria congesta Boiss. & Hausskn. ex Boiss. from East Anatolia.
PubMed: Probing thermal behaviour of microbial transglutaminase with fluorescence and in silico methods.
PubMed: Identification of bacteria utilizing biphenyl, benzoate, and naphthalene in long-term contaminated soil.
PubMed: Light and heavy dansyl reporter groups in food chemistry: amino acid assay in beverages.
PubMed: Identification and quantification of aroma compounds of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) and some of its milling fractions.
PubMed: Effect of NaCl addition during diafiltration on the solubility, hydrophobicity, and disulfide bonds of 80% milk protein concentrate powder.
PubMed: Composition, sources, and potential toxicology of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils in Liaoning, People's Republic of China.
PubMed: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and serum inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease.
PubMed: County-scale distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in topsoil of the Yellow River Delta Region.
PubMed: Dynamic models of multi-trophic interactions in microbial food webs.
PubMed: [Characterization and potential risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in green space soils of educational areas in Beijing].
PubMed: In vitro propagation of Dioscorea alata var. purpurae.
PubMed: Effect of reactive core mat application on bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds.
PubMed: Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine products in Korea using GC/MS.
PubMed: Evaluation of analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the QuEChERS method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their formation in poultry meat as affected by marinating and frying.
PubMed: Aqua-{tris-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-κN)meth-yl]amine}-zinc 5-(dimethyl-amino)-naphthalene-1-sulfonate perchlorate 2.5-hydrate.
PubMed: Nasal epithelial lesions in F344 rats following a 90-day inhalation exposure to naphthalene.
PubMed: Screening and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods using QuEChERS-based extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in three pelagic fish species from Atlantic Ocean: inter-specific and inter-season comparisons and assessment of potential public health risks.
PubMed: Assessment of polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation by potentially pathogenic environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from coastal Louisiana, USA.
PubMed: Seafood contamination after the BP Gulf oil spill and risks to vulnerable populations: a critique of the FDA risk assessment.
PubMed: Application of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products.
PubMed: α-Glucosidase inhibitors from the bulb of Eleutherine americana.
PubMed: Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Irish foods: Occurrence and human dietary exposure.
PubMed: Antioxidative caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from Hemerocallis fulva flowers.
PubMed: HPLC determination of fumonisin mycotoxins in maize: a comparative study of naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and o-phthaldialdehyde derivatization reagents for fluorescence and diode array detection.
PubMed: Simplified MPN method for enumeration of soil naphthalene degraders using gaseous substrate.
PubMed: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity effect and antimicrobial activity of Ceratonia siliqua essential oil with preservative effects against Listeria inoculated in minced beef meat.
PubMed: Cumulative risk assessment of chemical exposures in urban environments.
PubMed: Contamination of cheese by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in traditional smoking. Influence of the position in the smokehouse on the contamination level of smoked cheese.
PubMed: Influence of processing in the prevalence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Portuguese traditional meat product.
PubMed: p53 codon 271 CGT to CAT mutant fraction does not increase in nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelia of rats exposed to inhaled naphthalene.
PubMed: Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in colonial waterbird eggs from Lake Athabasca and the Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada.
PubMed: Selective glucocorticoid receptor (type II) antagonists prevent weight gain caused by olanzapine in rats.
PubMed: Persistent organic pollutants in food items collected in Hong Kong.
PubMed: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in shrimp.
PubMed: Review of 'emerging' organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids.
PubMed: Substrate specificity and structural characteristics of the novel Rieske nonheme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases NidAB and NidA3B3 from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1.
PubMed: Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobic zeolite for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated ground water.
PubMed: PAHs in some brands of tea.
PubMed: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food samples by automated on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.
PubMed: Effect of flavonoids on 2'-deoxyguanosine and DNA oxidation caused by singlet molecular oxygen.
PubMed: Common aroma-active components of propolis from 23 regions of China.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in foods and estimated PAH intake by the population of Catalonia, Spain: Temporal trend.
PubMed: Separation of dipeptides with two chiral centers using 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CD-modified MEKC.
PubMed: Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L.) seedlings: passive or active uptake?
PubMed: Benzo[a]pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in vegetable oils and fats do not reflect the occurrence of the eight genotoxic PAHs.
PubMed: 8-Quinolyl 5-(dimethyl-amino)-naphthalene-1-sulfonate.
PubMed: [Effect of naphthalene and its derivatives on Candida pseudotropicalis 44 PK sensitivity to trichothecene mycotoxins].
PubMed: Polychlorinated naphthalenes in polar environments--a review.
PubMed: Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish: evaluation of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method.
PubMed: Dynamic changes in bacterial community structure and in naphthalene dioxygenase expression in vermicompost-amended PAH-contaminated soils.
PubMed: Biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) measured by fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) in several marine fish species from the NW Mediterranean.
PubMed: Bioremediation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by native soil microbiota and bioaugmentation with isolated microbial consortia.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of indigo dye by newly isolated naphthalene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 and its application in dyeing cotton fabric.
PubMed: Intake and potential health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with seafood consumption in Korea from 2005 to 2007.
PubMed: [Fluorescence spectra of ponceau-4R].
PubMed: Surfactant effects on the affinity of plant cuticles with organic pollutants.
PubMed: In vitro mutagenicity of Acid Violet 7 and its degradation products by Pseudomonas putida mt-2: Correlation with chemical structures.
PubMed: Lethal and sublethal effects of naphthalene and 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene on naupliar and adult stages of the marine cyclopoid copepod Oithona davisae.
PubMed: 5-(Dimethyl-ammonio)naphthalene-1-sulfonate dihydrate.
PubMed: Relating sensory descriptors to volatile components in flavor of specialty rice types.
PubMed: Polymers imprinted with PAH mixtures--comparing fluorescence and QCM sensors.
PubMed: Automatic chemiluminescence-based determination of carbaryl in various types of matrices.
PubMed: Predicting bioavailability of PAHs in soils to wheat roots with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membranes and comparison with chemical extraction.
PubMed: Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.
PubMed: Evolution of the dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Catalonia, Spain.
PubMed: Solid-phase microextraction/gas-chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of p-dichlorobenzene and naphthalene in honey.
PubMed: Selective three-phase liquid phase microextraction of acidic compounds from foodstuff simulants.
PubMed: Occurrence and biomagnification of polychlorinated naphthalenes and non- and mono-ortho PCBs in Lake Ontario sediment and biota.
PubMed: Effect of food characteristics, storage conditions, and electron beam irradiation on active agent release from polyamide-coated LDPE films.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible grain: a pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop.
PubMed: Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible fish from Gomti river, India.
PubMed: Resistant desorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants in typical chinese soils: implications for long-term fate and soil quality standards.
PubMed: Controlled exposure chamber study of uptake and clearance of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by wheat grain.
PubMed: Effects of naphthalene on gene transcription in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).
PubMed: Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions from commercial restaurants in Hong Kong.
PubMed: Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.
PubMed: Mycotoxins in corn-based food products consumed in Brazil: an exposure assessment for fumonisins.
PubMed: Ranking cancer risks of organic hazardous air pollutants in the United States.
PubMed: Occurrence of naphthalene in honey consumed in Turkey as determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Migration of organic compounds from a multilayer plastic-paper material intended for food packaging.
PubMed: Determination of exposed sulfhydryl groups in heated beta-lactoglobulin A using IAEDANS and mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Quantum chemical computations and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies of a nonlinear food dye E110.
PubMed: Thermal denaturation and aggregation properties of Atlantic salmon myofibrils and myosin from white and red muscles.
PubMed: Occurrence of fumonisins B1 and B2 in Portuguese maize and maize-based foods intended for human consumption.
PubMed: Specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) beans.
PubMed: Computational models for structure-hydrophobicity relationships of 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrophenyl azo hydroxynaphthalenes.
PubMed: Natural occurrence of Fusarium species, fumonisin production by toxigenic strains, and concentrations of fumonisins B1, and B2 in conventional and organic maize grown in Spain.
PubMed: Methylglyoxal in food and living organisms.
PubMed: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through consumption of edible marine species in Catalonia, Spain.
PubMed: Estrogenic activities of chemicals related to food contact plastics and rubbers tested by the yeast two-hybrid assay.
PubMed: Contamination of honey by chemicals applied to protect honeybee combs from wax-moth (Galleria mellonela L.).
PubMed: A spectroscopic study of the interaction of isoflavones with human serum albumin.
PubMed: Detection of initiating as well as promoting activity of chemicals by a novel cell transformation assay using v-Ha-ras-transfected BALB/c 3T3 cells (Bhas 42 cells).
PubMed: Lasofoxifene (Pfizer).
PubMed: HPLC-MS degradation study of E10 Sunset Yellow FCF in a commercial beverage.
PubMed: Sorption-desorption behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in upstream and downstream river sediments.
PubMed: Migration of contaminants by gas phase transfer from carton board and corrugated board box secondary packaging into foods.
PubMed: Application of functional group modified substrate in room temperature phosphorescence, II--heavy atom-chelated filter paper for selective determination of alpha-naphthalene acetic acid.
PubMed: Determination of antihypertensive small peptides, Val-Tyr and Ile-Val-Tyr, by fluorometric high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a double heart-cut column-switching technique.
PubMed: Determination of 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and naphthalene residues in honey by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry using purge and trap thermal desorption extraction.
PubMed: Comparative study on the use of ortho-phthalaldehyde, naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and anthracene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde reagents for alpha-amino acids followed by the enantiomer separation of the formed isoindolin-1-one derivatives using quinine-type chiral stationary phases.
PubMed: Analysis of volatile compounds in some typical Brazilian fruits and juices by SPME-GC method.
PubMed: Interfacial and molecular properties of high-pressure-treated beta-lactoglobulin B.
PubMed: Cloud point extraction coupled with microwave or ultrasonic assisted back extraction as a preconcentration step prior to gas chromatography.
PubMed: A risk assessment approach to contaminants in Port Curtis, Queensland, Australia.
PubMed: Production and characterization of a new bioemulsifier from Pseudomonas putida ML2.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke used to smoke cheese produced by the combustion of rock rose (Cistus monspeliensis) and tree heather (Erica arborea) wood.
PubMed: Column preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of ziram and zineb in commercial samples and foodstuffs using (1,2'-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN)-naphthalene as adsorbate.
PubMed: Development of extraction procedures for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in municipal sewage sludge.
PubMed: Polychlorinated naphthalenes in animal aquatic species and human exposure through the diet: a review.
PubMed: Metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons by the filamentous fungus Cyclothyrium sp.
PubMed: Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography to the analysis of uncharged pesticides of environmental impact.
PubMed: Accumulation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in domestic animal related samples.
PubMed: FT-Raman spectroscopy, fluorescent probe, and solvent accessibility study of egg and milk proteins.
PubMed: Efficient clonal propagation method for Decalepis hamiltonii, an endangered shrub, under the influence of phloroglucinol.
PubMed: Emission of volatile organic compounds during composting of municipal solid wastes.
PubMed: Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil in South Africa by landfarming.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic determination of fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 in corn silage.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in foods: human exposure through the diet in Catalonia, Spain.
PubMed: Contaminants and levels of occurrence in washed and shredded poly(ethylene terephthalate) from curbside collection. Part 1: Extraction conditions.
PubMed: Naphthalene--an environmental and occupational toxicant.
PubMed: Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China.
PubMed: Design and synthesis of the potent, orally available, brain-penetrable arylpyrazole class of neuropeptide Y5 receptor antagonists.
PubMed: Polychlorinated naphthalene levels, distribution, and biomagnification in a benthic food chain in the Baltic Sea.
PubMed: Naphthalene toxicity and antioxidant nutrients.
PubMed: Toxic contaminants and their biological effects in coastal waters of Xiamen, China. I. Organic pollutants in mussel and fish tissues.
PubMed: Hydrophobic probe binding of beta-lactoglobulin in the native and molten globule state induced by high pressure as affected by pH, KIO(3) and N-ethylmaleimide.
PubMed: Detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in milk collected near potential contamination sources.
PubMed: Effect of urea at lower concentration on the structure of papain--formation of a stable molten globule and its characterization.
PubMed: Enhanced in vivo IgE production and T cell polarization toward the type 2 phenotype in association with indoor exposure to VOC: results of the LARS study.
PubMed: [Wood creosote: a historical study and its preparation in combination with herbal drugs].
PubMed: Isolation and characterization of stelladerol, a new antioxidant naphthalene glycoside, and other antioxidant glycosides from edible daylily (hemerocallis) flowers.
PubMed: High-rate 3-methylcatechol production in Pseudomonas putida strains by means of a novel expression system.
PubMed: Effects of occupation, lifestyle and genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 2-naphthol concentrations.
PubMed: Degradation of phenanthrene and anthracene by cell suspensions of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1.
PubMed: The effect of different oil spill remediation techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon elimination in Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata).
PubMed: Influence of dispersants on the bioavailability and trophic transfer of petroleum hydrocarbons to larval topsmelt (Atherinops affinis).
PubMed: Production, characterization, and application of anti-gossypol polyclonal antibodies.
PubMed: Organochlorine, PCB, PAH, and metal concentrations in eggs of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from northwest Florida, USA.
PubMed: Spectrophotometric determination of ferbam [iron(III) dimethyl dithiocarbamate] in commercial sample and wheat grains after extraction of its bathophenanthroline tetraphenylborate complex into molten naphthalene.
PubMed: Physiological and genetic comparison of two aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading Sphingomonas strains.
PubMed: Namibian chewing stick, Diospyros lycioides, contains antibacterial compounds against oral pathogens.
PubMed: Comparison of protein surface hydrophobicity measured at various pH values using three different fluorescent probes.
PubMed: Spectrofluorometric characterization of beta-lactoglobulin B covalently labeled with 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonate.
PubMed: Conformational state of disulfide-reduced ovalbumin at acidic pH.
PubMed: Determination of angiotensin metabolites in human plasma by fluorimetric high-performance liquid chromatography using a heart-cut column-switching technique.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures of children in low-income families.
PubMed: Chemical and Genetic Evaluation of Somaclonal Variants of Egyptian Garlic (Allium sativum L.).
PubMed: Ferulic acid dehydrodimers from wheat bran: isolation, purification and antioxidant properties of 8-O-4-diferulic acid.
PubMed: A study for the proper application of urinary naphthols, new biomarkers for airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase purified from electric eel.
PubMed: Evidence for the role of 2-hydroxychromene-2-carboxylate isomerase in the degradation of anthracene by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1.
PubMed: Highly ordered molten globule-like state of ovalbumin at acidic pH: native-like fragmentation by protease and selective modification of Cys367 with dithiodipyridine.
PubMed: Rapid method to separate the domains of soybean lipoxygenase-1: identification of the interdomain interactions.
PubMed: Direct mutagenicity of the polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing fraction of smoked and charcoal-broiled foods treated with nitrite in acid solution.
PubMed: Differences in the calcium-mediated regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication between a cell line consisting of initiated cells and a carcinoma-derived cell line.
PubMed: Bacterial Degradation of Low Concentrations of Phenanthrene and Inhibition by Naphthalene
PubMed: Reclassification of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-metabolizing bacterium, Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae by fatty acid analysis, protein pattern analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing.
PubMed: Further search for small molecular inactivants capable of eliciting respiratory mucosal immunogenicity by modifying Sendai virus core RNA.
PubMed: Hydroxypropyl cyclodextrins: potential synergism with carcinogens.
PubMed: Adult specific expression and induction of cytochrome P450lpr in house flies.
PubMed: Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites.
PubMed: Naphthalene contamination of sterilized milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene bottles. Part 2. Effect of naphthalene vapour in air.
PubMed: Effect of cellular physiology on PCR amplification efficiency.
PubMed: Quantitation and stability of fumonisins B1 and B2 in milk.
PubMed: Morphological and physicochemical changes in the myosin molecules induced by hydrostatic pressure.
PubMed: Water-soluble carbodiimide for the fluorescent measurement of the carboxyl group produced by enzyme reactions.
PubMed: Naphthalene contamination of sterilized milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene bottles. Part 1.
PubMed: Effects of cadmium, naphthalene, and DDVP on gut carbohydrases activity in bream (Abramis brama L.) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters).
PubMed: Characterization and primary specificity of an extracellular metalloproteinase from Serratia marcescens.
PubMed: Effect of a novel CCKA receptor antagonist (2-NAP) on the reduction in food intake produced by CCK in pigs.
PubMed: Comparison of two clean-up methodologies for the gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of low nanogram/gram levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in seafood.
PubMed: Investigations on adsorption potentiometry-part VIII. Determination of ultratrace copper in food by derivative adsorption chronopotentiometry.
PubMed: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of spectinomycin in swine, calf and chicken plasma.
PubMed: Metabolism of tetralin (1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in Corynebacterium sp. strain C125.
PubMed: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples of meat smokehouses.
PubMed: Evidence for an NIH shift in oxidation of naphthalene by the marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain JCM.
PubMed: Mutagenic activity of arylnitrenium ions from arylazides--induction of sister chromatid exchange in mammalian (V79 Chinese hamster) cells.
PubMed: The reduction of azo dyes by the intestinal microflora.
PubMed: Detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi.
PubMed: Studies on the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids by Datura stramonium L. transformed root cultures : 3. The relationship between morphological integrity and alkaloid biosynthesis.
PubMed: Dipolar solvent relaxation on a nanosecond time scale in ether phospholipid membranes as determined by multifrequency phase and modulation fluorometry.
PubMed: Identification of vitamin E-dependent water soluble fluorescent compounds in mouse tissues.
PubMed: Identification of metabolites from degradation of naphthalene by a Mycobacterium sp.
PubMed: Binding of ions and hydrophobic probes to alpha-lactalbumin and kappa-casein as determined by analytical affinity chromatography.
PubMed: The binding of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) to fish myosin and the effect of salts on the thermal transitions of fish myosin-ANS complex.
PubMed: Effect of oxidative sulfitolysis of disulfide bonds of bovine serum albumin on its structural properties: a physiochemical study.
PubMed: Microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: isolation and characterization of a pyrene-degrading bacterium.
PubMed: Carcinogenicity of quinoline, 4- and 8-methylquinoline and benzoquinolines in newborn mice and rats.
PubMed: Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a bacterium isolated from sediment below an oil field.
PubMed: Prostaglandin H synthase-dependent mutagenic activation of heterocyclic aromatic amines of the IQ-type.
PubMed: Spectrophotometric determination of copper in environmental samples by solid-liquid extraction of its 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone monoximate complex into molten naphthalene.
PubMed: Naphthalene distribution in tissues of laying pullets, swine, and dairy cattle.
PubMed: Testing of 24 food, drug, cosmetic, and fabric dyes in the in vitro and the in vivo/in vitro rat hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair assays.
PubMed: Capillary gas chromatographic determination of naphthalene in bran and wheat germ products.
PubMed: A method for the quantitative determination of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 1-naphthalenylacetylaspartic acid, and beta-D-glucose 1-(1-naphthalene)acetate in grapes.
PubMed: Adrenocortical function and hepatic naphthalene metabolism in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) consuming petroleum distillates.
PubMed: Accumulation of 14C-Naphthalene in the tissues of redhead ducks fed oil-contaminated crayfish.
PubMed: Effects of petroleum on adrenocortical activity and on hepatic naphthalene-metabolizing activity in mallard ducks.
PubMed: Uptake and depuration of petroleum hydrocarbons by crayfish.
PubMed: Gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry for the identification of organic sulfur compounds in shellfish and fish.
PubMed: A fluorescence staining method for the examination of microorganisms on natural substrates.
PubMed: [Determination of microquantities of naphthalene in environmental objects].
PubMed: Identification and toxicological evaluation of chlorinated dibenzofuran and chlorinated naphthalene in two commercial polychlorinated biphenyls.
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Soluble in:
 water, 142.1 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 31 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
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