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laevo-lactic acid
propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, (2S)-

Supplier Sponsors

Name:(2S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
CAS Number: 79-33-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:201-196-2
Nikkaji Web:J9.134K
Beilstein Number:1720251
XlogP3:-0.70 (est)
Molecular Weight:90.07842000
Formula:C3 H6 O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1061 L(+)-lactic acid View - review
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.20900 to 1.21400 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 10.060 to 10.102
Refractive Index:1.42600 to 1.43100 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 53.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 227.56 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:0.015000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.850 (est)
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:odorless acidic
Flavor Type: sour
sour acidic
Taste Description: sour acidic
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Odor Description:SUGAR, WHEAT, MALT, SWEET
Taste Description:sour acidic
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Anhui Haibei
L-Lactic Acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
L(+)-Lactic acid
For experimental / research use only.
L-Lactic acid - 99%
Charkit Chemical
Charkit Chemical
ECSA Chemicals
ECSA Chemicals
ECSA Chemicals
Ernesto Ventós
Foodchem International
L-Lactic Acid 80%
Foodchem International
L-Lactic Acid 85%
Glentham Life Sciences
L-(+)-Lactic acid, 98%
Graham Chemical
Lactic Acid
Grau Aromatics
Jungbunzlauer Suisse
L(+)-Lactic Acid Buffered
Flavor: characteristic
Lactic acid is an organic acid occurring naturally in the human body and in fermented foods. The commercial production of lactic acid is typically done by fermentation. Because the L(+) form is preferred for its better metabolisation, Jungbunzlauer has chosen to produce pure L(+)-lactic acid by traditional fermentation of natural carbohydrates. Jungbunzlauer L(+)-lactic acid is a mild tasting acidity regulator with flavour enhancing and antibacterial properties. It can be used in a wide range of food, personal care and chemical products.
Jungbunzlauer Suisse
L(+)-Lactic Acid
Lluch Essence
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
(> 78%)
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
L-(+)-Lactic acid Solution
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
L-(+)-Lactic acid ≥98%
SRS Aromatics
SysKem Chemie
Lactic Acid
For experimental / research use only.
L-Lactic Acid >85.0%(T)
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: In food, apart from its nutritional function for normal growth, it improves flavor and taste, improves quality of food and beverage products such as confectionery, cake, milk powder, yogurt etc. as firming agent, buffering agent and flour regulator. It increases effectiveness of antioxidants, prevents decolorization of fruits and vegetables.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Vigon International
Lactic Acid 88%
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 38 - Irritating to skin.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 3194 mg/kg
Toxicology. Vol. 62, Pg. 203, 1990.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for laevo-lactic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of lactic acid for the removal of microbial surface contamination of beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of lactic acid and calcium lactate when used as technological additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety of lactic acid and calcium lactate when used as technological additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Re-evaluation of acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, mono- and diacetyltartaric acid, mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E 472a-f) as food additives
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):79-33-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :107689
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
RTECS:OD3100000 for cas# 79-33-4
 (2S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:79-33-4
Pubchem (cid):107689
Pubchem (sid):135019588
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00186
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00190
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00247
Export Tariff Code:2918.11.1000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
(2S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
(S)-(+)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
(S)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
L-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
(S)-2-hydroxypropionic acid
L-(+)-a-hydroxypropionic acid
L-(+)-alpha-hydroxypropionic acid
laevo-(+)-alpha-hydroxypropionic acid
(+)-lactic acid
(S)-lactic acid
(S)-(+)-lactic acid
L-lactic acid
L-(+)-lactic acid
L(+)-lactic acid
laevo-(+)-lactic acid
L-lactic acid 88% natural
 propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-, (2S)-


PubMed:Fed-batch fermentation for enhanced lactic acid production from glucose/xylose mixture without carbon catabolite repression.
PubMed:Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in High Optically Pure l-Lactic Acid Production by Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans.
PubMed:Synthesis of antimicrobial Nisin-phosphorylated soybean protein isolate/poly(l-lactic acid)/ZrO2 membranes.
PubMed:Efficient open fermentative production of polymer-grade L-lactate from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by thermotolerant Bacillus sp. strain P38.
PubMed:Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean.
PubMed:Development of a new nanofiber scaffold for use with stem cells in a third degree burn animal model.
PubMed:Efficient calcium lactate production by fermentation coupled with crystallization-based in situ product removal.
PubMed:Consensus recommendations on the use of injectable poly-L-lactic acid for facial and nonfacial volumization.
PubMed:Cell-recycle continuous fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 for economical production of lactic acid by reduction of yeast extract supplementation.
PubMed:All-biomaterial laser using vitamin and biopolymers.
PubMed:Preparation and pH controlled release of polyelectrolyte complex of poly(L-malic acid-co-D,L-lactic acid) and chitosan.
PubMed:Facial volume augmentation in 2014: overview of different filler options.
PubMed:Antiviral Potential of Selected Starter Cultures, Bacteriocins and D,L-Lactic Acid.
PubMed:Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on spinach and identification of antimicrobial substances produced by a commercial Lactic Acid Bacteria food safety intervention.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids potentially contributing to acidosis in severe malaria.
PubMed:Organic acid based sanitizers and free chlorine to improve the microbial quality and shelf-life of sugar snaps.
PubMed:Isolation of thermophilic L-lactic acid producing bacteria showing homo-fermentative manner under high aeration condition.
PubMed:L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol.
PubMed:Current status of surgery in dermatology.
PubMed:All-Biomaterial Laser using Vitamin and Biopolymers.
PubMed:[Trends in polymer-grade L-lactic acid fermentation by non-food biomass].
PubMed:Homofermentative production of optically pure L-lactic acid from xylose by genetically engineered Escherichia coli B.
PubMed:Effect of storage temperature on crystal formation rate and growth rate of calcium lactate crystals on smoked Cheddar cheeses.
PubMed:Zizyphus oenophlia: a potent substrate for lactic acid production.
PubMed:Effect of the use of a neutralizing step after antimicrobial application on microbial counts during challenge studies for orange disinfection.
PubMed:Fermentative l-(+)-lactic acid production from non-sterilized rice washing drainage containing rice bran by a newly isolated lactic acid bacteria without any additions of nutrients.
PubMed:Malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization.
PubMed:Contemporary review of injectable facial fillers.
PubMed:Autologous fat grafting and injectable dermal fillers for human immunodeficiency virus-associated facial lipodystrophy: a comparison of safety, efficacy, and long-term treatment outcomes.
PubMed:Effect of different fermentation parameters on L-lactic acid production from liquid distillery stillage.
PubMed:Metabolic and proteomic adaptation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains during growth under cheese-like environmental conditions compared to de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium.
PubMed:Effects of pretreatment on the microbial community and l-lactic acid production in vinasse fermentation.
PubMed:Effects of lactic acid and commercial chilling processes on survival of Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Campylobacter coli in pork variety meats.
PubMed:Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity and diffusion of catechin and epicatechin from antioxidant active films made of poly(L-lactic acid).
PubMed:Mutation-Screening in l-(+)-Lactic Acid Producing Strains by Ion Implantation.
PubMed:Production of l-lactic acid from a green microalga, Hydrodictyon reticulum, by Lactobacillus paracasei LA104 isolated from the traditional Korean food, makgeolli.
PubMed:The use of poly-L-lactic acid filler in facial aesthetics.
PubMed:Development and characterization of antimicrobial poly(l-lactic acid) containing trans-2-hexenal trapped in cyclodextrins.
PubMed:In vitro influence of D/L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite on the infectivity of feline calicivirus and of ECHO virus as potential surrogates for foodborne viruses.
PubMed:Learning the way to blood: first evidence of dual olfactory conditioning in a blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus. I. Appetitive learning.
PubMed:Sensory and physicochemical evolution of tropical cooked peeled shrimp inoculated by Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactococcus piscium CNCM I-4031 during storage at 8°C.
PubMed:Endoscopic submucosal dissection combined with the placement of biodegradable stents for recurrent esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy.
PubMed:[Modification of carbon flux in Sacchromyces cerevisiae to improve L-lactic acid production].
PubMed:Nonsurgical rejuvenation of the aging face with injectable poly-L-lactic acid for restoration of soft tissue volume.
PubMed:Functional properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from kimchi.
PubMed:Review and Evaluation of Treatment Procedures Using Injectable Poly-L-Lactic Acid in the Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated Facial Lipoatrophy.
PubMed:Application of the biorefinery concept to produce L-lactic acid from the soybean vinasse at laboratory and pilot scale.
PubMed:Comparison of phenotypic (Biolog System) and genotypic (random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction, RAPD-PCR, and amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) methods for typing Lactobacillus plantarum isolates from raw vegetables and fruits.
PubMed:Production of L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae using semicontinuous fermentation in bioreactor.
PubMed:L: (+)-Lactic acid production from non-food carbohydrates by thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans.
PubMed:Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions.
PubMed:Improvement of L(+)-lactic acid production from cassava wastewater by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 103.
PubMed:Efficient production of lactic acid from sucrose and corncob hydrolysate by a newly isolated Rhizopus oryzae GY18.
PubMed:Integrated multienzyme electrochemical biosensors for monitoring malolactic fermentation in wines.
PubMed:[Effects of cultivation conditions on the optical purity of L(+)-lactic acid].
PubMed:L-lactic acid's improvement of swimming endurance in mice.
PubMed:Enhancement of L-lactic acid production in Lactobacillus casei from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by kinetic optimization and citrate metabolism.
PubMed:Validation of a washing and sanitizing procedure for cantaloupes at a mexican packing facility.
PubMed:Cosmetic use of poly-l-lactic acid: a retrospective study of 130 patients.
PubMed:Patient satisfaction and duration of effect with PLLA: a review of the literature.
PubMed:Using poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) to mimic volume in multiple tissue layers.
PubMed:Dermal fillers and combinations of fillers for facial rejuvenation.
PubMed:Preparation of antimicrobial membranes: coextrusion of poly(lactic acid) and Nisaplin in the presence of Plasticizers.
PubMed:Injectable fillers: an American perspective.
PubMed:Fluorescent protein-marked Escherichia coli biotype I strains as surrogates for enteric pathogens in validation of beef carcass interventions.
PubMed:[Repeated intermittent L-lactic acid fermentation technology by self-immobilized Rhizopus oryzae].
PubMed:Comparative characterization of L-lactic acid-producing thermotolerant Rhizopus fungi.
PubMed:Short communication: impact of pH and temperature on the acidifying activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum.
PubMed:Quantitative reconstruction of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of a red wine.
PubMed:Enterococcus thailandicus sp. nov., isolated from fermented sausage ('mum') in Thailand.
PubMed:Optimization of L-(+)-lactic acid production using pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395.
PubMed:Evaluation of the poly-L-lactic acid implant for treatment of the nasolabial fold: 3-year follow-up evaluation.
PubMed:L+-lactic acid production from starch by a novel amylolytic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis B84.
PubMed:Poly-L-lactic acid for the treatment of trauma-induced facial lipoatrophy and asymmetry.
PubMed:Effect of xylitol on adhesion of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to beef carcass surfaces.
PubMed:Xylose metabolism in the fungus Rhizopus oryzae: effect of growth and respiration on L+-lactic acid production.
PubMed:Lactic acid production from lime-treated wheat straw by Bacillus coagulans: neutralization of acid by fed-batch addition of alkaline substrate.
PubMed:Treatment of facial asymmetry with poly-L-lactic Acid: a case study.
PubMed:Predominance of Tetragenococcus halophilus as the cause of sugar thick juice degradation.
PubMed:Evaluation of the thermally dried immobilized cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on apple pieces as a potent starter culture.
PubMed:Inhibition effect of flavonoids on monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:Enterococcus camelliae sp. nov., isolated from fermented tea leaves in Thailand.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of galactosyl lactic ethyl ester and its polymer for use as biomaterials.
PubMed:Effects of a synbiotic milk product on human intestinal ecosystem.
PubMed:An economic approach for L-(+) lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 using inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources.
PubMed:Production of L-lactic acid and oligomeric compounds from apple pomace by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation: a response surface methodology assessment.
PubMed:Comparison of rinsing and sanitizing procedures for reducing bacterial pathogens on fresh cantaloupes and bell peppers.
PubMed:Enhanced isomer purity of lactic acid from the non-sterile fermentation of kitchen wastes.
PubMed:GC-MS detection of chiral markers in cocoa beans of different quality and geographic origin.
PubMed:L-lactic acid production from apple pomace by sequential hydrolysis and fermentation.
PubMed:Sculptra (injectable poly-L-lactic acid).
PubMed:Development of an oat-based biorefinery for the production of L(+)-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae and various value-added coproducts.
PubMed:Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an overview on process developments and future perspectives.
PubMed:The use of injectable collagens for aesthetic rejuvenation.
PubMed:[Screening of a low alcohol dehydrogenase activity mutant of rhizopus oryzae and the regulation of Zn2+ and Mg2+].
PubMed:Applicability of pectate-entrapped Lactobacillus casei cells for L(+) lactic acid production from whey.
PubMed:Mechanism for lactate-color stabilization in injection-enhanced beef.
PubMed:Lactobacillus casei metabolic potential to utilize citrate as an energy source in ripening cheese: a bioinformatics approach.
PubMed:Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (Sculptra): technical considerations in soft-tissue contouring.
PubMed:Open L-lactic acid fermentation of food refuse using thermophilic Bacillus coagulans and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of microflora.
PubMed:Treatments using hot water instead of lactic acid reduce levels of aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and reduce the prevalence of Escherichia coil O157:H7 on preevisceration beef carcasses.
PubMed:Optimization of L-(+)-lactic acid production using pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395.
PubMed:Poly-L-lactic acid for facial lipoatrophy in HIV.
PubMed:Poly-L-lactic acid: an overview.
PubMed:Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.
PubMed:Pediococcus stilesii sp. nov., isolated from maize grains.
PubMed:Optimization of L-lactic acid feeding for the production of poly-D-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Alcaligenes eutrophus in fed-batch culture.
PubMed:Direct production of L+-lactic acid from starch and food wastes using Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG18011.
PubMed:Preventive and curative effects of probiotics in atopic patients.
PubMed:Assessment of the safety and efficacy of poly-L-lactic acid for the treatment of HIV-associated facial lipoatrophy.
PubMed:Soft tissue augmentation using sculptra.
PubMed:Differential inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes by D- and L-lactic acid.
PubMed:Microbiological quality of rabbit meat.
PubMed:Decontamination of cattle hides prior to slaughter using washes with and without antimicrobial agents.
PubMed:Development of a new method, based on a bioreactor coupled with an L-lactate biosensor, toward the determination of a nonspecific inhibition of L-lactic acid production during milk fermentation.
PubMed:Functional replacement of the Escherichia coli D-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with the L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pediococcus acidilactici.
PubMed:Carnobacterium viridans sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe isolated from refrigerated, vacuum-packed bologna sausage.
PubMed:Biosensors designed for environmental and food quality control based on screen-printed graphite electrodes with different configurations.
PubMed:Behaviors of D- and L-lactic acids during the brewing process of sake (Japanese rice wine).
PubMed:In-Plant evaluation of a lactic acid treatment for reduction of bacteria on chilled beef carcasses..
PubMed:Identification of lactic acid bacteria constituting the predominating microflora in an acid-fermented condiment (tempoyak) popular in Malaysia.
PubMed:Lactic acid sprays reduce bacterial pathogens on cold beef carcass surfaces and in subsequently produced ground beef.
PubMed:Nanospheres of biodegradable polymers: a system for clinical administration of an anticancer drug paclitaxel (Taxol).
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 for production of pure L-(+)-lactic acid.
PubMed:Influence of lactic acid on the solubilization of protein during corn steeping.
PubMed:Lactobacillus perolens sp. nov., a soft drink spoilage bacterium.
PubMed:Cloning and analysis of the L-lactate utilization genes from Streptococcus iniae.
PubMed:Graphite-Teflon composite bienzyme electrodes for the determination of L-lactate: application to food samples.
PubMed:Lactobacillus kunkeei sp. nov.: a spoilage organism associated with grape juice fermentations.
PubMed:Optimization of L-(+)-lactic acid production by ring and disc plastic composite supports through repeated-batch biofilm fermentation.
PubMed:Ingredient selection for plastic composite supports for L-(+)-lactic acid biofilm fermentation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.
PubMed:Attributes of microbial associations of meat growing as xenic batch cultures in a meat juice at 4 degrees C.
PubMed:Antimutagenicity of fermented milk.
PubMed:Cloning, characterization and insertional inactivation of the Lactobacillus helveticus D(-) lactate dehydrogenase gene.
PubMed:[Relation between food intake and oxygen consumption of organs drained by the portal vein in the conscious pig].
PubMed:Formation of bioerodible polymeric microspheres and microparticles by rapid expansion of supercritical solutions.
PubMed:Effect of coliform bacteria, feed deprivation, and pH on ruminal D-lactic acid production by steer or continuous-culture microbial populations changed from forage to concentrates.
PubMed:The influence of pH, temperature and organic acids on the initiation of growth of Yersinia enterocolitica.
PubMed:Acid Tolerance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed:Lactic acid and pH as indicators of spoilage for vacuum-packed cooked ring sausages.
PubMed:In vitro lactic acid inhibition and alterations in volatile fatty acid production by antimicrobial feed additives.
PubMed:Conventional taxonomy of lactobacilli surviving radurization of meat.
PubMed:A note on catalase enhanced recovery of acid injured cells of gram negative bacteria and its consequences for the assessment of the lethality of L-lactic acid decontamination of raw meat surfaces.
PubMed:Growth and end product formation of two psychrotrophic Lactobacillus spp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta ATCC 11509T at different pH values and temperatures.
PubMed:[Comparative study of the digestion of a complete food in the pony and the rabbit].
Occurs in the juice of muscular tissue, bile etc. Flavour ingredient, food antioxidant. Various esters are also used in flavourings Lactic acid is chiral and has two optical isomers. One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(-)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. L-(+)-Lactic acid is the biologically important isomer. (Wikipedia)
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