ammonium chloride
azanium chloride
 
Notes:
an acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating. Dough conditioner, dough strengthener, flavour enhancer, leavening agent, processing aid and yeast food
  • Natural Advantage
    • Natural Advantage
      Manufacturer of natural flavor ingredients
      With over 25 years experience in the flavor and food ingredient industries.
      Natural Advantage was formed over seventeen years ago to supply the growing demand for natural food and flavor ingredients. We employ a wide range of multi-disciplined scientists who are dedicated to high quality service, customer satisfaction and creating an outstanding value for our clients.
      Email: Info
      Email: Customer service
      Voice: 318-215-1456
      Fax: 318-335-1579
      What We Do
      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      Ammonium Chloride Nat
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      01-27900 AMMONIUM CHLORIDE FCC, Kosher
      01-27901 AMMONIUM CHLORIDE USP, Kosher
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
azanium chloride (Click)
CAS Number: 12125-02-9Picture of molecule
Other: 127634-24-6
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 235-186-4
FDA UNII: 01Q9PC255D
Beilstein Number: 4371014
MDL: MFCD00011420
Molecular Weight: 53.49088000
Formula: Cl H4 N
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: sanitizing solutions, dough strengtheners, flavor enhancers, leavening agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1138 Ammonium chloride View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Ammonium Chloride
GSFA Codex: Ammonium chloride (510)
Flavis Number: 16.048 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 16.048  ammonium chloride
FEMA Number: 4494  ammonium chloride
FDA Mainterm: AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions.


FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1138 Ammonium chloride.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 340.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 40.40 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
PH Number: 4.50 to 5.50
Vapor Pressure: 1.000000 mm/Hg @ 160.40 °C.
Vapor Density: 1.9 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
odorless
 cooling  salty  
Taste Description:
cool saline
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
masking agents
viscosity controlling agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
Allan Chemical
Ammonium Chloride
Covalent Chemical
Ammonium Chloride
Graham Chemical
Ammonium Chloride
Kraft Chemical
Ammonium Chloride
Lianyungang Yunbo Chemical
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
Natural Advantage
Ammonium Chloride Nat
Penta International
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE FCC, Kosher
Penta International
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE USP, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Ammonium Chloride 99.99% trace metals basis
Silver Fern Chemical
Ammonium Chloride
Odor: characteristic
Use: Ammonium chloride has many applications in industries such as metalworking, medicine, food, laboratory testing, textiles, and cosmetics.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE Treated Technical Grade
Odor: characteristic
Use: A principal use of ammonium chloride has been as a fluxing agent for hot dip galvanizing of steel and in the refining of zinc.
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36 - Irritating to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 25 - Avoid contact with eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  1650 mg/kg
(IUCLID Dataset, 2000d)

oral-mouse LD50  1300 mg/kg
Iyakuhin Kenkyu. Study of Medical Supplies. Vol. 21, Pg. 257, 1990.

intravenous-mouse LD50  358 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: COMA BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION
Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 37, Pg. 497, 1958.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  485 mg/kg
Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. Vol. 256, Pg. 1043, 1963.

oral-dog LDLo  600 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

intravenous-guinea pig LDLo  220 mg/kg
"Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie," Heffter, A., Berlin, Verlag von Julius Springer. V.1-3, 1920-35. For publisher information, see HEPHD2.Vol. 1, Pg. 470, 1923.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  78 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

oral-rabbit LDLo  1000 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

intramuscular-rat LD50  30 mg/kg
Experimental Medicine and Surgery. Vol. 4, Pg. 223, 1946.

oral-rat LD50  1650 mg/kg
"Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972Vol. -, Pg. 15, 1972.

unreported-rat LD50  550 mg/kg
French Demande Patent Document. Vol. #2444025

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-guinea pig LDLo 72 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1289, 1935.

subcutaneous-mouse LDLo 500 mg/kg
"Drug Dosages in Laboratory Animals - A Handbook," Rev. ed., Barnes, C.D., and L.G. Eltherington, Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1973Vol. -, Pg. 39, 1973.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 200 mg/kg
"Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie," Heffter, A., Berlin, Verlag von Julius Springer. V.1-3, 1920-35. For publisher information, see HEPHD2.Vol. 1, Pg. 470, 1923.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: sanitizing solutions, dough strengtheners, flavor enhancers, leavening agents
Recommendation for ammonium chloride usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 140.00 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 220000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 1000.000003000.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): --
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 1000.000003000.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): --
Bakery wares (07.0): --
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 1000.000003000.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 1000.000003000.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 1000.000003000.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): --
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 1000.000003000.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 1000.000003000.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 1000.000003000.00000
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 46 (FGE.46)[1]: Ammonia and two ammonium salts from chemical group 30
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 46, Revision 1 (FGE.46Rev1): Ammonia and three ammonium salts from chemical group 30
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of ammonium chloride for bovines, sheep, dogs and cats
View page or View pdf
Safety and efficacy of Amoklor (ammonium chloride) as a zootechnical additive for ruminants, cats and dogs
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 12125-02-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 25517
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 azanium chloride
Chemidplus: 0012125029
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 12125-02-9
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References:
 azanium chloride
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 12125-02-9
Pubchem (cid): 25517
Pubchem (sid): 134990524
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C12538
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB34824
FooDB: FDB013385
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB01491
Export Tariff Code: 2827.10.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
Formulations/Preparations:
•contains 99.5-99.8% ammonium chloride; principal impurity is sodium chloride; exists in two temperature dependent crystal modifications. prepn and properties: gmelin's, ammonium (8th ed) 23, pp 150-184 (1936); kane, "ammonium chloride" in mellor's vol viii, supplement 1, nitrogen (part 1), 378-432f(1964). •dosage forms--injection nf: 160 mg30 ml, 600 mg100 ml, 10.7 g500 ml, 21.4 g1000 ml; tablets nf: 500 mg and 1 g. •grades: technical (lump or granulated); cp; usp; fcc •99-100% purity in several commercial forms marketed. •parenteral: for injection, concentrate: 26.75% (5 meq of nh4+ and cl- per ml) ammonium chloride injection, (hospira). •ammonium chloride contains not less than 99.5% and not more than 100.5% of nh4cl ammonium chloride injection contains not less than 95.0% and not more than 105.0% of the labeled amt of ammonium chloride ammonium chloride tablets contains not less than 94.0% and not more than 106.0% of the labeled amt of ammonium chloride. •acs grades; -10 mesh particle size, 99.999% purity grade; technical r (rods), granular c grades, fw and fwn powder grades; technical, treated grades •free-flo fine granular and crystal grades; acs reagent crystal grades
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 buffering agents 
 viscosity controlling agents 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 ammoniac, sal
 ammonium chloratum
 ammonium chloride FCC
 ammonium chloride USP
 amoklor
 azanium chloride
 chlorammonic
 chloride, ammonium
 sal ammoniac
 salmiac
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol in male rats after intake of ammonium chloride for 3 weeks.
PubMed: Induction of metabolic acidosis with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in mice and rats--species differences and technical considerations.
PubMed: Use of ammonium formate in QuEChERS for high-throughput analysis of pesticides in food by fast, low-pressure gas chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Nitrogen availability and indirect measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic and anaerobic biowaste digestates applied to agricultural soils.
PubMed: Effects of infusions of lysine, leucine and ammonium chloride into the hepatic portal vein of chickens on voluntary food intake.
PubMed: Preparation of Some Eco-friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Having Antibacterial Activity from Sea Food Waste.
PubMed: Biofilm formation by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Non-O157 strains and their tolerance to sanitizers commonly used in the food processing environment.
PubMed: Struvite diet in cats: effect of ammonium chloride and carbonates on acid base balance of cats.
PubMed: Effect of supplementation of dry cat food with D,L-methionine and ammonium chloride on struvite activity product and sediment in urine.
PubMed: [Struvite calculi dietetics: 2. Effect of ammonium chloride and carbonates on the acid-base and mineral balance of cats].
PubMed: Evaluation of ammonium chloride as a urinary acidifier in the cat.
PubMed: Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonium chloride to the cladoceran Daphnia pulex Leydig in relation to algal food density.
PubMed: De-novo synthesis of 2-phenylethanol by Enterobacter sp. CGMCC 5087.
PubMed: Balance of net base in the rat. V. Effects of oral ammonium chloride loading.
PubMed: Biodegradation of benzalkonium chlorides singly and in mixtures by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from returned activated sludge.
PubMed: Feline struvite urolithiasis: fasting reduced the effectiveness of a urinary acidifier (ammonium chloride) and increased the intake of a low magnesium diet.
PubMed: Effects of ammonia and urea in vitro on mRNA of candidate bovine endometrial genes.
PubMed: Comparative effects of added sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, or potassium bicarbonate in the drinking water of broilers, and feed restriction, on the development of the ascites syndrome.
PubMed: Biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from "high event period" meat contamination.
PubMed: Effective harvesting of low surface-hydrophobicity microalgae by froth flotation.
PubMed: Effect of branched-chain amino acid on 15N incorporation into liver and skeletal muscle proteins following [15N]-ammonium chloride administration to carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats.
PubMed: Effectiveness of sanitizing products on controlling selected pathogen surrogates on retail deli slicers.
PubMed: Determination of 2-Methylimidazole, 4-Methylimidazole, and 2-Acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole in Licorice Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Stable-Isotope Dilution Analysis.
PubMed: Ammonium chloride promoted three-component synthesis of 5-iminooxazoline and its subsequent transformation to macrocyclodepsipeptide.
PubMed: Effects of ammonium chloride and sulfate on acid-base status and calcium metabolism of dry Jersey cows.
PubMed: Effect of different nitrogenous nutrients on the cadmium hyperaccumulation efficiency of Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell.
PubMed: Anti-stress effects of Glycine tomentella Hayata in tilapia: inhibiting COX-2 expression and enhancing EPA synthesis in erythrocyte membrane and fish growth.
PubMed: Food composition and acid-base balance: alimentary alkali depletion and acid load in herbivores.
PubMed: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis for the determination of imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole in apples, cherry tomatoes and grape juice.
PubMed: Ion pair-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography as a new method for determining five folate derivatives in foodstuffs.
PubMed: Chromosomal integration of a synthetic expression control sequence achieves poly-gamma-glutamate production in a Bacillus subtilis strain.
PubMed: Ammonia content of food.
PubMed: Effect of ammonia via prepyriform cortex on regulation of food intake in the rat.
PubMed: Efficacy of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride on suppression of Physalospora vaccinii in laboratory assays.
PubMed: Factors influencing the aggressiveness elicited by marihuana in food-deprived rats.
PubMed: Studies on the antimalarial mode of action of quinoline-containing drugs: time-dependence and irreversibility of drug action, and interactions with compounds that alter the function of the parasite's food vacuole.
PubMed: Air-ozonolysis to generate contact active antimicrobial surfaces: activation of polyethylene and polystyrene followed by covalent graft of quaternary ammonium salts.
PubMed: [About flavouring substances and flavouring preparations regulation in the field of manufacturing of flavourings and foodstuffs].
PubMed: Enteropathogenic factors of food-poisoning Clostridium perfringens type A.
PubMed: New multilayer coating using quaternary ammonium chitosan and κ-carrageenan in capillary electrophoresis: application in fast analysis of betaine and methionine.
PubMed: In vivo metabolism of nitrogen precursors for urea synthesis in the postprandial rat.
PubMed: Effect of desiccation on tolerance of salmonella enterica to multiple stresses.
PubMed: Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum L. leaves on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats.
PubMed: Interesterification of soybean oil and lard blends catalyzed by SBA-15-pr-NR₃OH as a heterogeneous base catalyst.
PubMed: Biofilm formation by Mycobacterium bovis: influence of surface kind and temperatures of sanitizer treatments on biofilm control.
PubMed: Use of carboxylic group functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the preconcentration of metals in juice samples prior to the determination by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed: Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.
PubMed: Effect of humic acid on pyrene removal from water by polycation-clay mineral composites and activated carbon.
PubMed: Nonstable Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variants Are Induced by Low pH and Sensitized to Antimicrobial Therapy by Phagolysosomal Alkalinization.
PubMed: Effects of inorganic nutrient levels on the biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) by Pseudomonas spp. in a laboratory porous media sand aquifer model.
PubMed: Stereospecific, High-Yielding, and Green Synthesis of β-Glycosyl Esters.
PubMed: Electrochemical characterization of the marine antioxidant gadusol.
PubMed: Acute acid load in recurrent oxalate stone formers.
PubMed: Changes in properties of neuronal responses in two cortical taste areas in rats of various ages.
PubMed: Resistance of two temperate Lactobacillus paracasei bacteriophages to high pressure homogenization, thermal treatments and chemical biocides of industrial application.
PubMed: Effect of pH on in vitro potency of amantadine against Plasmodium falciparum.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic determination of free glutamic acid in soup, meat product, and Chinese food: interlaboratory study.
PubMed: Feline struvite urolithiasis: factors affecting urine pH may be more important than magnesium levels in food.
PubMed: Effects of a dietary load of acid or base on changes induced by lactose in rats.
PubMed: Interaction among multiple microorganisms and effects of nitrogen and carbon supplementations on lignin degradation.
PubMed: Time course of renal glutamate dehydrogenase induction during NH4Cl loading in rats.
PubMed: Study of a rat model for calcium oxalate crystal formation without severe renal damage in selected conditions.
PubMed: Effects of metabolic acidosis on zinc and calcium metabolism in rats.
PubMed: Antimalarial quinolines and artemisinin inhibit endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum.
PubMed: Acidosis prevents growth hormone-induced growth in experimental uremia.
PubMed: Heavy metal determination in aquatic species for food purposes.
PubMed: Differential growth of the fungus Absidia cylindrospora on 13C/15N-labelled media.
PubMed: Physicochemical properties of granular and non-granular cationic starches prepared under ultra high pressure.
PubMed: Identification of the acidic compartment of Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes as the target of the antimalarial drug chloroquine.
PubMed: Amiloride sensitivity in the neonatal rat.
PubMed: Effect of ammonium metavanadate on the mouse peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzymes.
PubMed: Superoxide production in aprotic interior of chloroplast thylakoids.
PubMed: Physiological disposal of the potential alkali load in diet of the rat: steps to achieve acid-base balance.
PubMed: Susceptibility of human malaria parasites to chloroquine is pH dependent.
PubMed: Hepatic-portal nutrient infustion: effect on feeding in intact and vagotomized rabbits.
PubMed: Delay of iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates.
PubMed: Effects of lysosomotropic detergents on the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum in in vitro culture.
PubMed: Practical mechanisms for interrupting the oral-fecal lifecycle of Escherichia coli.
PubMed: Induction of hyperplasia in the bladder epithelium of rats by a dietary excess of acid or base: implications for toxicity/carcinogenicity testing.
PubMed: Toxicity evaluation of two typical surfactants to Dunaliella bardawil, an environmentally tolerant alga.
PubMed: Excretory/secretory products of Haemonchus contortus inhibit aminopyrine accumulation by rabbit gastric glands in vitro.
PubMed: Aggregation in Azospirillum brasilense: effects of chemical and physical factors and involvement of extracellular components.
PubMed: Exploring antiurolithic effects of gokshuradi polyherbal ayurvedic formulation in ethylene-glycol-induced urolithic rats.
PubMed: Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins.
PubMed: Toxicity and carcinogenicity of acidogenic or alkalogenic diets in rats; effects of feeding NH(4)Cl, KHCO(3) or KCl.
PubMed: Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter.
PubMed: Digestion of the host erythrocyte by malaria parasites is the primary target for quinoline-containing antimalarials.
PubMed: Plasma and developing enamel fluoride concentrations during chronic acid-base disturbances.
PubMed: Chronic metabolic acidosis upregulates rat kidney Na-HCO cotransporters NBCn1 and NBC3 but not NBC1.
PubMed: Metabolic acidosis stimulates carbonic anhydrase activity in rabbit proximal tubule and medullary collecting duct.
PubMed: Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Production through Optimization of Medium Composition and Adequate Control of Aeration.
PubMed: Application of Plackett-Burman experimental design and Doehlert design to evaluate nutritional requirements for xylanase production by Alternaria mali ND-16.
PubMed: Developmental down-regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis of an insect lipoprotein.
PubMed: Influence of temperature and salt concentration on the growth of a facultatively halophilic "Micrococcus" sp.
PubMed: Gustatory nerve discharge and preference behavior of penicillamine treated rats.
PubMed: Dynamic changes of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteome during ontogenesis assessed by quantitative analysis with 15N metabolic labeling.
PubMed: Different pH requirements are associated with divergent inhibitory effects of chloroquine on human and avian influenza A viruses.
PubMed: Nonessential nitrogen utilization by children and adolescents.
PubMed: [Physiological functions of L-ornithine and L-aspartate in the body and the efficacy of administration of L-ornithine-L-aspartate in conditions of relative deficiency].
PubMed: Non-acidic compounds induce the intense sweet taste of neoculin, a taste-modifying protein.
PubMed: Combined effects of algal (Chlorella vulgaris) density and ammonia concentration on the population dynamics of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Moina macrocopa (Cladocera).
PubMed: Temperate and virulent Lactobacillus delbrueckii bacteriophages: comparison of their thermal and chemical resistance.
PubMed: Influence of dietary protein and gut microflora on endogenous synthesis of nitrate induced by bacterial endotoxin in the rat.
PubMed: Assignments of 15N and 1H NMR resonances and a neutral pH ionization in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c2.
PubMed: Protein synthesis and degradation during development.
PubMed: ORGANIC MATTER IN THE EXPIRED BREATH WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS INHIBITING POWER ON OXIDIZING FERMENTS.
PubMed: Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.
PubMed: Adaptive and cross-adaptive responses of persistent and non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains to disinfectants.
PubMed: Improving the sensitivity of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of hexabromocyclododecanes by chlorine adduct generation.
PubMed: Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and enhanced spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum (VI) in water and plant leaves samples by FO-LADS.
PubMed: Analysis of the effect of nutritional factors on OTA and OTB biosynthesis and polyketide synthase gene expression in Aspergillus ochraceus.
PubMed: Renal net acid excretion in the adrenalectomized rat.
PubMed: Efficacy of a sanitizer and disinfectants to inactivate Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores.
PubMed: Tibial dyschondroplasia in broilers: comparison to dietary additives and strains.
PubMed: Biological treatment of olive mill wastewater by non-conventional yeasts.
PubMed: Effect of metabolic acidosis on the expression of insulin-like growth factor and growth hormone receptor.
PubMed: Anorexia nervosa, laxative abuse, hypopotassemia and distal renal tubular acidosis.
PubMed: Metabolic acidosis inhibits growth hormone secretion in rats: mechanism of growth retardation.
PubMed: Production of biovanillin by one-step biotransformation using fungus Pycnoporous cinnabarinus.
PubMed: The effect of sodium thiosulfate administration on nephrocalcinosis in a rat model.
PubMed: [Struvite stone dietetics: 1. Effect of different feed rations on the urine pH value of cats].
PubMed: Variation in the bioaccumulation of a sediment-sorbed hydrophobic compound by benthic macroinvertebrates: patterns and mechanisms.
PubMed: Multiple sublethal chemicals negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans.
PubMed: Hypersensitivity reactions to dental materials in patients with lichenoid oral mucosal lesions and in patients with burning mouth syndrome.
PubMed: Treatment and prevention of feline struvite urolithiasis.
PubMed: Therapeutic implications of drug interactions with acetaminophen and aspirin.
PubMed: Injury of bacteria by sanitizers.
PubMed: Physiology of chemoreceptor cells in the legs of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
PubMed: [Cells secreting hydrogen ions into the renal tubules].
PubMed: Effects of high temperature and disinfectants on the viability of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts.
PubMed: Performance testing of Zymomonas mobilis metabolically engineered for cofermentation of glucose, xylose, and arabinose.
PubMed: Seed yeast cultivation for salad oil manufacturing wastewater treatment.
PubMed: Voluntary intake of calcium and other minerals by rats.
PubMed: Enhancement of salt intake by choline chloride.
PubMed: Relation of renal cortical gluconeogenesis, glutamate content, and production of ammonia.
PubMed: [Simultaneous determination of neotame, alitame and aspartame in foods by HPLC].
PubMed: Extraction by reversed micelles of the intracellular enzyme xylose reductase.
PubMed: The effects of dietary acid stress on bone metabolism in young ovariectomized and intact rats.
PubMed: Effect of urinary pH on the progression of urinary bladder tumours.
PubMed: Selective adsorption of tannin from flavonoids by organically modified attapulgite clay.
PubMed: Adsorption studies of a water soluble dye, Reactive Red MF-3B, using sonication-surfactant-modified attapulgite clay.
PubMed: Haloferax alexandrinus sp. nov., an extremely halophilic canthaxanthin-producing archaeon from a solar saltern in Alexandria (Egypt).
PubMed: Modulation of Fc tau receptor expression and function in mouse peritoneal macrophages by ammonium metavanadate.
PubMed: Effects of pH on the carcinogenicity of o-phenylphenol and sodium o-phenylphenate in the rat urinary bladder.
PubMed: In-vitro and in-vivo formation of N-nitrosomethylcyclohexylamine from bromhexin and sodium nitrite, and DNA methylation in rats.
PubMed: Effects of ammonia load on glucose metabolism by isolated ovine duodenal mucosa.
PubMed: Influence of dietary electrolyte balance and microbial phytase on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and excreta quality of broiler chickens.
PubMed: A statistical approach using L(25) orthogonal array method to study fermentative production of clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus MTCC 1142.
PubMed: Removal of phenol from aqueous solution by adsorption onto OTMAC-modified attapulgite.
PubMed: Metabolic fates of ammonia-N in ruminal epithelial and duodenal mucosal cells isolated from growing sheep.
PubMed: Macrophage-stimulating activity of exo-biopolymer from cultured rice bran with Monascus pilosus.
PubMed: Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography to the analysis of uncharged pesticides of environmental impact.
PubMed: CXCR4 heterogeneity in primary cells: possible role of ubiquitination.
PubMed: Induction of reversible urothelial cell hyperplasia in rats by clorsulon, a flukicide with weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity.
PubMed: Light scattering studies of tetramethyl ammonium gellan.
PubMed: Effects of ammonium metavanadate treatment upon macrophage glutathione redox cycle activity, superoxide production, and intracellular glutathione status.
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