EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 99-50-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:202-760-0
Nikkaji Web:J11.618A
Beilstein Number:1448841
XlogP3:1.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:153.11365000
Formula:C7 H5 O4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.133 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
FEMA Number:4430 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
Physical Properties:
Appearance:gray to tan solid (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 221.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 410.00 to 411.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 421.00 °F. TCC ( 216.11 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.860
Soluble in:
 water, 18200 mg/L @ 14C (exp)
 water, 5.098e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: phenolic
Odor Strength:low
phenolic balsamic
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. mild phenolic balsamic
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin protecting agents
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Protocatechuic Acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid
For experimental / research use only.
Protocatechuic acid (HPLC) ≥90%
Glentham Life Sciences
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Protocatechuic acid ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid
For experimental / research use only.
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid >97.0%(T)
3,4-Dihydroxy benzoic acid
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-mouse LD50 > 800 mg/kg
(Grady et al., 1976)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 > 800 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 196, Pg. 478, 1976.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents
Recommendation for 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 610.00 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 120000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 24
Click here to view publication 24
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): 300.00000500.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: 500.000002000.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: 300.00000500.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: 300.00000500.00000
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): --
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): --
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 500.000002000.00000
Chewing gum (05.3): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): --
Bakery wares (07.0): --
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): --
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): --
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 300.00000500.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 300.00000500.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): --
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 2 (FGE.20Rev2): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3(FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 4 (FGE.20Rev4): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :72
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
RTECS:UL0560000 for cas# 99-50-3
 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):72
Pubchem (sid):134971747
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00230
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01856
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01321
Export Tariff Code:2918.29.4000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 skin protecting agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 apple fruit
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 apricot fruit
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 arrowroot leaf
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 beer - up to 0.40 mg/kg
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 bilberry fruit
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 bilberry fruit juice
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 bilberry leaf
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 brandy - up to 1.40 mg/kg
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 buckwheat testa
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 celery plant
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 clove leaf
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander plant
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 coriander seed
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 corn tissue culture
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 currant black currant fruit
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 currant black currant fruit - up to 52.00 mg/kg
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 dandelion flower
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 evening-primrose plant
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 fennel seed
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 ginkgo biloba leaf
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 ginkgo biloba plant
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 grape leaf
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 honey - up to 6.80 mg/kg
Search PMC Picture
 lemon balm plant
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 mulberry fruit - 4.30 mg/kg
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 olive fruit
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 onion bulb
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 onion leaf
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 oregano leaf
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 oregano plant
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 parsley stem
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 peanut seed
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 pomegranate fruit
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 potato root bark
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit juice
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 raspberry red raspberry juice
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 raspberry red raspberry plant
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 rhubarb plant
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 roselle flower
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 rubus spectabilis leaf
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 rum - 0.15 mg/kg
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 salmonberry leaf
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 sesame fruit
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 sesame leaf
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 sesame seed
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 soybean - 10.00 mg/kg
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 soybean plant
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 soybean seed
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 spinach shoot
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 tarragon leaf
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 turmeric leaf
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 wheat seed
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 whiskey - up to 0.30 mg/kg
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 wine - up to 10.00 mg/kg
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 benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-
3,4-dihydrobenzoic acid
3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid
3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid
 protocatechuic acid
 protocatehuic acid


PubMed:Characterization of polyphenol oxidase activity in Ataulfo mango.
PubMed:Copigmentation of malvidin-3-O-glucoside with five hydroxybenzoic acids in red wine model solutions: Experimental and theoretical investigations.
PubMed:Effects of postharvest curing treatment on flesh colour and phenolic metabolism in fresh-cut potato products.
PubMed:Phytochemical analysis of ten varieties of pawpaw (Asimina triloba [L.] Dunal) fruit pulp.
PubMed:Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.
PubMed:Chemical and sensory characterisation of Sangiovese red wines: comparison between biodynamic and organic management.
PubMed:Efficient determination of protocatechuic Acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.
PubMed:Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - a phytochemical and pharmacological review.
PubMed:Hydroxybenzoic acid isomers and the cardiovascular system.
PubMed:Analysis of different European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivars: authentication, phenotypic features, and phenolic profiles.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds in fresh and dried figs from Cilento (Italy), by considering breba crop and full crop, in comparison to Turkish and Greek dried figs.
PubMed:Ionic liquid-based one-step micellar extraction of multiclass polar compounds from hawthorn fruits by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Phenolic acids identified in sorghum distillery residue demonstrated antioxidative and anti-cold-stress properties in cultured tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.
PubMed:Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of alkyl protocatechuates.
PubMed:In vitro anti-osteoporosis properties of diverse Korean Drynariae rhizoma phenolic extracts.
PubMed:Urinary metabolite profiling identifies novel colonic metabolites and conjugates of phenolics in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:The interaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III) in the presence of citrate as studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.
PubMed:Some Anthocyanins Could Be Efficiently Absorbed across the Gastrointestinal Mucosa: Extensive Presystemic Metabolism Reduces Apparent Bioavailability.
PubMed:Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.
PubMed:High-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the influence of cross-breeding segregating populations on the phenolic profile of virgin olive oils.
PubMed:Analysis of interaction of phenolic compounds with the cholecystokinin signaling pathway to explain effects on reducing food intake.
PubMed:Degradation of cyanidin-3-rutinoside and formation of protocatechuic acid methyl ester in methanol solution by gamma irradiation.
PubMed:Evolution of polyphenols and organic acids during the fermentation of apple cider.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid inhibits human dendritic cell functional activation: role of PPARγ up-modulation.
PubMed:Quantification of individual phenolic compounds' contribution to antioxidant capacity in apple: a novel analytical tool based on liquid chromatography with diode array, electrochemical, and charged aerosol detection.
PubMed:Nonanthocyanin secondary metabolites of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruits: identification by HPLC-DAD, NMR, HPLC-ESI-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses.
PubMed:Changes in Chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa L.) Polyphenols during Juice Processing and Storage.
PubMed:Polyphenols in Barringtonia racemosa and their protection against oxidation of LDL, serum and haemoglobin.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and processed white cauliflower.
PubMed:Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering.
PubMed:Phenolic content of strawberry spreads during processing and storage.
PubMed:Stability and transformation of major flavonols in onion (Allium cepa) solid wastes.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid extends lifespan and increases stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.
PubMed:Release and degradation of anthocyanins and phenolics from blueberry pomace during thermal acid hydrolysis and dry heating.
PubMed:Antibacterial activities of almond skins on cagA-positive and-negative clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori.
PubMed:DPPH assay of vegetable oils and model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents.
PubMed:Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.
PubMed:Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.
PubMed:Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) fruits: comparison of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids.
PubMed:Phenolic acid intake, delivered via moderate champagne wine consumption, improves spatial working memory via the modulation of hippocampal and cortical protein expression/activation.
PubMed:Sonochemical effects on free phenolic acids under ultrasound treatment in a model system.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of Veronica montana L. extract and of protocatechuic acid incorporated in a food system.
PubMed:Methyl syringate, a low-molecular-weight phenolic ester, as an activator of the chemosensory ion channel TRPA1.
PubMed:Biochemical characterization of radical scavenging polyphenols from Nyctanthes arbortristis.
PubMed:Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion.
PubMed:Inhibitory activity of Aralia continentalis roots on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and rat lens aldose reductase.
PubMed:Antioxidant and quinone reductase-inducing constituents of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruits.
PubMed:Antioxidant interactions between major phenolic compounds found in 'Ataulfo' mango pulp: chlorogenic, gallic, protocatechuic and vanillic acids.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).
PubMed:Textural characteristic, antioxidant activity, sugar, organic acid, and phenolic profiles of 10 promising jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) selections.
PubMed:Development and validation of an HPLC-method for determination of free and bound phenolic acids in cereals after solid-phase extraction.
PubMed:Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.
PubMed:Effect of drying of jujubes ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and phenolic compounds.
PubMed:Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: relationships with composition and antioxidative activities.
PubMed:Potential for food-drug interactions by dietary phenolic acids on human organic anion transporters 1 (SLC22A6), 3 (SLC22A8), and 4 (SLC22A11).
PubMed:Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.
PubMed:Profile and distribution of soluble and insoluble phenolics in Chinese rapeseed (Brassica napus).
PubMed:Anti-glycative and anti-inflammatory effects of protocatechuic acid in brain of mice treated by D-galactose.
PubMed:Chemical composition of currant seed extracts and their protective effect on human lymphocytes DNA.
PubMed:Polyphenol compounds and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean black raspberry ( Rubus coreanus Miquel) wines produced from juice supplemented with pulp and seed.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid and human disease prevention: biological activities and molecular mechanisms.
PubMed:Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.
PubMed:Perturbation of the EphA2-EphrinA1 system in human prostate cancer cells by colonic (poly)phenol catabolites.
PubMed:Antioxidant efficacy of extracts produced from pickled and dried mustard in rapeseed and peanut oils.
PubMed:Monoamine Oxidase and Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Inhibitors from the Fruits of Gardenia jasminoides.
PubMed:The profile in polyphenols and volatile compounds in alcoholic beverages from different cultivars of mulberry.
PubMed:Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing.
PubMed:Bioactive polyphenols in leaves, stems, and berries of Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) cultivars.
PubMed:Potential anti-inflammatory, anti-adhesive, anti/estrogenic, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of anthocyanins and their gut metabolites.
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extract of Mesona procumbens in experimental mice.
PubMed:Screening of the polyphenol content of tomato-based products through accurate-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF).
PubMed:Variation of polyphenols and betaines in aerial parts of young, field-grown Amaranthus genotypes.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.
PubMed:Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in bambangan (Mangifera pajang Kort.) peels and their free radical scavenging activity.
PubMed:Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside and protocatechuic acid exert insulin-like effects by upregulating PPARγ activity in human omental adipocytes.
PubMed:Phenolic tyrosinase inhibitors from the stems of Cudrania cochinchinensis.
PubMed:Anthocyanins remain stable during commercial blackcurrant juice processing.
PubMed:Structure and function of the oxidation products of polyphenols and identification of potent lipoxygenase inhibitors from Fe-catalyzed oxidation of resveratrol.
PubMed:Further investigation into maple syrup yields 3 new lignans, a new phenylpropanoid, and 26 other phytochemicals.
PubMed:Effect of fermentation time on antioxidative activities of Ganoderma lucidum broth using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium.
PubMed:Anthocyanin-rich blackberry extract suppresses the DNA-damaging properties of topoisomerase I and II poisons in colon carcinoma cells.
PubMed:Antiglycative effects of protocatechuic acid in the kidneys of diabetic mice.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities, total phenolics and HPLC analyses of the phenolic compounds of extracts from common Mediterranean plants.
PubMed:Polyphenols of pseudostem of different banana cultivars and their antioxidant activities.
PubMed:Anthocyanin-derived phenolic acids form glucuronides following simulated gastrointestinal digestion and microsomal glucuronidation.
PubMed:Use of multivariate statistical techniques to optimize the simultaneous separation of 13 phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oil by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:Intestinal transit and systemic metabolism of apple polyphenols.
PubMed:Antigenotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induction by apigenin, bisabolol, and protocatechuic acid.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid, a metabolite of anthocyanins, inhibits monocyte adhesion and reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
PubMed:β-cyclodextrin and caffeine complexes with natural polyphenols from olive and olive oils: NMR, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies.
PubMed:Colonic metabolites of berry polyphenols: the missing link to biological activity?
PubMed:Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice.
PubMed:Computational analysis for hepatic safety signals of constituents present in botanical extracts widely used by women in the United States for treatment of menopausal symptoms.
PubMed:Varietal influences on antihyperglycemia properties of freshly harvested apples using in vitro assay models.
PubMed:Identification of a new natural vasorelaxatant compound, (+)-osbeckic acid, from rutin-free tartary buckwheat extract.
PubMed:Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.
PubMed:Effects of protocatechuic acid on trans fat induced hepatic steatosis in mice.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid induces antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression through JNK-mediated Nrf2 activation in murine macrophages.
PubMed:Anti-metastasis effects of gallic acid on gastric cancer cells involves inhibition of NF-kappaB activity and downregulation of PI3K/AKT/small GTPase signals.
PubMed:The phenolic acids from bacterial degradation of the mangiferin aglycone are quantified in the feces of pigs after oral ingestion of an extract of Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush tea).
PubMed:Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antidiabetic activities of edible leaves from Cnidoscolus chayamansa Mc. Vaugh.
PubMed:Bioavailability of strawberry antioxidants in human subjects.
PubMed:Structure-property-activity relationship of phenolic acids and derivatives. Protocatechuic acid alkyl esters.
PubMed:Secondary plant substances in various extracts of the leaves, fruits, stem and bark of Caraipa densifolia Mart.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.
PubMed:Isolation and identification of antioxidant and hyaluronidase inhibitory compounds from Ficus microcarpa L. fil. bark.
PubMed:Systematic evaluation of antioxidant capacities of the ethanolic extract of different tissues of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) from China.
PubMed:Fast and selective microfluidic chips for electrochemical antioxidant sensing in complex samples.
PubMed:Spectral alteration and degradation of cyanidin-3-glucoside exposed to pulsed electric field.
PubMed:Separation and Purification of Phenolic Acids and Myricetin from Black Currant by High Speed Countercurrent Chromatography.
PubMed:Metabolic fingerprint of Brazilian maize landraces silk (stigma/styles) using NMR spectroscopy and chemometric methods.
PubMed:Bioavailability of various polyphenols from a diet containing moderate amounts of berries.
PubMed:Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of phenolic acids in rats fed cranberry.
PubMed:Moderate Champagne consumption promotes an acute improvement in acute endothelial-independent vascular function in healthy human volunteers.
PubMed:Cellular uptake, stability, visualization by 'Naturstoff reagent A', and multidrug resistance protein 1 gene-regulatory activity of cyanidin in human keratinocytes.
PubMed:Metabolism of cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from black colored rice and its antiscratching behavioral effect in mice.
PubMed:Mulberry leaf extract inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration involving a block of small GTPase and Akt/NF-kappaB signals.
PubMed:Protective effect of Millettia reticulata Benth against CCl(4)-induced hepatic damage and inflammatory action in rats.
PubMed:Evaluation of indigenous grains from the Peruvian Andean region for antidiabetes and antihypertension potential using in vitro methods.
PubMed:Anticoagulatory, antiinflammatory, and antioxidative effects of protocatechuic acid in diabetic mice.
PubMed:Interaction of polyphenolic metabolites with human serum albumin: a circular dichroism study.
PubMed:[Isolation and characterization of polyphenols in seed of Litchi chinensis].
PubMed:Apoptotic effects of protocatechuic acid in human breast, lung, liver, cervix, and prostate cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action.
PubMed:Effects of phenolic compounds on the browning of cooked barley.
PubMed:Production and physicochemical properties of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum tannase.
PubMed:Chemical characteristics of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) collected from different locations in China.
PubMed:Composition of phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine during commercial potato processing.
PubMed:Phenolic acids determination by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS in sixteen different Portuguese wild mushrooms species.
PubMed:The bioactivity of dietary anthocyanins is likely to be mediated by their degradation products.
PubMed:Influence of cooking on anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica var. SBR).
PubMed:Phenolic acids in black raspberry and in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs following ingestion of black raspberry.
PubMed:Antibacterial effects of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid in ground beef and apple juice.
PubMed:Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry (Morus nigra L.) in rats.
PubMed:Synthesis and application of a functionalized resin in on-line system for copper preconcentration and determination in foods by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.
PubMed:Protein glycation inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.
PubMed:Simulated digestion and antioxidant activity of red wine fractions separated by high speed countercurrent chromatography.
PubMed:Lignans and other constituents of the fruits of Euterpe oleracea (Acai) with antioxidant and cytoprotective activities.
PubMed:Anti-Campylobacter, anti-aerobic, and anti-oxidative effects of roselle calyx extract and protocatechuic acid in ground beef.
PubMed:[Study on flavonoiels and phenolic acids from the herb of Lygodium japonicum].
PubMed:A novel oxidative dimer from protocatechuic esters: contribution to the total radical scavenging ability of protocatechuic esters.
PubMed:Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extracts inhibit the mutagenicity in microsuspension assay and the proliferation of HeLa cells.
PubMed:Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from ultrasonic treatment of Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) peels.
PubMed:Reduction kinetics of the antiradical probe 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl in methanol and acetonitrile by the antiradical activity of protocatechuic acid and protocatechuic acid methyl ester.
PubMed:Chemical composition, antioxidant properties, and thermal stability of a phytochemical enriched oil from Acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).
PubMed:Antioxidant-mediated protective effect of potato peel extract in erythrocytes against oxidative damage.
PubMed:Paint solvent to food additive: an environmental route of dehalogenation for 4-chlorobenzotrifluoride.
PubMed:Characterization of the p-coumaric acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748(T).
PubMed:Inhibitory constituents of aldose reductase in the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.
PubMed:Biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of 4-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, an antioxidant isolated from Origanum vulgare.
PubMed:Evaluation of natural antioxidants of Leuzea carthamoides as a result of a screening study of 88 plant extracts from the European Asteraceae and Cichoriaceae.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid: the missing human cyanidins' metabolite.
PubMed:Oxidative transformation of natural and synthetic phenolic mixtures by Trametes versicolor laccase.
PubMed:Effect of naturally occurring phenolic acids on the expression of glutathione S-transferase isozymes in the rat.
PubMed:Effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract induces apoptosis of proliferating smooth muscle cell via activation of P38 MAPK and p53 pathway.
PubMed:Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid is the major human metabolite of cyanidin-glucosides.
PubMed:Functional interaction of diphenols with polyphenol oxidase. Molecular determinants of substrate/inhibitor specificity.
PubMed:Apoptosis induced by oxidized lipids is associated with up-regulation of p66Shc in intestinal Caco-2 cells: protective effects of phenolic compounds.
PubMed:Sorghum bran in the diet dose dependently increased the excretion of catechins and microbial-derived phenolic acids in female rats.
PubMed:Cytogenetic effects of grape extracts (Vitis vinifera) and polyphenols on mitomycin C-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human blood lymphocytes.
PubMed:Efficiency of natural phenolic compounds regenerating alpha-tocopherol from alpha-tocopheroxyl radical.
PubMed:Differentiation of young red wines based on chemometrics of minor polyphenolic constituents.
PubMed:Antioxidant constituents and a new triterpenoid glycoside from Flos Lonicerae.
PubMed:Apoptotic effect of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid on human gastric carcinoma cells involving JNK/p38 MAPK signaling activation.
PubMed:In vitro peroxynitrite scavenging activity of 6-hydroxykynurenic acid and other flavonoids from Gingko biloba yellow leaves.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of coffee extracts and selected coffee chemical compounds against enterobacteria.
PubMed:Microbial transformation of ferulic acid to vanillic acid by Streptomyces sannanensis MTCC 6637.
PubMed:Electromigration profiles of Cynomorium songaricum based on capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.
PubMed:Effect of thermal processing on the flavonols rutin and quercetin.
PubMed:Chemical composition of clarified bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) juice sediment.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid suppresses MPP+ -induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells.
PubMed:Total oxidant scavenging capacity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) seeds and identification of their polyphenolic compounds.
PubMed:Du-Zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.) leaves inhibits CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.
PubMed:Solvent and pH effects on the antioxidant activity of caffeic and other phenolic acids.
PubMed:New insights on glyphosate mode of action in nodular metabolism: Role of shikimate accumulation.
PubMed:Phenolic constituents in the fruits of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension.
PubMed:Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice.
PubMed:Biotransformation of p-coumaric acid by Paecilomyces variotii.
PubMed:Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.
PubMed:Phenolic profile of Asturian (Spain) natural cider.
PubMed:Fenton's oxidation of food processing wastewater components. Kinetic modeling of protocatechuic acid degradation.
PubMed:Colorimetric evaluation of phenolic content and GC-MS characterization of phenolic composition of alimentary and cosmetic argan oil and press cake.
PubMed:Protocatechuic acid from Alpinia oxyphylla against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.
PubMed:Antioxidative compounds from the outer scales of onion.
PubMed:Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman.
PubMed:Analyses of phenolic compounds by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of phenolic acids on ultraviolet radiation-induced erythrocyte and low density lipoprotein oxidation.
PubMed:Determination of hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of cinnamic and benzoic acids employing a highly sensitive peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence-based assay: structure-activity relationships.
PubMed:Quercetin-dependent inhibition of nitration induced by peroxidase/H2O2/nitrite systems in human saliva and characterization of an oxidation product of quercetin formed during the inhibition.
PubMed:Anthocyan does not suppress transformation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by dioxin.
PubMed:Radical scavenging mechanism of phenol carboxylic acids: reaction of protocatechuic esters.
PubMed:Synergistic effects of thiols and amines on antiradical efficiency of protocatechuic acid.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of clonal oregano extracts against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro.
PubMed:Metabolism of gallic acid and catechin by Lactobacillus hilgardii from wine.
PubMed:Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against antibiotic-resistant Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and spores, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of cereal brans.
PubMed:Extract from Rhus verniciflua Stokes is capable of inhibiting the growth of human lymphoma cells.
PubMed:Cholesterol metabolism in rat is affected by protocatechuic acid.
PubMed:Effects of alcoholic solvents on antiradical abilities of protocatechuic acid and its alkyl esters.
PubMed:Comparison between cachaça and rum using pattern recognition methods.
PubMed:Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selective phenolic acids on T47D human breast cancer cells: potential mechanisms of action.
PubMed:Tyrosinase inhibitor from black rice bran.
PubMed:Quinone hemiacetal formation from protocatechuic acid during the DPPH radical scavenging reaction.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of 3-dehydroshikimic acid in liposomes, emulsions, and bulk oil.
PubMed:Identification of an antioxidant, ethyl protocatechuate, in peanut seed testa.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatography determination of phenolic constituents in 17 varieties of cowpeas.
PubMed:Effects of phenolic acids on human phenolsulfotransferases in relation to their antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Oxidative dimers produced from protocatechuic and gallic esters in the DPPH radical scavenging reaction.
PubMed:Peroxynitrite scavenging activities of aromatic compounds isolated from Konnyaku, Amorphophallus konjac K.Koch.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of prune (Prunus domestica L.) constituents and a new synergist.
PubMed:Determination of free and total phenolic acids in plant-derived foods by HPLC with diode-array detection.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds isolated from Mesona procumbens Hemsl.
PubMed:In vivo protective effect of protocatechuic acid on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced rat hepatotoxicity.
PubMed:Antioxidative phenolic compounds isolated from almond skins (Prunus amygdalus Batsch).
PubMed:Hibiscus protocatechuic acid or esculetin can inhibit oxidative LDL induced by either copper ion or nitric oxide donor.
PubMed:Diphenol activation of the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of field bean (Dolichos lablab) polyphenol oxidase.
PubMed:Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of free and bound phenolic acids from native and malted finger millet (ragi, Eleusine coracana Indaf-15).
PubMed:Isolation and quantitative analysis of phenolic antioxidants, free sugars, and polyols from mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous decoction used in Cuba as a nutritional supplement.
PubMed:The trans-anethole degradation pathway in an Arthrobacter sp.
PubMed:New prenylated benzoic acid and other constituents from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch).
PubMed:Toxic dose of a simple phenolic antioxidant, protocatechuic acid, attenuates the glutathione level in ICR mouse liver and kidney.
PubMed:Effect of natural phenolic acids on DNA oxidation in vitro.
PubMed:Degradation products of cyanidin glycosides from tart cherries and their bioactivities.
PubMed:1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging active compounds from greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.).
PubMed:Properties of diphenolase from Vanilla planifolia (Andr.) shoot primordia cultured in vitro.
PubMed:Comparison of quercetin and a non-orthohydroxy flavonol as antioxidants by competing in vitro oxidation reactions.
PubMed:Metabolism of phenolic compounds during loquat fruit development.
PubMed:Potential nitrite scavengers as inhibitors of the formation of N-nitrosamines in solution and tobacco matrix systems.
PubMed:Reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides oliv.) and its active compounds.
PubMed:Phenolic composition of kiwifruit juice.
PubMed:Spanish sparkling wines (Cavas) as inhibitors of in vitro human low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
PubMed:Glyphosate effects on phenolic metabolism of nodulated soybean (Glycine max L. merr.).
PubMed:Metabolism of ferulic acid via vanillin using a novel CoA-dependent pathway in a newly-isolated strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.
PubMed:The blocking effect of phenolic acid on N-nitrosomorpholine formation in vitro.
PubMed:High performance liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in fruits and vegetables.
PubMed:Effect of different isomers of dihydroxybenzoic acids (DBA) on the rate of DL-dopa oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase.
PubMed:Biotransformation of the Pentahydroxy Flavone Quercetin by Rhizobium loti and Bradyrhizobium Strains (Lotus).
PubMed:Trypanosoma cruzi: a possible control of transfusion-induced Chagas' disease by phenolic antioxidants.
Present in red wine and other plants sources
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