EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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Name:(2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
CAS Number: 56-41-7Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):115967-49-2
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-273-8
Nikkaji Web:J16.885H
Beilstein Number:1720248
CoE Number:11729
XlogP3:-3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight:89.09419000
Formula:C3 H7 N O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.002 L-alanine
FEMA Number:3818 L-alanine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):56-41-7 ; L-ALANINE
FDA Regulation:
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystals (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 300.00 to 314.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 212.00 to 213.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:0.066000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 181.00 °F. TCC ( 82.60 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -2.850
Soluble in:
 water, 1.64E+05 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Similar Items:note
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Flavor Type: sweet
Taste Description: sweet
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
Ajinomoto USA
Flavor: characteristic
L-alanine is manufactured by the body and is classified as a non-essential amino acid.
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
L-Alanine 98%
Anhui Haibei
BBFY Industrial
Beijing Lys Chemicals
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
H-Ala-OH >98%
Charkit Chemical
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Alanine, GlenCell, suitable for cell culture
Glentham Life Sciences
Graham Chemical
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Penta International
L-Alanine USP
Qingdao Dacon Trading
L-Alanine, ≥99%
Certified Food Grade Products
For experimental / research use only.
L-Alanine >99.0%(T)
United International
L-Alanine Nat.
Zhong Ya Chemical
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-alanine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 18. Update in publication number(s): 25
Click here to view publication 18
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 75.00000375.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 400.00000500.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 50.00000150.00000
breakfast cereal: 50.00000150.00000
cheese: 10.0000020.00000
chewing gum: 5.0000010.00000
condiments / relishes: 20.00000100.00000
confectionery froastings: 25.00000100.00000
egg products: 50.00000250.00000
fats / oils: 10.0000030.00000
fish products: 50.00000250.00000
frozen dairy: 60.00000200.00000
fruit ices: 10.0000020.00000
gelatins / puddings: 50.00000150.00000
granulated sugar: 5.0000010.00000
gravies: 200.000001000.00000
hard candy: 50.00000200.00000
imitation dairy: 50.00000150.00000
instant coffee / tea: 100.00000500.00000
jams / jellies: 5.0000010.00000
meat products: 100.00000500.00000
milk products: 50.00000150.00000
nut products: 75.00000225.00000
other grains: 10.0000020.00000
poultry: 100.00000500.00000
processed fruits: 10.0000030.00000
processed vegetables: 5.0000010.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 5.0000010.00000
seasonings / flavors: 2000.000004000.00000
snack foods: 100.00000200.00000
soft candy: 25.00000100.00000
soups: 100.00000500.00000
sugar substitutes: 10.0000020.00000
sweet sauces: 25.00000100.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):56-41-7
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5735
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
RTECS:AY2990000 for cas# 56-41-7
 (2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:56-41-7
Pubchem (cid):5735
Pubchem (sid):134972609
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):D01372
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00161
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00154
Export Tariff Code:2922.49.4010
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
grades: reagent; technical. reagent grade; usp and fcc grades
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 hair conditioning
 skin conditioning
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond seed
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 artichoke jerusalem artichoke tuber
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 asparagus seed
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 banana fruit
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 basil leaf
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 bean adzuki bean seed
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 bean asparagus bean seed
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 bean banner bean seed
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 bean black bean fruit
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 bean black bean seed
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 bean black bean sprout
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 bean butter bean seed
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 bean fava bean seed
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 bean field bean seed
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 bean mung bean sprout
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 bean winged bean leaf
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 bean winged bean seed
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 bean yam bean tuber
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli leaf
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 carob bean seed
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 carrot root
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 cashew nut
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 cassava root
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 cayenne fruit
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 celery plant
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 chayote fruit
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 chestnut sweet chestnut nut
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 chickpea seed
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 chive leaf
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 coconut endosperm
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 coconut leaf
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 coconut seed
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander seed
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 corn seed
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 cucumber fruit
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 date palm fruit
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 eggplant fruit
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 endive leaf
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 evening-primrose seed
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 fennel seed
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 fenugreek seed
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 fig fruit
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 flax seed
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 garlic bulb
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 ginger root
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 ginkgo biloba seed
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 goosefoot plant
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 marango shoot
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 melon bitter melon fruit
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 melon bitter melon seed
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 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
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 mustard white mustard seed
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 oat seed
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 okra fruit
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 onion bulb
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea fruit
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 pea seed
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 pea shoot
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 peach fruit
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 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 puya raimondii
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 radish root
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 sage plant
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 sesame seed
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 sunflower seed
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 taro root
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 tarragon plant
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 tea plant
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 thyme plant
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 watercress herb
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 watermelon fruit
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 watermelon seed
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 wheat seed
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 yam mountain yam root
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L-alanine fcc
L-alanine USP
(S)-2-amino-propanoic acid
(2S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
(S)-2-aminopropanoic acid
L-2-aminopropanoic acid
laevo-2-aminopropanoic acid
2-aminopropanoic acid, L-
L-2-aminopropionic acid
L-a-aminopropionic acid
L-alpha-aminopropionic acid
L-S-aminopropionic acid
laevo-alpha-aminopropionic acid
(2S)-2-azanylpropanoic acid
 propanoic acid, 2-amino-, (S)


PubMed:Nonvolatile S-alk(en)ylthio-L-cysteine derivatives in fresh onion (Allium cepa L. cultivar).
PubMed:Food color, flavor, and conditioned avoidance among red-winged blackbirds.
PubMed:Food-grade controlled lysis of Lactococcus lactis for accelerated cheese ripening.
PubMed:Environmental neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and mercury in shark cartilage dietary supplements.
PubMed:L-alanine-induced germination in Bacillus licheniformis -the impact of native gerA sequences.
PubMed:The peptide Z-Aib-Aib-Aib-L-Ala-OtBu.
PubMed:Oral free and dipeptide forms of glutamine supplementation attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation induced by endotoxemia.
PubMed:L-citrulline Improves Splanchnic Perfusion and Reduces Gut Injury during Exercise.
PubMed:Oral supplementations with free and dipeptide forms of L-glutamine in endotoxemic mice: effects on muscle glutamine-glutathione axis and heat shock proteins.
PubMed:Isotopic variants of light and heavy L-pyroglutamic acid succinimidyl esters as the derivatization reagents for DL-amino acid chiral metabolomics identification by liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of the anti-hepatitis C virus nucleotide prodrug GS-6620.
PubMed:Diatoms: a novel source for the neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic environments.
PubMed:Involvement of alanine racemase in germination of Bacillus cereus spores lacking an intact exosporium.
PubMed:Alanyl-glutamine and glutamine plus alanine supplements improve skeletal redox status in trained rats: involvement of heat shock protein pathways.
PubMed:Maternal transfer of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via milk to suckling offspring.
PubMed:A chiral ligand exchange CE system for monitoring inhibitory effect of kojic acid on tyrosinase.
PubMed:Occurrence and transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine within the aquatic food webs of Gonghu Bay (Lake Taihu, China) to evaluate the potential human health risk.
PubMed:Quantitative evaluation of multiple adulterants in roasted coffee by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.
PubMed:Optimization of nutrient-induced germination of Bacillus sporothermodurans spores using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Expression and delivery of an endolysin to combat Clostridium perfringens.
PubMed:Safety evaluation of Whole Algalin Protein (WAP) from Chlorella protothecoides.
PubMed:Cycads and their association with certain neurodegenerative diseases.
PubMed:Linking β-methylamino-L-alanine exposure to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Annapolis, MD.
PubMed:Predictive value of bovine follicular components as markers of oocyte developmental potential.
PubMed:[Asymmetric synthesis of aromatic L-amino acids catalyzed by transaminase].
PubMed:Racemization of the aspartic acid residue of amyloid-β peptide by a radical reaction.
PubMed:Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the surface autolysin IspC of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b: epitope localization, kinetic characterization, and cross-reaction studies.
PubMed:Potential of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins in milk biopreservation.
PubMed:Aerosolization of cyanobacteria as a risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
PubMed:Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization: Application to L-Alanine.
PubMed:Amino acid neurotoxins in feathers of the Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor.
PubMed:Peptidoglycan hydrolases-potential weapons against Staphylococcus aureus.
PubMed:L-BMAA induced ER stress and enhanced caspase 12 cleavage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells at low nonexcitotoxic concentrations.
PubMed:Influence of alanine uptake on Staphylococcus aureus surface charge and its susceptibility to two cationic antibacterial agents, nisin and low molecular weight chitosan.
PubMed:Unveiling the expression characteristics of IspC, a cell wall-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase in Listeria monocytogenes, during growth under stress conditions.
PubMed:Neonatal exposure to the cyanobacterial toxin BMAA induces changes in protein expression and neurodegeneration in adult hippocampus.
PubMed:Dietary L-leucine and L-alanine supplementation have similar acute effects in the prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity.
PubMed:The physiological effect of ingested β-N-methylamino-L-alanine on a glutamatergic synapse in an in vivo preparation.
PubMed:Fratricide is essential for efficient gene transfer between pneumococci in biofilms.
PubMed:Molecular characterization of podoviral bacteriophages virulent for Clostridium perfringens and their comparison with members of the Picovirinae.
PubMed:A comparative study on three analytical methods for the determination of the neurotoxin BMAA in cyanobacteria.
PubMed:Characterization of an endolysin, LysBPS13, from a Bacillus cereus bacteriophage.
PubMed:Isolation and lytic activity of the Listeria bacteriophage endolysin LysZ5 against Listeria monocytogenes in soya milk.
PubMed:Genomic sequence of bacteriophage ATCC 8074-B1 and activity of its endolysin and engineered variants against Clostridium sporogenes.
PubMed:Characterization of LysB4, an endolysin from the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4.
PubMed:Cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in shark fins.
PubMed:Deletion of the murein hydrolase CbpD reduces transformation efficiency in Streptococcus thermophilus.
PubMed:Monitoring of shrimp and farmed fish sold in Canada for cyanobacterial toxins.
PubMed:Promoting Bacillus cereus spore germination for subsequent inactivation by mild heat treatment.
PubMed:LytF, a novel competence-regulated murein hydrolase in the genus Streptococcus.
PubMed:The major autolysin Acm2 from Lactobacillus plantarum undergoes cytoplasmic O-glycosylation.
PubMed:Is neurodegenerative disease a long-latency response to early-life genotoxin exposure?
PubMed:Nonvolatile S-alk(en)ylthio-L-cysteine derivatives in fresh onion (Allium cepa L. cultivar).
PubMed:Structure-based modification of a Clostridium difficile-targeting endolysin affects activity and host range.
PubMed:Listeria bacteriophage peptidoglycan hydrolases feature high thermoresistance and reveal increased activity after divalent metal cation substitution.
PubMed:Lytic activity of the virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase HydH5 of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88.
PubMed:Evidence for behavioral preference toward environmental concentrations of urban-use herbicides in a model adult fish.
PubMed:The nine peptidoglycan hydrolases genes in Lactobacillus helveticus are ubiquitous and early transcribed.
PubMed:Olfactory sensitivity to amino acids in the blackspot sea bream (Pagellus bogaraveo): a comparison between olfactory receptor recording techniques in seawater.
PubMed:Disruption of the cell wall lytic enzyme CwlO affects the amount and molecular size of poly-γ-glutamic acid produced by Bacillus subtilis (natto).
PubMed:Recombinant bacteriophage lysins as antibacterials.
PubMed:Spores of Bacillus cereus strain KBAB4 produced at 10 °C and 30 °C display variations in their properties.
PubMed:Early hippocampal cell death, and late learning and memory deficits in rats exposed to the environmental toxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) during the neonatal period.
PubMed:Origin and Incidence of 2-Methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a Compound with a "Fungal" and "Corky" Aroma Found in Cork Stoppers and Oak Chips in Contact with Wines.
PubMed:Cyanobacterial Blooms and the Occurrence of the neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in South Florida Aquatic Food Webs.
PubMed:Insulin sensitivity and liver glucose production in the rat are influenced by lifetime food restriction.
PubMed:Recombinant expression of two bacteriophage proteins that lyse clostridium perfringens and share identical sequences in the C-terminal cell wall binding domain of the molecules but are dissimilar in their N-terminal active domains.
PubMed:Evaluation of Bacillus strains as model systems for the work on Bacillus anthracis spores.
PubMed:Alternatives to amino acid analysis for the purity control of pharmaceutical grade L-alanine.
PubMed:Synthesis of phospholipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids by phospholipase A(2)-mediated esterification with food-compatible reagents.
PubMed:Effect of media, additives, and incubation conditions on the recovery of high pressure and heat-injured Clostridium botulinum spores.
PubMed:Comparative analysis of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores obtained at different temperatures.
PubMed:β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) uptake by the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum.
PubMed:Oxygen-dependent fragmentation reactions during the degradation of 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexo-2,3-diulose.
PubMed:Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure.
PubMed:Pneumococcal CbpD is a murein hydrolase that requires a dual cell envelope binding specificity to kill target cells during fratricide.
PubMed:Comparison of genotypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 and 9c strains isolated during three outbreaks associated with raw almonds.
PubMed:A diet containing whey protein, free glutamine, and transforming growth factor-beta ameliorates nutritional outcome and intestinal mucositis during repeated chemotherapeutic challenges in rats.
PubMed:The pneumococcal cell envelope stress-sensing system LiaFSR is activated by murein hydrolases and lipid II-interacting antibiotics.
PubMed:Human exposure to cyanobacteria and BMAA.
PubMed:Toxicity of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine to three aquatic animal species.
PubMed:Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?
PubMed:Beyond Guam: the cyanobacteria/BMAA hypothesis of the cause of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases.
PubMed:Control of impurities in L-aspartic acid and L-alanine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a corona charged aerosol detector.
PubMed:Synergistic effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus surface layer and nisin on bacterial growth.
PubMed:The effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism.
PubMed:Effects of supplementation with free glutamine and the dipeptide alanyl-glutamine on parameters of muscle damage and inflammation in rats submitted to prolonged exercise.
PubMed:LC-MS/MS determination of the isomeric neurotoxins BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in cyanobacteria and seeds of Cycas revoluta and Lathyrus latifolius.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of the cyanobacterial toxin beta-n-methylamino-L-alanine in algae food supplements, freshwater fish, and bottled water.
PubMed:The preparation, germination properties and stability of superdormant spores of Bacillus cereus.
PubMed:Rapid Endospore Viability Assay of Clostridium sporogenes spores.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation of L-arginine and conjugated linoleic acid reduces retroperitoneal fat mass and increases lean body mass in rats.
PubMed:Reactivity of 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexo-2,3-diulose: a key intermediate in the maillard chemistry of hexoses.
PubMed:Fratricide in Streptococcus pneumoniae: contributions and role of the cell wall hydrolases CbpD, LytA and LytC.
PubMed:Selective brain uptake and behavioral effects of the cyanobacterial toxin BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) following neonatal administration to rodents.
PubMed:Protein properties of mackerel viscera extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide.
PubMed:Determination of the neurotoxin BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in cycad seed and cyanobacteria by LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry).
PubMed:Olfactory conditioning in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).
PubMed:Effects of oral supplementation with glutamine and alanyl-glutamine on glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione status in trained rats and subjected to long-duration exercise.
PubMed:Vancomycin heteroresistance and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis from food.
PubMed:Lytic activity of the recombinant staphylococcal bacteriophage PhiH5 endolysin active against Staphylococcus aureus in milk.
PubMed:Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.
PubMed:Mechanism of the suppression against D-galactosamine-induced hepatic injury by dietary amino acids in rats.
PubMed:Dietary arginine supplementation during early pregnancy enhances embryonic survival in rats.
PubMed:A new approach for the purification and characterisation of PA49.5, the main prebiotic of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris.
PubMed:Diversity of spore germination in response to inosine and L-alanine and its interaction with NaCl and pH in the Bacillus cereus group.
PubMed:Enolization and racemization reactions of glucose and fructose on heating with amino-acid enantiomers and the formation of melanoidins as a result of the Maillard reaction.
PubMed:Production of the neurotoxin BMAA by a marine cyanobacterium.
PubMed:Usefulness of breath test for evaluating pancreatic exocrine function using N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-1-13C-L-alanine sodium in non-invasive and conscious rats.
PubMed:Contribution of hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the defense against short-term insulin induced hypoglycemia in rats.
PubMed:Clostridium perfringens spore germination: characterization of germinants and their receptors.
PubMed:Influence of the sporulation temperature on the impact of the nutrients inosine and l-alanine on Bacillus cereus spore germination.
PubMed:L-alanine-L-glutamine supplementation improves the outcome after colorectal surgery for cancer.
PubMed:Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice.
PubMed:Food color, flavor, and conditioned avoidance among red-winged blackbirds.
PubMed:Amino acid and carbohydrate preferences in C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J mice.
PubMed:Expression of AmpC beta-lactamase in Enterobacter cloacae isolated from retail ground beef, cattle farm and processing facilities.
PubMed:L-alanin-L-glutamine supplementation improves the outcome after colorectal surgery for cancer.
PubMed:The influence of manufacture on the free D-amino acid content of Cheddar cheese.
PubMed:Differential induction of oxidative impairments in brain regions of male mice following subchronic consumption of Khesari dhal (Lathyrus sativus) and detoxified Khesari dhal.
PubMed:Germination of Bacillus cereus spores adhered to stainless steel.
PubMed:Molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect of cobalt ion on thermolysin activity and the suppressive effect of calcium ion on the cobalt ion-dependent inactivation of thermolysin.
PubMed:Inhibition of Rhizomucor miehei and Candida rugosa lipases by D-glucose in esterification between L-alanine and D-glucose.
PubMed:Nitrogen-fixing and cellulose-producing Gluconacetobacter kombuchae sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea.
PubMed:A novel surface autolysin of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b, IspC, contains a 23-residue N-terminal signal peptide being processed in E. coli.
PubMed:Identification of IspC, an 86-kilodalton protein target of humoral immune response to infection with Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b, as a novel surface autolysin.
PubMed:Two 2[5H]-furanones as possible signaling molecules in Lactobacillus helveticus.
PubMed:Molecules involved in the modulation of rapid cell death in Xanthomonas.
PubMed:Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes protein Lmo0327 with murein hydrolase activity.
PubMed:Helically chiral ferrocene peptides containing 1'-aminoferrocene-1-carboxylic acid subunits as turn inducers.
PubMed:Hen egg white lysozyme as an inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activity of lysostaphin and a Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysin produced and secreted by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Identification of two novel pigment precursors and a reddish-purple pigment involved in the blue-green discoloration of onion and garlic.
PubMed:Enzymatic and mechanistic studies on the formation of N-phenylglycolohydroxamic acid from nitrosobenzene and pyruvate in spinach leaf homogenate.
PubMed:Role of the solvent glycerol in the Maillard reaction of d-fructose and l-alanine.
PubMed:Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.
PubMed:Heterogeneous distribution of taste cells in facial and vagal nerve-innervated taste buds.
PubMed:Effect of individual amino acids and glucose on activation and germination of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores in tempe starter.
PubMed:Modelling the effect of a heat shock and germinant concentration on spore germination of a wild strain of Bacillus cereus.
PubMed:Choline-binding protein D (CbpD) in Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for competence-induced cell lysis.
PubMed:Influence of glutamate on growth, sporulation, and spore properties of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in defined medium.
PubMed:Diet-brain connections: role of neurotoxicants.
PubMed:Molecular properties of the two-component cell lysis system encoded by prophage phigaY of Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Leptin secretion and protein kinase A activity.
PubMed:gerR, a novel ger operon involved in L-alanine- and inosine-initiated germination of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.
PubMed:Screening for Bacillus subtilis mutants deficient in pressure induced spore germination: identification of ykvU as a novel germination gene.
PubMed:Effect of theophylline on L-alanine absorption in the rat jejunum.
PubMed:Application of stepwise discriminant analysis to classify commercial orange juices using chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography-laser induced fluorescence data of amino acids.
PubMed:A mechanism for slow release of biomagnified cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease in Guam.
PubMed:Characterisation of autolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus pentosus.
PubMed:Auto, a surface associated autolysin of Listeria monocytogenes required for entry into eukaryotic cells and virulence.
PubMed:The Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol acetyl transferase gene ATF1 is a target of the cAMP/PKA and FGM nutrient-signalling pathways.
PubMed:Biomagnification of cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease among the Chamorro people of Guam.
PubMed:Identification of the taste enhancer alapyridaine in beef broth and evaluation of its sensory impact by taste reconstitution experiments.
PubMed:Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.
PubMed:Biomagnification of cycad neurotoxins in flying foxes: implications for ALS-PDC in Guam.
PubMed:Hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats trained to eat a single meal daily. Role of eating periodicity and the amount of food ingested in the last meal.
PubMed:Design of chiral monochloro-s-triazine reagents for the liquid chromatographic separation of amino acid enantiomers.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics and feeding responses to muramyl dipeptide in rats.
PubMed:Racemic and enantiopure synthesis and physicochemical characterization of the novel taste enhancer N-(1-carboxyethyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)pyridinium-3-ol inner salt.
PubMed:Determination of D- and L-alanine concentrations using a pyruvic acid sensor.
PubMed:Growth and germination of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum in vegetable-based media.
PubMed:Subunit interaction of monomeric alanine racemases from four Shigella species in catalytic reaction.
PubMed:Sensory activity, chemical structure, and synthesis of Maillard generated bitter-tasting 1-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium-6-olates.
PubMed:Autolytic activity and pediocin-induced lysis in Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus strains.
PubMed:Discovery and structure determination of a novel Maillard-derived sweetness enhancer by application of the comparative taste dilution analysis (cTDA).
PubMed:Use of the alr gene as a food-grade selection marker in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:The murein hydrolase of the bacteriophage phi3626 dual lysis system is active against all tested Clostridium perfringens strains.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria for the production of nutraceuticals.
PubMed:Autolytic phenotype of Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from traditional Tunisian dairy products.
PubMed:Use of a novel method to characterize the response of spores of non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum types B, E and F to a wide range of germinants and conditions.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity of licochalcone A against spore-forming bacteria.
PubMed:Effect of heat-treated proteins on selected parameters of the biotransformation system in the rat.
PubMed:Nepenthes insignis uses a C2-portion of the carbon skeleton of L-alanine acquired via its carnivorous organs, to build up the allelochemical plumbagin.
PubMed:Gene cloning and characterization of alanine racemases from Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii, Shigella flexneri, and Shigella sonnei.
PubMed:Effect of a meal feeding schedule on hepatic glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis in rats.
PubMed:Resveratrol and a novel tyrosinase in Carignan grape juice.
PubMed:Characterization of key chromophores formed by nonenzymatic browning of hexoses and L-alanine by using the color activity concept.
PubMed:Oxalate synthesis in mammals: properties and subcellular distribution of serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in the liver.
PubMed:Leaky Lactococcus cultures that externalize enzymes and antigens independently of culture lysis and secretion and export pathways.
PubMed:Autolysis of dairy leuconostocs and detection of peptidoglycan hydrolases by renaturing SDS-PAGE.
PubMed:Stimulation of Cl(-) secretion by L-alanine oligopeptides in the mammalian large intestine.
PubMed:Germination-induced bioluminescence, a route to determine the inhibitory effect of a combination preservation treatment on bacterial spores.
PubMed:Effect of amino acids on the composition and properties of extruded mixtures of wheat flour and glucose.
PubMed:Origin of carbohydrate degradation products in L-Alanine/D-[(13)C]glucose model systems.
PubMed:2-36[K4,RYYSA(19-23)]PP a novel Y5-receptor preferring ligand with strong stimulatory effect on food intake.
PubMed:Olfactory discrimination of amino acids in brown bullhead catfish.
PubMed:Origin of 2,3-pentanedione and 2,3-butanedione in D-glucose/L-alanine Maillard model systems.
PubMed:Studies on radical intermediates in the early stage of the nonenzymatic browning reaction of carbohydrates and amino acids.
PubMed:Food toxins, ampa receptors, and motor neuron diseases.
PubMed:Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent transport of L-arginine and L-alanine across dog intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.
PubMed:Conversion of Lactococcus lactis from homolactic to homoalanine fermentation through metabolic engineering.
PubMed:Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Carnobacterium spp. strains in a simulated cold smoked fish system stored at 4 degrees C.
PubMed:Identification and characterization of a lysis module present in a large proportion of bacteriophages infecting Streptococcus thermophilus.
PubMed:Influence of several environmental factors on the initiation of germination and inactivation of Bacillus cereus by high hydrostatic pressure.
PubMed:Food-grade controlled lysis of Lactococcus lactis for accelerated cheese ripening.
PubMed:Visual and chemical release of feeding behavior in adult rainbow trout.
PubMed:Dietary sulphur amino acid adequacy influences glutathione synthesis and glutathione-dependent enzymes during the inflammatory response to endotoxin and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in rats.
PubMed:Dietary consumption of Lathyrus sativus seeds induces behavioral changes in the rat.
PubMed:Chemotaxis of the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina and the ciliated Tetrahymena pyriformis--effects of glycine, lysine, and alanine, and their oligopeptides.
PubMed:Effect of L-glutamine supplementation on impaired glucose regulation during intravenous lipid administration.
PubMed:Effect of amino acid residues at the cleavable site of substrates on the remarkable activation of thermolysin by salts.
PubMed:Lipoprotein that selectively inhibits taste nerve responses to bitter substances.
PubMed:L-glutamine supplementation of a high fat diet reduces body weight and attenuates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in C57BL/6J mice.
PubMed:Recovery of heat-injured spores of Clostridium perfringens types B, C and D by lysozyme and an initiation protein.
PubMed:Biotransformation of 3-(phenylamino)-1,2-propanediol to 3-(phenylamino)alanine: a chemical link between toxic oil syndrome and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome.
PubMed:In vitro adsorption of amino acids onto isolated rat erythrocyte membranes.
PubMed:Alanine- and glucose-based hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution in infants with persistent diarrhoea: a controlled trial.
PubMed:Gustatory control of feeding behavior in goldfish.
PubMed:Tryptophanase from Escherichia coli: catalytic and spectral properties in water-organic solvents.
PubMed:Proteolytic and lipolytic activities of Micrococcus roseus (65), Halomonas elongata (16) and Vibrio sp. (168) isolated from Danish bacon curing brines.
PubMed:Consummatory feeding behavior to amino acids in intact and anosmic channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic resolution of (R, S)-α-alkyl-α-amino acids as diastereomeric derivatives.
PubMed:Effects of L-alanine injection and post-hatch deprivation of feed and water on glycogen reserves in turkey poults.
PubMed:Cysteine and glycine supplementation modulate the metabolic response to tumor necrosis factor alpha in rats fed a low protein diet.
PubMed:Content of the neurotoxins cycasin (methylazoxymethanol beta-D-glucoside) and BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in cycad flour prepared by Guam Chamorros.
PubMed:Short term starvation-induced changes in the kinetic parameters of rat red cell L-alanine and glycine uptake.
PubMed:Excitotoxicity in the embryonic chick spinal cord.
PubMed:Alanine-based oral rehydration solution: assessment of efficacy in acute noncholera diarrhea among children.
PubMed:Alanine-based oral rehydration therapy for infants with acute diarrhea.
PubMed:Isolation, and morphological and chemical properties of an autolysis-deficient mutant of Clostridium botulinum type A.
PubMed:[Nutritional quality of the protein of the false lentil (Vicia sativa ssp. abovata (Ser) Gaudin].
PubMed:In vivo portal-hepatic venous gradients of glycogenic precursors and incorporation of D-[3-3H]glucose into liver glycogen in the awake rat.
PubMed:In vivo C14-L-alanine metabolism in rat dietary obesity induced by cafeteria diet.
PubMed:Effects of valine on 15N incorporation into serum and tissue protein and non-protein fractions following 15N-L-leucine administration to normal and liver-injured rats.
PubMed:Effect of subacute oral intake of the food antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole on clinical parameters and phase-I and -II biotransformation capacity in man.
PubMed:A method to assess the bacterial content of refrigerated meat.
PubMed:L-alanine: 4,5-dioxovalerate aminotransferase from Pseudomonas riboflavina: purification and inactivation by methylglyoxal.
PubMed:Development of more selective anti-cancer nitrosoureas.
PubMed:Mode of action of Clostridium perfringens initiation protein (spore-lytic enzyme).
PubMed:Stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in digestive tract mucosa.
PubMed:Guam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism-dementia linked to a plant excitant neurotoxin.
PubMed:Some N-acyl-D-amino acid derivatives having antibotulinal properties.
PubMed:Stereospecific acute neuronotoxicity of 'uncommon' plant amino acids linked to human motor-system diseases.
PubMed:Effects of chronic uraemia on the formation of glucose and urea plus ammonia from L-alanine, L-glutamine and L-serine in isolated rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:Amino acid suppression of taurine-sensitive chemosensory neurons.
PubMed:Heat resistance, spore germination, and enterotoxigenicity of Clostridium perfringens.
PubMed:Synthesis of three N-nitroso dipeptides N-terminal in proline and a method for their determination in food.
PubMed:Mutagenicity studies on N-nitrosated products of the Maillard browning reaction: N-nitroso-fructose-amino acids.
PubMed:[Comparative biological value of protein hydrolysates and their fortified forms].
PubMed:Oral administration of arginine and citrulline in the treatment of lysinuric protein intolerance.
PubMed:Chemosensory tracking of scent trails by the planktonic shrimp Acetes sibogae australis.
PubMed:Nitrogen retention in rats fed on diets enriched with arginine and glycine. 2. Effect of diethyl ether anaesthesia on N retention.
PubMed:The structure of two alanine containing ferrichromes: sequence determination by proton magnetic resonance.
PubMed:Factors affecting L-alanine induced germination of Bacillus spores.
PubMed:Fractionation of dipeptidase activities of Streptococcus lactis and dipeptidase specificity of some lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Oxidative activation of Bacillus cereus spores.
a non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. it is produced from pyruvate by transamination. it is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. Dietary supplement, nutrient Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A) is an alpha-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid. L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins. D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics. (Wikipedia)
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