isopropyl palmitate
isopropyl hexadecanoate
Used as a food additive [EAFUS]
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve as our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Our substantial portfolio of personal care ingredients now include a wide array of luxury and exotic components to compliment the key products we have always offered. We have expanded our offerings to the nutraceutical, industrial, and resin markets with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. We continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions. Please contact us to learn how we can help you reach your goals.
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  • ECSA Chemicals
    • ECSA Chemicals
      International trading and distribution
      ECSA Group offers its customers in these business segments a complete 'one-stop shopping' solution.
      A hundred years on from its establishment, the Emanuele Centonze Holding SA has developed a solid presence in Switzerland and in Europe. The Group currently includes: ECSA Chemicals AG/ECSA Italia SRL SocietÓ con Unico Socio – ECSA Maintenance AG – ECSA Energy SA – Porta Ticino Easy Stop SA. The Group operates in the distribution of chemical and petroleum products, in the international trading of commodities, and in the distribution of maintenance systems. With 285 employees, a consolidated turnover of 335 million Swiss Francs in 2015, and more than 15,000 active customers, the Group ranks among the top 500 companies in Switzerland. ECSA operates in Switzerland and the EU, and in particular has consolidated its geographical position on the main axis linking northern and southern Europe, thus creating a competitive and privileged logistical hub.
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      isoPropyl Palmitate
  • Jiangyin Healthway
    • Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co.
      Independent Ingredients Supplier
      We provide custom synthesis and contract manufacturing from milligrams to metric tonnes.
      Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co., Ltd is a professional company, main engaged in manufacturing and exporting aroma chemicals ,food additives , cosmetic ingredient ,pharmaceutical intermediates & other fine chemicals; especially on aroma chemicals , as the major manufacturer of heterocyclic and sulphur aroma compounds , we are the leading independent ingredients supplier to the flavour and fragrance industries in China, can offer hundreds of different high quality aroma chemicals.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 86-510-86023169
      Fax: 86-510-86023170
      Natural Food Colour
      New functional food ingredients
      HLC-1903 Isopropyl Palmitate
  • Lluch Essence
    • Lluch Essence S.L.
      A family company dedicated to sales and distribution
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality.
      Flexibility, availability, price and quality make LLUCH ESSENCE S.L. one of Europe’s references when it comes to essential oils and aroma chemicals, and it is now well known all around the world.
      Email: Info
      Voice: 34 93 379 38 49
      Fax: 34 93 370 65 04
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
  • PerfumersWorld
    • PerfumersWorld Ltd.
      feeeel... the smell!
      The one-stop resource for the creative perfumer.
      No minimum orders. Aroma chemicals, essential oils, isolates, pheremones, absolutes, resinoids, FleuressenceTM key bases, PWx FactorTM, solubilizers, kits, creation systems, workshops, training, distance learning, The PerfumersWorld Perfumer's Studio, The Perfumer’s Formulation Bulletin, perfumery software, bespoke creation, analysis, consultancy, project counselling, trouble-shooting, unperfumed product bases, bottles, smelling strips, scales, distillation, equipment and inspiration!
      Email: Enquiries
      Email: Sales
      Voice: +66(0)2-99-800-80
      Fax: +66(0)2-99-800-80
      PerfumersWorld Skype Skype
      Software: Perfumer's Workbook
      0ZZ00240 IPP (iso-Propyl Palmitate)
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 800-244-1173
      US Fax: 800-368-4661
      Certified Food Grade Products
      W515604 Isopropyl palmitate, ≥90%
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Email: Global Business
      Voice: +81-3-5640-8878
      Fax: +81-3-5640-8902
      US Voice: 800-423-8616
      US Fax: 888-520-1075
      Tokyo Tel:03-5640-8851
      Tokyo Fax:03-5640-8865
      P0005 isoPropyl Palmitate >97.0%(GC)
  • Vigon International
    • Vigon International, Inc.
      Passion for Simplicity
      Manufacturer and supplier of high quality flavor and fragrance ingredients.
      The growth and success of Vigon is due in large part to a unique corporate concept that Vigon has developed and established within the industry: Creative Partnerships. This partnership concept has been and continues to be the foundation and guiding principle for all of Vigon's activities.
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 570-476-6300
      US Fax: 570-476-1110
      Products List: View
      500951 Deltyl Prime NF (Isopropyl Palmitate)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
propan-2-yl hexadecanoate (Click)
CAS Number: 142-91-6Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 205-571-1
Nikkaji Web: J11.002G
Beilstein Number: 1786567
MDL: MFCD00008993
CoE Number: 10732
XlogP3-AA: 8.20 (est)
Molecular Weight: 298.51026000
Formula: C19 H38 O2
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: solvents/deluents for flavor and/or fragrance agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
Flavis Number: 09.606 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 09.606  isopropyl hexadecanoate
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless clear oily liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.85200 to 0.85800 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.089 to  7.139
Refractive Index: 1.43300 to 1.43900 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 13.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 342.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.000084 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: > 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 8.272 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 0.001354 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Similar Items: note
isoamyl palmitate
butyl palmitate
isobutyl palmitate
carvyl palmitate
ethyl palmitate
3-hexen-1-yl palmitate
methyl palmitate
pentyl palmitate
propyl palmitate
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
Substantivity: 208 Hour(s)
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
bland oily
Luebke, William tgsc, (1987)
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
binding agents
perfuming agents
skin conditioning
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
isoPropyl Palmitate
Odor: characteristic
Use: Topical Medicinal Preparations, Emollient, Moisturizer, Thickening Agent, Solvent, Binder, Diluent.
Allan Chemical
isoPropyl Palmitate
Alzo International
Dermol IPP
Alzo International
Wickenol 111
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
isoPropyl Palmitate
Charkit Chemical
Chemical-navi - Nikkol
Odor: characteristic
Use: Purity: 98% min; low viscosity; good penetration and spreading properties; non-oily feel.
Chemical-navi - Nikkol
Odor: characteristic
Use: Low viscosity; good penetration and spreading properties; non-oily feel.
Odor: bland
Use: Non greasy, non- tacky emollient which spreads well and is rapidly absorbed . Excellent moisturiser, conditioner, plasticiser and super fatting agent. Skin creams, lotions and colour cosmetics.
Crodamol™ IPP
Odor: bland
Use: Branched chain, low viscosity, non-occlusive emollient with good spreading properties. Excellent dispersing medium. Suitable for all cosmetic applications.
ECSA Chemicals
isoPropyl Palmitate
Company Profile
H. Erhard Wagner
isoPropylpalmitate (Isopropyl Palmitate Ph. Eur. & USP/NF)
Odor: characteristic
Use: HallStar IPP-NF is an economical liquid ester made from the reaction of vegetal Palmitic Acid and petrochemical Isopropyl Alcohol. It conforms to the requirements of the National Formulary monograph for Isopropyl Palmitate. HallStar IPP-NF is a light non-occlusive emollient with a soft, dry, non-oily feel. It is used as pigment binder, diluent, and solubilizing agent for mineral oil, silicones, lanolin, and fragrances in many personal care product applications. HallStar IPP-NF is best stored in a cool dry place in the original sealed containers. Avoid prolonged storage above 32°C (90°F). Maintain above 15°C (59°F) to preclude freezing.
Jiangyin Healthway
Isopropyl Palmitate
New functional food ingredients
Kraft Chemical
isoPropyl Palmitate
Lipo Chemicals
Liponate® IPP
Odor: characteristic
Use: Liponate® IPP is a fast absorbing emollient and skin penetrant.
Lluch Essence
isoPropyl Palmitate
Oleo Solutions
Edenor IEP 19
Odor: characteristic
Use: Flavours and Fragrances, Cosmetics and Personal Care, Cleaning and Detergents, Adhesives and Lubricants, Industrial, Inks and Coatings, Pharmaceutical and Veterinary
Penta International
IPP (iso-Propyl Palmitate)
Isopropyl palmitate, ≥90%
Certified Food Grade Products
SysKem Chemie
isoPropyl Palmitate
For experimental / research use only.
isoPropyl Palmitate >97.0%(GC)
Vigon International
Deltyl Prime NF (Isopropyl Palmitate)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] > 40000 mg/kg
(FDA, 1976a)

oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] > 8000 mg/kg
(Kolmar Research Ctr, 1972)

oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] > 64000 mg/kg
(Bio-Toxicology Laboratories, 1982)

oral-rat LD50  > 5000 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1978c)

oral-rat LD50  > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 20, Pg. 727, 1982.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  100 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD277-689

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 20, Pg. 727, 1982.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: solvents/deluents for flavor and/or fragrance agents
Recommendation for isopropyl palmitate usage levels up to:
  25.0000 % in the fragrance concentrate.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.012 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 3900 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 7.0000035.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 5.0000025.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 10.0000050.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 7.0000035.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 10.0000050.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 10.0000050.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 2.0000010.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 2.0000010.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 5.0000025.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 10.0000050.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 5.0000025.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 10.0000050.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 20.00000100.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 5.0000025.00000
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Flavouring Group Evaluation 7 (FGE.07): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 63 (FGE.63): Consideration of aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters evaluated by JECFA (59th meeting) structurally related to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids evaluated by EFSA in FGE.07 (2005) (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 1 (FGE.07Rev1): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000) - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 2 (FGE.07Rev2) : Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 3 (FGE.07Rev3): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 4 (FGE.07Rev4): Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 7, Revision 5 (FGE.07Rev5): saturated and unsaturated aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and esters of secondary alcohols and saturated linear or branched-chain carboxylic acids from chemical group 5
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 142-91-6
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 8907
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: nwg
 propan-2-yl hexadecanoate
Chemidplus: 0000142916
RTECS: RT4900000 for cas# 142-91-6
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 propan-2-yl hexadecanoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 142-91-6
Pubchem (cid): 8907
Pubchem (sid): 134973583
Flavornet: 142-91-6
Pherobase: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
KEGG (GenomeNet): D04632
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB35474
FooDB: FDB014159
Export Tariff Code: 2915.70.0150
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents 
 binding agents 
 skin conditioning 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 acacia concinna
Search Trop  Picture
Search Trop  Picture
 citrus fruits
Search  PMC Picture
 macadamia nut - up to 0.04 mg/kg
Search Trop  Picture
 psidium salutare
Search Trop  Picture
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 crodamol IPP
 deltyl prime NF
 dermol IPP
 edenor IEP 19
 emerest 2316
 hallstar IPP
 hallstar IPP-NF
 hexadecanoic acid 1-methyl ethyl ester
 hexadecanoic acid 1-methylethyl ester
 hexadecanoic acid isopropyl ester
 hexadecanoic acid, 1-methylethyl ester
 liponate IPP
1-methyl ethyl hexadecanoate
1-methylethyl hexadecanoate
 nikkol IPP
 nikkol IPP-EX
 palmitato de isopropila
 palmitic acid isopropyl ester
 propan-2-yl hexadecanoate
isopropyl hexadecanoate
isopropyl N-hexadecanoate
isopropyl palmitate NF
 sinnoester PIT
 unimate IPP
 wickenol 111
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PubMed: Anti-inflammatory effects of a novel ricinoleic acid poloxamer gel system for transdermal delivery.
PubMed: Evaluation of nicotinamide microemulsion on the skin penetration enhancement.
PubMed: Preparation and in vitro evaluation of a pluronic lecithin organogel containing ricinoleic acid for transdermal delivery.
PubMed: Permeation study through bacterial cellulose membrane.
PubMed: FA-loaded lipid drug delivery systems: preparation, characterization and biological studies.
PubMed: Propolis organogel as a novel topical delivery system for treating wounds.
PubMed: Mechanistic investigation and reversible effect of 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl heptanoate on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of indomethacin.
PubMed: Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Matricaria recutita flower essential oil against medically important dermatophytes and soil-borne pathogens.
PubMed: Analysis of isopropyl para-toluenesulphonate in palm-based esters by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and confirmed with mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Effect of the stability of hydrogen-bonded ion pairs with organic amines on transdermal penetration of teriflunomide.
PubMed: Polyglycerol fatty acid ester surfactant-based microemulsions for targeted delivery of ceramide AP into the stratum corneum: formulation, characterisation, in vitro release and penetration investigation.
PubMed: Effect of (E)-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl octadec-9-enoate on transdermal delivery of Aconitum alkaloids.
PubMed: Topical delivery of flurbiprofen from pluronic lecithin organogel.
PubMed: Foreign body reaction to bone wax an unusual cause of persistent serous discharge from iliac crest graft donor site and the possible means to avoid such complication - a case report.
PubMed: Pluronic lecithin organogel as a topical drug delivery system.
PubMed: Aggregation pheromone compounds of the black larder beetle Dermestes haemorrhoidalis Kuster (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).
PubMed: Microemulsions as a surrogate carrier for dermal drug delivery.
PubMed: Aerosol OT microemulsions as carriers for transdermal delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic local anesthetics.
PubMed: The role of capillary force promoters in dry coating procedures--evaluation of acetylated monoglyceride, isopropyl myristate and palmitate.
PubMed: Preparation and evaluation of diltiazem hydrochloride diffusion-controlled transdermal delivery system.
PubMed: Comedogenicity in rabbit: some cosmetic ingredients/vehicles.
PubMed: [Screening of Panax notoginsenoside water in oil microemulsion formulations and their evaluation in vitro and in vivo].
PubMed: Enhancement of the skin permeation of clindamycin phosphate by Aerosol OT/1-butanol microemulsions.
PubMed: Assessment of oil polarity: comparison of evaluation methods.
PubMed: Transdermal delivery of hydrophobic and hydrophilic local anesthetics from o/w and w/o Brij 97-based microemulsions.
PubMed: Transdermal permeability of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
PubMed: Effect of penetration enhancers on skin permeation of trazodone hydrochloride from matrix type transdermal formulation through mouse and human cadaver epidermis.
PubMed: Lecithin organogels used as bioactive compounds carriers. A microdomain properties investigation.
PubMed: Characterisation of microstructures formed in isopropyl palmitate/water/Aerosol OT:1-butanol (2:1) system.
PubMed: Effects of isopropyl palmitate on the skin permeation of drugs.
PubMed: Microemulsions as transdermal drug delivery vehicles.
PubMed: Investigation of fatty acid esters to replace isopropyl myristate in the sterility test for ophthalmic ointments.
PubMed: The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans.
PubMed: Characterization of microemulsion structures in the pseudoternary phase diagram of isopropyl palmitate/water/Brij 97:1-butanol.
PubMed: [Analysis of constituents of essential oil from the skin of water caltrop].
PubMed: Effect of oil phase lipophilicity on in vitro drug release from o/w microemulsions with low surfactant content.
PubMed: The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of cumulative irritation in humans.
PubMed: Phase behavior of the microemulsions and the stability of the chloramphenicol in the microemulsion-based ocular drug delivery system.
PubMed: Biocompatible lecithin organogels: structure and phase equilibria.
PubMed: New microemulsion vehicle facilitates percutaneous penetration in vitro and cutaneous drug bioavailability in vivo.
PubMed: Microemulsions for dermal drug delivery studied by dynamic light scattering: effect of interparticle interactions in oil-in-water microemulsions.
PubMed: Effect of hydrophobic permeation enhancers on the release and skin permeation kinetics from matrix type transdermal drug delivery system of ketotifen fumarate.
PubMed: A repeat-batch membrane bioreactor with a phase inversion for the desaturation of isopropyl palmitate by a mutant Rhodococcus strain.
PubMed: Stable reversed vesicles in oil: characterization studies and encapsulation of model compounds.
PubMed: Direct micellar systems as a tool to improve the efficiency of aromatic substrate conversion for fine chemicals production.
PubMed: Production of isopropyl cis-6-hexadecenoate by regiospecific desaturation of isopropyl palmitate by a double mutant of a Rhodococcus strain.
PubMed: Studies on the kinetics of Isopropyl Palmitate synthesis in packed bed bioreactor using immobilized lipase.
PubMed: Skin healing preparations: compared in vitro diffusion of the active ingredients.
PubMed: Human skin irritation studies of a lecithin microemulsion gel and of lecithin liposomes.
PubMed: The adjuvancy of silicones: dependency on compartmentalization.
PubMed: [The effect of ibuprofen on the composition of tissue lipids in an experiment].
PubMed: Lecithin organogel as matrix for transdermal transport of drugs.
PubMed: Osseous regeneration in the presence of four common hemostatic agents.
PubMed: Solubilization and activity of yeast cells in water-in-oil microemulsion.
PubMed: Iatrogenic fenestration of a semicircular canal: a method of closure.
PubMed: Solubilization of bacterial cells in organic solvents via reverse micelles.
PubMed: Histological changes in rabbits after application of medicaments and cosmetic bases (III).
PubMed: Comedogenicity of current therapeutic products, cosmetics, and ingredients in the rabbit ear.
PubMed: Selection of the acceptor medium in in vitro measurements of drug release from dermatological ointments.
PubMed: Contact allergy to benzyl alcohol and isopropyl palmitate, ingredients of topical corticosteroid.
PubMed: Eye and skin irritation tests on the rabbit of several fatty acid esters.
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