3-aminopropanoic acid
an amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid. a rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported. Widely distributed in plants including algae, fungi and many higher plants. Flavouring ingredient Beta-alanine is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid - the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (Vitamin B-5) which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.; Even though much weaker than glycine (and thus with a debated role as a physiological transmitter), ?-alanine is an agonist next in activity to the cognate ligant glycine itself, for strychnine-sensitive inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) (the agonist order: glycine >> ?-alanine > taurine >> alanine, L-serine > proline).; L-Histidine, with a pKa of 6.1 is a relatively weak buffer over the physiological intramuscular pH range. However, when bound to other amino acids this increases nearer to 6.8-7.0. In particular, when bound to ?-alanine the pKa value is 6.83, making this a very efficient intramuscular buffer. Furthermore, because of the position of the beta amino group, ?-alanine dipeptides are not incorporated proteins and thus can be stored at relatively high concentrations (millimolar). Occurring at 17-25 mmol/kg (dry muscle), carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) is an important intramuscular buffer, constituting 10-20% of the total buffering capacity in type I and II muscle fibres.; ?-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which are amino acids in which the amino group is at the ?-position from the carboxylate group (i.e., two atoms away, see Figure 1). The IUPAC name for ?-alanine would be 3-aminopropanoic acid. Unlike its normal counterpart, L-?-alanine, ?-alanine has no chiral center.; ?-Alanine is not used in the biosynthesis of any major proteins or enzymes. It is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, ?-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid.
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
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      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve as our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Our substantial portfolio of personal care ingredients now include a wide array of luxury and exotic components to compliment the key products we have always offered. We have expanded our offerings to the nutraceutical, industrial, and resin markets with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. We continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions. Please contact us to learn how we can help you reach your goals.
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      ALANINE, B-
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    • Penta International Corporation
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      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
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  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
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      W325201 b-Alanine, ≥98%, FG
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      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
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      A0180 beta-Alanine >99.0%(T)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
3-aminopropanoic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 107-95-9Picture of molecule
Other: 87867-95-6
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 203-536-5
Nikkaji Web: J4.070C
Beilstein Number: 0906793
MDL: MFCD00008200
CoE Number: 11729
XlogP3: -3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight: 89.09419000
Formula: C3 H7 N O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1418  beta-alanine
Flavis Number: 17.001 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 17.001  beta-alanine
FEMA Number: 3252  beta-alanine
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless crystalline needles (est)
Assay: 97.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 200.00 to  207.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 237.00 to  238.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
PH Number: 7.00
Vapor Pressure: 0.016000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: > 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.882 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol, slightly
 water, 5.45E+05 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
Similar Items: note
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
Flavor Type: sweet
Taste Description:
slightly sweet taste
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: humectants
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Anhui Haibei
Atlantic Chemicals
BBFY Industrial
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Charkit Chemical
George Uhe Company
Glentham Life Sciences
Graham Chemical
Penta International
Risun Ingredients
beta-Alanine AJI
Sarchem Laboratories
For experimental / research use only.
b-Alanine, ≥98%, FG
Odor: fruity; sweet
Certified Food Grade Products
For experimental / research use only.
beta-Alanine >99.0%(T)
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for beta-alanine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 360.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 13.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 5
Click here to view publication 5
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -10.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -10.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: -10.00000
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -10.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: -10.00000
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -10.00000
milk products: -10.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: -10.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted on request by DG SANCO. Addendum to FGE. 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85 and 87.
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf
Response to comments on the Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increased physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 107-95-9
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 239
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 3-aminopropanoic acid
Chemidplus: 0000107959
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 3-aminopropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 107-95-9
Pubchem (cid): 239
Pubchem (sid): 134972742
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00099
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00056
FooDB: FDB002253
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00195
Export Tariff Code: 2922.49.4010
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 sweetening agents 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 amino acids; carnosine, auserine, pantothenic acid
Search  PMC Picture
 apple fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 currant black currant fruit juice
Search Trop  Picture
 iris tingitana
Search Trop  Picture
 melon bitter melon fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 alanine, beta
3-amino-propanoic acid
3-aminopropanoic acid
b-aminopropanoic acid
3-aminopropionic acid
beta-aminopropionic acid
 propanoic acid, 3-amino-
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
PubMed: The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men.
PubMed: Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
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PubMed: Extracorporeal therapy for dabigatran removal in the treatment of acute bleeding: a single center experience.
PubMed: The new oral anticoagulants in clinical practice.
PubMed: [Direct oral thrombin inhibitor, "dabigatran"].
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PubMed: Lipid components and water soluble metabolites in salted and dried tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) roes.
PubMed: Dabigatran and postmarketing reports of bleeding.
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PubMed: Recent advances in antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.
PubMed: Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.
PubMed: Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: dawn of a new era.
PubMed: Review of recently approved alternatives to anticoagulation with warfarin for emergency clinicians.
PubMed: Basal leptin regulates amino acid uptake in polarized Caco-2 cells.
PubMed: Positive outcome after intentional overdose of dabigatran.
PubMed: Comparing new anticoagulants.
PubMed: The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men.
PubMed: [Laboratory diagnostic with regard to new anticoagulants - monitoring and influence on coagulation tests].
PubMed: Dabigatran compared with warfarin for stroke prevention with atrial fibrillation: experience in Hong Kong.
PubMed: Effects of Six Weeks of β-alanine Administration on VO(2) max, Time to Exhaustion and Lactate Concentrations in Physical Education Students.
PubMed: The safety risks of innovation: the FDA's Expedited Drug Development Pathway.
PubMed: [The new anticoagulants - their role in secondary prevention of thromboembolism after stroke].
PubMed: [Clinical management of the new anticoagulants].
PubMed: Complications of anticoagulation.
PubMed: Fatal gastrointestinal hemorrhage after a single dose of dabigatran.
PubMed: Self-assembly of a peptide amphiphile containing L-carnosine and its mixtures with a multilamellar vesicle forming lipid.
PubMed: Hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade associated with dabigatran use.
PubMed: Dabigatran for the prevention of thromboembolic complications in the elderly: a RE-LY-able alternative to warfarin?
PubMed: Acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in a patient taking dabigatran with radiographic evidence of recanalization.
PubMed: New oral anticoagulants: will they replace warfarin?
PubMed: An audience with... Gregory Lip. Interview by Asher Mullard.
PubMed: The Food and Drug Administration decision not to approve the 110 mg dose of dabigatran: give us a way out.
PubMed: Novel direct factor IIa and Xa inhibitors: mechanisms of action and preclinical studies.
PubMed: Dabigatran: a new chapter in anticoagulation.
PubMed: Chemoinformatic identification of novel inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-aspartate α-decarboxylase.
PubMed: Use of direct thrombin inhibitor for treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis.
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PubMed: Improving prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism: clinical trial results.
PubMed: A new generation of oral direct anticoagulants.
PubMed: Leptin regulates sugar and amino acids transport in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.
PubMed: Determination of nonprotein amino acids and betaines in vegetable oils by flow injection triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: a screening method for the detection of adulterations of olive oils.
PubMed: [Pharmacologic heterogeneity of new anticoagulants].
PubMed: Dabigatran use in a postoperative coronary artery bypass surgery patient with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and heparin-PF4 antibodies.
PubMed: Spontaneous splenic hemorrhage after initiation of dabigatran (Pradaxa) for atrial fibrillation.
PubMed: Pharmacological basis and clinical evidence of dabigatran therapy.
PubMed: Beta-alanine (Carnosyn™) supplementation in elderly subjects (60-80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity.
PubMed: Role of curcumin in the conversion of asparagine into acrylamide during heating.
PubMed: [Anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation: a new era has begun].
PubMed: Olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment in age-related neurodegeneration: prevalence related to patient selection, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic treatment of aged clients receiving clinical neurology and community-based care.
PubMed: Clinical pharmacology basis of deriving dosing recommendations for dabigatran in patients with severe renal impairment.
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PubMed: Dabigatran: review of pharmacology and management of bleeding complications of this novel oral anticoagulant.
PubMed: Dabigatran in atrial fibrillation: pharmacology and clinical trials.
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PubMed: New oral anticoagulants and outpatient prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism.
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PubMed: 3-(allyltrisulfanyl)-2-aminopropanoic acid, a novel nonvolatile water-soluble antimicrobial sulfur compound in heated garlic.
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PubMed: Conversion of 3-aminopropionamide and 3-alkylaminopropionamides into acrylamide in model systems.
PubMed: The effect of taurine, a novel biochemical modulator, on the antitumor activity of doxorubicin.
PubMed: Fluorometric determination of pantothenic acid in human urine by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization.
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PubMed: Influence of sulfur fertilization on the amounts of free amino acids in wheat. correlation with baking properties as well as with 3-aminopropionamide and acrylamide generation during baking.
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PubMed: Quantitation of 3-aminopropionamide in potatoes-a minor but potent precursor in acrylamide formation.
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PubMed: Characterization of an alanine racemase gene from Lactobacillus reuteri.
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PubMed: Immunohistochemical localization of insulin in pancreatic beta-cells of taurine-supplemented or taurine-depleted diabetic rats.
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PubMed: Determination of fumaric acid in apple juice by on-line coupled capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis with UV detection.
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PubMed: Changes in taurine in aging fruit flies and mice.
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PubMed: Isotachophoretic determination of ethylenediaminetetraacetate in salad dressing, mayonnaise, and margarine.
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PubMed: Influence of beta-alanine on mating and territorialism in Drosophila melanogaster.
PubMed: Immunocytoma effect upon circadian variation in murine urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.
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