EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

phenol
hydroxybenzene

Supplier Sponsors

Name:phenol
CAS Number: 108-95-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-632-7
FDA UNII:339NCG44TV
Nikkaji Web:J2.873H
Beilstein Number:969616
MDL:MFCD00002143
CoE Number:11811
XlogP3:1.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:94.11302000
Formula:C6 H6 O
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:food contact resinous and polymeric coatings
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:690 phenol
FLAVIS Number:04.041 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:04.041 phenol
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:phenol
FEMA Number:3223 phenol
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):108-95-2 ; PHENOL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.380 Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.390 Zinc-silicon dioxide matrix coatings.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.170 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and fatty foods.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1210 Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces
Sec. 177.1580 Polycarbonate resins.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2600 Rubber articles intended for repeated use.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystals (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.07100 @ 25.00 °C.
Melting Point: 38.00 to 41.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 181.00 to 182.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 104.00 to 105.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.614000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 175.00 °F. TCC ( 79.44 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.460
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 2.616e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: phenolic
Odor Strength:high ,
recommend smelling in a 0.01 % solution or less
phenolic plastic rubbery
Odor Description:at 0.01 % in dipropylene glycol. phenolic plastic rubber
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: not used anymore
 
Suppliers:
Advanced Biotech
PHENOL NATURAL
American International Chemical, LLC.
Phenol, Loose Crystals
Aurochemicals
PHENOL, Natural
Charkit Chemical
PHENOL LOOSE CRYSTALS, ACS
Charkit Chemical
PHENOL LOOSE CRYSTALS
Charkit Chemical
PHENOL, 85% LIQUIFIED
Indukern F&F
PHENOL NATURAL
Odor: POWERFUL, PHENOLIC, MEDICINAL
Lluch Essence
PHENOL CRYST.
M&U International
NAT.PHENOL, Kosher
Myrazine
Phenol
Odor: phenolic plastic rubber (in dipropylene alcohol)
Novapex
Phenol 10% diluted water
Novapex
Phenol
Penta International
PHENOL FUSED CRYSTAL (CONGEALED LIQUID)
Penta International
PHENOL LIQUID 90% (WITH STABILIZER)
Penta International
PHENOL LIQUID 90% USP (With Stabilizer)
Penta International
PHENOL LOOSE CRYSTAL (FREE FLOWING CRYSTALS)
Penta International
PHENOL NATURAL
Penta International
PHENOL USP LOOSE CRYSTALS (Free Flowing Crystals)
Shiva Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals
Phenol
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, ≥99%
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenol, natural, 97%, FG
Sunaux International
nat.Phenol
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Phenol >99.5%(GC)
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
PHENOL LIQUIFIED, USP 90%
Wedor Corporation
PHENOL
Xi'an Herbphar
Phenol
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
T - Toxic.
R 20/21/22 - Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 23/24/25 - Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 34 - Causes burns.
R 48 - Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
R 68 - Possible risk of irreversible effects.
S 01/02 - Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 28 - After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of water.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 317 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Vol. 32, Pg. 592, 1935.

oral-mouse LD50 270 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 38(8), Pg. 6, 1973.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 127 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(6), Pg. 103, 1976.

oral-cat LDLo 80 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1319, 1935.

oral-dog LDLo 500 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1319, 1935.

parenteral-frog LDLo 290 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 166, Pg. 437, 1932.

intraperitoneal-guinea pig LDLo 300 mg/kg
"Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 228, 1955.

oral-human LDLo 140 mg/kg
SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): SWEATING: OTHER BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS"
"Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968Vol. -, Pg. 329, 1968.

oral-human LDLo 14000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE WEAKNESS LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 463, 1969.

oral-mammal (species unspecified) LD50 500 mg/kg
Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. Vol. 32(10), Pg. 25, 1988.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 180 mg/kg
Pharmacologist. Vol. 10, Pg. 172, 1968.

intravenous-mouse LD50 112 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. Vol. 12, Pg. 212, 1939.

intraperitoneal-rabbit LDLo 620 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo 180 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.

oral-rabbit LDLo 420 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 630 mg/kg
Union Carbide Data Sheet. Vol. 1/6/1966

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 344 mg/kg
Industrial Health. Vol. 5, Pg. 143, 1967.

skin-rat LD50 669 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: HEMATURIA SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): CUTANEOUS SENSITIZATION (EXPERIMENTAL): AFTER TOPICAL EXPOSURE BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 27, Pg. 155, 1970.

subcutaneous-rat LD50 460 mg/kg
Toho Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of Medical Society of Toho University. Vol. 10, Pg. 1, 1963.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 620 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 80, Pg. 233, 1944.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-mouse LC50 177 mg/m3
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(6), Pg. 103, 1976.

inhalation-rat LC50 316 mg/m3
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(6), Pg. 103, 1976.

 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: food contact resinous and polymeric coatings
Recommendation for phenol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 5.20 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 1.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 4
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -0.50000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.50000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -0.50000
fruit ices: -0.50000
gelatins / puddings: -0.50000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -0.50000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 88, (FGE.88)[1] - Consideration of Phenol and Phenol Derivatives - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of phenol derivatives containing ring-alkyl, ring-alkoxy and side-chains with an oxygenated functional group (chemical group 25) when used as flavourings for all species
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the toxicological evaluation of phenol
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ECHA (ESR):View
EPA-Iris:IRIS
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NIOSH Pocket Guide:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):108-95-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :996
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
SCCNFP:opinion
WISER:UN 1671
WGK Germany:2
phenol
Chemidplus:0000108952
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:108-95-2
 
References:
 phenol
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:108-95-2
Pubchem (cid):996
Pubchem (sid):134973339
Flavornet:108-95-2
Pherobase:View
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00146
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00228
FooDB:FDB000893
Export Tariff Code:2907.11.0000
Haz-Map:View
Household Products:Search
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antimicrobial agents
 denaturants
 deodorants
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 asparagus shoot
Search Trop Picture
 bilberry fruit juice
Search Trop Picture
 blueberry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 castoreum
Search PMC Picture
 champaca concrete @ trace%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cinnamon ceylon cinnamon root bark
Search Trop Picture
 cranberry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 guava fruit headspace reunion @ 1.60%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lavender oil spike spain @ 0.017%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 mangrove bark red oil cuba @ trace%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 marjoram plant
Search Trop Picture
 mikan peel oil @ trace%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 morus spp.
Search Trop Picture
 pepper bell pepper fruit
Search Trop Picture
 safflower bud
Search Trop Picture
 savory winter savory plant
Search Trop Picture
 sesame seed
Search Trop Picture
 tamarind fruit
Search Trop Picture
 tamarind fruit oil
Search Trop Picture
 tamarind seed oil
Search Trop Picture
 tarragon plant
Search Trop Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 acid, carbolic
 acide carbolique
 acide phenique
 benzene, hydroxy-
 benzophenol
 carbolic acid
 carbolic oil
 carbolicum acidum
 carbolsaeure
 fenosmolin
 hydroxy-benzene
 hydroxybenzene
 karbolsaeure
 phenic acid
 phenic alcohol
 phenol alcohol
 phenol loose crystal (free flowing crystals)
 phenol natural
 phenosmolin
 phenyl alcohol
 phenyl hydrate
 phenyl hydroxide
 phenylalcohol
 phenylic acid
 

Articles:

PubMed:Isolation, Identification, and Quantification of Lichenysin, a Novel Nonvolatile Compound in Chinese Distilled Spirits.
PubMed:Genetic diversity among mandarins in fruit-quality traits.
PubMed:Astringency is a trigeminal sensation that involves the activation of G protein-coupled signaling by phenolic compounds.
PubMed:Determination of the importance of in-mouth release of volatile phenol glycoconjugates to the flavor of smoke-tainted wines.
PubMed:Characterization of aroma compounds of Chinese famous liquors by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and flash GC electronic-nose.
PubMed:Allyl/propenyl phenol synthases from the creosote bush and engineering production of specialty/commodity chemicals, eugenol/isoeugenol, in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Influence of preheating on antioxidant activity of the water extract from black soybean and color and sensory properties of black soybean decoction.
PubMed:Cytotoxic, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties of the most frequent plant volatiles.
PubMed:Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of commercial liquid smoke products.
PubMed:Analysis of organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu using SPME with different fiber coatings.
PubMed:Enzymatic activity and flavor compound production in fermented silver carp fish paste inoculated with douchi starter culture.
PubMed:Assessment of palatability of two sublingual diluents in allergic patients: a prospective pilot study.
PubMed:Flavored waters: influence of ingredients on antioxidant capacity and terpenoid profile by HS-SPME/GC-MS.
PubMed:Key aroma components of a dry-cured sausage with high fat content (sobrassada).
PubMed:Selectable one-dimensional or two-dimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry with preparative fraction collection for analysis of ultra-trace amounts of odor compounds.
PubMed:Ewe's diet (pasture vs grain-based feed) affects volatile profile of cooked meat from light lamb.
PubMed:Quality characterization of the new virgin olive oil var. Sikitita by phenols and volatile compounds.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.
PubMed:Decoding the key aroma compounds of a Hungarian-type salami by molecular sensory science approaches.
PubMed:Enzymatic removal of off-flavors from apple juice.
PubMed:Variability in the release of free and bound hydroxycinnamic acids from diverse malted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars during wort production.
PubMed:[Identification of volatile organic compounds in the manures of cow, hog and chicken by solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].
PubMed:Phenol and terpene quenching of singlet- and triplet-excited states of riboflavin in relation to light-struck flavor formation in beer.
PubMed:Identification of a stale-beer-like odorant in extracts of naturally aged beer.
PubMed:Kinetics and mechanisms of formation of bromophenols during drinking water chlorination: assessment of taste and odor development.
PubMed:Toxicologic evaluation of licorice extract as a cigarette ingredient.
PubMed:Sensory evaluation of the odors produced during bromophenol formation using a multi-level statistical model.
PubMed:Components detected by means of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the headspace of artisan fresh goat cheese smoked by traditional methods.
PubMed:Real-time monitoring of 4-vinylguaiacol, guaiacol, and phenol during coffee roasting by resonant laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Two-generation reproduction study and immunotoxicity screen in rats dosed with phenol via the drinking water.
PubMed:Chemical composition and potential health effects of prunes: a functional food?
PubMed:Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves.
PubMed:Immunochemical identification of hepatic protein adducts derived from estragole.
PubMed:Oxidation of acetophenone by Aspergillus species and their possible contribution to Katsuobushi flavor.
PubMed:Effects of high pressure treatment on the flavour-related components in meat.
PubMed:In vitro studies of biological effects of cigarette smoke condensate. II. Induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes by weakly acidic, semivolatile constituents.
PubMed:Simple phenol and phenolic compounds in food flavor.
 
Notes:
an antiseptic and disinfectant. it is active against a wide range of micro-organisms including some fungi and viruses, but is only slowly effective against spores. it has been used to disinfect skin and to relieve itching. (from martindale, the extra pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p801) Used as a flavouring agent in a few foods, at maximum levels below 10 ppm Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid. The molecule consists of a phenyl (-C6H5), bonded to a hydroxyl (-OH) group. It is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) as a precursor to many materials and useful compounds. (Wikipedia)
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