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Name:2-aminopropanoic acid
CAS Number: 302-72-7Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:206-126-4
Nikkaji Web:J1.276I
Beilstein Number:1720250
CoE Number:11729
XlogP3:-3.00 (est)
Molecular Weight:89.09419000
Formula:C3 H7 N O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1437 DL-alanine
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.024 DL-alanine
FEMA Number:3818 DL-alanine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):302-72-7 ; DL-ALANINE
FDA Regulation:
Subpart F--Flavoring Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 172.540 DL-Alanine.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 289.00 to 300.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 212.00 to 216.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.066000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 180.00 °F. TCC ( 82.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): -2.960
Soluble in:
 water, 1.66E+05 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Similar Items:note
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Flavor Type: sweet
Taste Description: sweet
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
Anhui Haibei
BBFY Industrial
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
H-DL-Ala-OH 95%
Glentham Life Sciences
Penta International
DL-Alanine, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
For experimental / research use only.
DL-Alanine >98.5%(T)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for dextro,laevo-alanine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 115.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 18. Update in publication number(s): 25
Click here to view publication 18
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 78.00000375.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 50.00000250.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 50.00000150.00000
breakfast cereal: 50.00000150.00000
cheese: 10.0000020.00000
chewing gum: 5.0000010.00000
condiments / relishes: 20.00000100.00000
confectionery froastings: 25.00000100.00000
egg products: 50.00000250.00000
fats / oils: 10.0000030.00000
fish products: 50.00000250.00000
frozen dairy: 60.00000200.00000
fruit ices: 10.0000020.00000
gelatins / puddings: 50.00000150.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: 200.000001000.00000
hard candy: 50.00000200.00000
imitation dairy: 50.00000150.00000
instant coffee / tea: 100.00000500.00000
jams / jellies: 5.0000010.00000
meat products: 100.00000500.00000
milk products: 50.00000150.00000
nut products: 75.00000225.00000
other grains: 10.0000020.00000
poultry: 100.00000500.00000
processed fruits: 10.0000030.00000
processed vegetables: 5.0000010.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 5.0000010.00000
seasonings / flavors: 2000.000004000.00000
snack foods: 100.00000200.00000
soft candy: 25.00000100.00000
soups: 100.00000500.00000
sugar substitutes: 10.0000020.00000
sweet sauces: 25.00000100.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):302-72-7
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :602
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
2-aminopropanoic acid
RTECS:AY2980000 for cas# 302-72-7
 2-aminopropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:302-72-7
Pubchem (cid):602
Pubchem (sid):135017424
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C01401
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:2922.49.4010
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 hair conditioning
 skin conditioning
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
DL-alanine FCC
 alanine, DL-
2-aminopropanoic acid
a-aminopropanoic acid
dextro,laevo-2-aminopropanoic acid
DL-aminopropanoic acid
DL-2-aminopropanoic acid
(±)-2-aminopropionic acid
dextro,laevo-alpha-aminopropionic acid
DL-2-aminopropionic acid
DL-a-aminopropionic acid
DL-alpha-aminopropionic acid
 propanoic acid, 2-amino-


PubMed:Synthesis, structure, luminescence, and magnetic properties of a single-ion magnet "mer"-[tris(N-[(imidazol-4-yl)-methylidene]-DL-phenylalaninato)terbium(III) and related "fac"-DL-alaninato derivative.
PubMed:A possible prebiotic origin on volcanic islands of oligopyrrole-type photopigments and electron transfer cofactors.
PubMed:A high-pressure single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition in DL-alaninium semi-oxalate monohydrate with switching-over hydrogen bonds.
PubMed:Asticcacaulis solisilvae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.
PubMed:Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of gamma-irradiated DL-alanine ethyl ester hydrochloride, L-theanine and L-glutamic acid dimethyl ester hydrochloride.
PubMed:Exploration of Sitagliptin as a potential inhibitor for the M1 Alanine aminopeptidase enzyme in Plasmodium falciparum using computational docking.
PubMed:Population and size distribution of solute-rich mesospecies within mesostructured aqueous amino acid solutions.
PubMed:Optimization of media composition for D-amino acid oxidase production by Trigonopsis variabilis using biostatistical analysis.
PubMed:Biological and cytoselective anticancer properties of copper(II)-polypyridyl complexes modulated by auxiliary methylated glycine ligand.
PubMed:X-ray diffraction and Raman study of DL-alanine at high pressure: revision of phase transitions.
PubMed:Reversible absorption of SO2 by amino acid aqueous solutions.
PubMed:dl-Alaninium iodide.
PubMed:Synthesis, characterization and application of enrofloxacin complexes as thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride).
PubMed:Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial activity evaluation of metal complexes of sparfloxacin.
PubMed:Racemic resolution of some DL-amino acids using Aspergillus fumigatus L-amino acid oxidase.
PubMed:Water-induced physical gelation of organic solvents by N-(n-alkylcarbamoyl)-L-alanine amphiphiles.
PubMed:Tepidibacter mesophilus sp. nov., a mesophilic fermentative anaerobe isolated from soil polluted by crude oil, and emended description of the genus Tepidibacter.
PubMed:[A study of vibrational spectra of L-, D-, DL-alanine in terahertz Domain].
PubMed:Substituent effects on the reaction of beta-benzoylalanines with Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase.
PubMed:Birefringent physical gels of N-(4-n-alkyloxybenzoyl)-L-alanine amphiphiles in organic solvents: the role of hydrogen-bonding.
PubMed:Molecular orientation and intermolecular interaction in alanine on Cu(001).
PubMed:Characterization of alanine catabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its importance for proliferation in vivo.
PubMed:Influence of amide linkages on acidity determinations of humic substances Testing with model-mixtures.
PubMed:Mixed ligand complexes of benzimidazole and pyrimidine hydroxy azo dyes with some transition metals and glycine, dl-alanine or dl-leucine.
PubMed:Development of a size exclusion chromatography-electrochemical detection method for the analysis of total organic and inorganic chloramines.
PubMed:Oligopeptides and copeptides of homochiral sequence, via beta-sheets, from mixtures of racemic alpha-amino acids, in a one-pot reaction in water; relevance to biochirogenesis.
PubMed:Novel Michael addition products of bis(amino acidato)metal(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization, dye degradation, and oxidation properties.
PubMed:Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the akuapem north district.
PubMed:Physicochemical properties of zwitterionic L- and DL-alanine crystals from their experimental and theoretical charge densities.
PubMed:Progress in 13C and 1H solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for paramagnetic systems under very fast magic angle spinning.
PubMed:The effectiveness of 1H decoupling in the 13C MAS NMR of paramagnetic solids: an experimental case study incorporating copper(II) amino acid complexes.
PubMed:Freezing effect on chirality generation of DL-alanine-N-carboxy-anhydride oligomerization in aqueous solution.
PubMed:Uranyl binary and ternary chelates of tenoxicam Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of ternary chelates of tenoxicam and alanine with transition metals.
PubMed:Thermal formation of homochiral serine clusters and implications for the origin of homochirality.
PubMed:Low-frequency cooperative dynamics in L-, D-, and DL-alanine crystals: a 13C and 15N cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning NMR study.
PubMed:Fed-batch two-phase production of alanine by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Synthesis of DL-alanine hollow tubes and core-shell mesostructures.
PubMed:[Raman scattering study of DL-alanine].
PubMed:Towards uniform enhancement in solid-state cross polarization magic [corrected] angle spinning NMR: a scheme incorporating cross polarization with rotational resonance.
PubMed:Morphosynthesis of alanine mesocrystals by pH control.
PubMed:A study of the irradiation temperature coefficient for L-alanine and DL-alanine dosemeters.
PubMed:Electrogenic H+ transport and pH gradients generated by a V-H+ -ATPase in the isolated perfused larval Drosophila midgut.
PubMed:Lanthanum(III) and praseodymium(III) derivatives with dithiocarbamates derived from alpha-amino acids.
PubMed:Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation during enzymatic oxidation of DOPA by phenoloxidase.
PubMed:Structural and thermal characterization of ternary complexes of piroxicam and alanine with transition metals: uranyl binary and ternary complexes of piroxicam. Spectroscopic characterization and properties of metal complexes.
PubMed:Effects of midazolam on the expression of conditioned taste aversion in rats.
PubMed:Enhanced sensitivity and resolution in (1)H solid-state NMR spectroscopy of paramagnetic complexes under very fast magic angle spinning.
PubMed:Polymer-induced alignment of DL-alanine nanocrystals to crystalline mesostructures.
PubMed:K-band EPR dosimetry: small-field beam profile determination with miniature alanine dosimeter.
PubMed:Performance of throughout in-capillary derivatization capillary electrophoresis employing an on-line sample and run buffer loading device.
PubMed:Construction of a glucose sensor based on a screen-printed electrode and a novel mediator pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Reaction of Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase with beta-benzoyl-L-alanine: detection of a new reaction intermediate and a change in rate-determining step.
PubMed:Synthesis of a novel histidine analogue and its efficient incorporation into a protein in vivo.
PubMed:[Calorimetric study of the interaction between amino acids and sugars in water at 298.15 K].
PubMed:Cryo-bioorganic chemistry: freezing effect on stereoselection of DL-alanine-N-carboxyanhydride oligomerization in dioxane solution.
PubMed:A new approach in 1D and 2D 13C high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of paramagnetic organometallic complexes by very fast magic-angle spinning.
PubMed:[Purification and some properties of D-carbamoylase].
PubMed:Production and properties of asparaginase from a new Erwinia sp.
PubMed:lcd from Streptococcus anginosus encodes a C-S lyase with alpha,beta-elimination activity that degrades L-cysteine.
PubMed:Intracellular proteases of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and a protease-deficient mutant Btk-q.
PubMed:3-Chloro-DL-alanine resistance by L-methionine-alpha-deamino-gamma-mercaptomethane-lyase activity.
PubMed:Preliminary evaluation of second harmonic direct detection scheme for low-dose range in alanine/EPR dosimetry.
PubMed:A potent polymer/pyridoxamine enzyme mimic.
PubMed:The stability constants of copper(II) complexes with some alpha-amino acids in dioxan-water mixtures.
PubMed:Microbial degradation of mefenoxam in rhizosphere of Zinnia angustifolia.
PubMed:Dosimetry of blood irradiation using an alanine/ESR dosimeter.
PubMed:Novel lipidic enaminones from a C18 keto-allenic ester.
PubMed:Conjugation of epitope peptides with SH group to branched chain polymeric polypeptides via Cys(Npys).
PubMed:Synthesis and conformational studies of poly(L-lysine) based branched polypeptides with Ser and Glu/Leu in the side chains.
PubMed:Studies on the protonation constants and solvation of alpha-amino acids in dioxan-water mixtures.
PubMed:Deletogenic activity of 1,2:7,8-diepoxyoctane in the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA102.
PubMed:Preparation and properties of immobilized pig kidney aminoacylase and optical resolution of N-acyl-DL-alanine.
PubMed:Synthesis and enzymatic degradation of optically active depsipeptide copolymers.
PubMed:Mechanism of alanine hyperproduction by arthrobacter oxydans HAP-1: metabolic shift to fermentation under nongrowth aerobic conditions
PubMed:Hymenobacter roseosalivarius gen. nov., sp. nov. from continental Antartica soils and sandstone: bacteria of the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides line of phylogenetic descent.
PubMed:Central modulation of formalin-induced acute peripheral inflammation & pain by some putative amino acid neurotransmitters in rats.
PubMed:Synthesis of beta-tetrazolyl DL-alanine derivatives.
PubMed:The identification of Listeria species.
PubMed:Simple color tests based on an alanyl peptidase reaction which differentiate Listeria monocytogenes from other Listeria species.
PubMed:Optical resolution of DL-alanine by using immobilized Aspergillus oryzae cells.
PubMed:Membranotropic properties of the water soluble amino acid and peptide derivatives of fullerene C60.
PubMed:Biodistribution in tumour-bearing mice of polycationic, amphoteric and polyanionic branched polypeptides with a poly(L-lysine) backbone labelled with 125I and 111In: tumour accumulation less than that of labelled serum proteins.
PubMed:Gamma scintigraphy of 111In-labelled branched chain polypeptides (BCP) with a poly(L-lysine) backbone in mice with mammary carcinoma: effect of charge on biodistribution and tumour imaging potential.
PubMed:Isotope effects in peptide group hydrogen exchange.
PubMed:Stimulation of nerve growth factor synthesis/secretion in mouse astroglial cells by coenzymes.
PubMed:Immunization-induced decrease of the CD4+:CD8+ ratio in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.
PubMed:An immunoassay for metolachlor detection in river water and soil.
PubMed:Monoclonal antibody binding to peptide epitopes conjugated to synthetic branched chain polypeptide carriers. Influence of the carrier upon antibody recognition.
PubMed:Mössbauer effect studies on some bioinorganic complexes of europium.
PubMed:Comparison of black coral skeleton and insect cuticle by a combination of carbon-13 NMR and chemical analyses.
PubMed:1-Methyl-DL-tryptophan, beta-(3-benzofuranyl)-DL-alanine (the oxygen analog of tryptophan), and beta-[3-benzo(b)thienyl]-DL-alanine (the sulfur analog of tryptophan) are competitive inhibitors for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.
PubMed:Mutagenesis of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis by UV and nitrosoguanidine treatment.
PubMed:Futile cycling of ammonium ions via the high affinity potassium uptake system (Kdp) of Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Acute effects of cadmium and selenium on glucose output from rat liver hepatocytes using various gluconeogenic precursors.
PubMed:Hydrogen exchange kinetics in a membrane protein determined by 15N NMR spectroscopy: use of the INEPT experiment to follow individual amides in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein.
PubMed:Stereospecificity of reactions catalyzed by bacterial D-amino acid transaminase.
PubMed:Amino acid efflux in the isolated perfused rat pancreas: trans-stimulation by extracellular amino acids.
PubMed:[Studies on the stability of complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Co(II) with DL-alanine and DL-valine].
PubMed:Evidence for frameshift mutations in the hisH gene of Escherichia coli causing synthesis of a partially active glutamine amidotransferase.
PubMed:Comparison of the structure and dynamics of chicken gizzard and rabbit cardiac tropomyosins: 1H NMR spectroscopy and measurement of amide hydrogen exchange rates.
PubMed:[Studies on the stability of ternary complexes of glycine and DL-alanine with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II)].
PubMed:Structure and dynamics of a detergent-solubilized membrane protein: measurement of amide hydrogen exchange rates in M13 coat protein by 1H NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Conformational states of N-acylalanine dithio esters: correlation of resonance Raman spectra with structures.
PubMed:Regulation of nitrogenase synthesis in histidine auxotrophs of Klebsiella pneumoniae with altered levels of adenylate nucleotides.
PubMed:Inhibition of neuronal membrane GABAB receptor binding by GABA structural analogues.
PubMed:Backbone dynamics of a model membrane protein: measurement of individual amide hydrogen-exchange rates in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein using 13C NMR hydrogen/deuterium isotope shifts.
PubMed:Studies on the enzymatic hydrolysis of amino acid carbamates.
PubMed:ESR spectroscopy in the study of antigen processing--uptake of spin-labelled antigens by macrophages.
PubMed:Functionalized DL-amino acid derivatives. Potent new agents for the treatment of epilepsy.
PubMed:Synthesis of 3-(3-pyridyl)- and 3-(3-benzo[b]thienyl)-D-alanine.
PubMed:Anti-cholera response elicited by a completely synthetic antigen with built-in adjuvanticity administered in aqueous solution.
PubMed:Thermal properties of water in myoglobin crystals and solutions at subzero temperatures.
PubMed:Formation of 4,8-DiMeIQx from the model system fructose, alanine and creatinine. Comparison with the isomeric 5,8-DiMeIQx.
PubMed:Aminoacids and oscillatory electrocortical activity.
PubMed:Gustatory reaction time to various sweeteners in human adults.
PubMed:Formation of a new mutagenic DiMeIQx compound in a model system by heating creatinine, alanine and fructose.
PubMed:Models of molecular evolution. 2. Stereospecificity of dipeptide syntheses by means of cyanamides and carbodiimides.
PubMed:Metabolism of the amino acid beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine and its parent base pyrazole.
PubMed:Comparison of the inhibitory effects of diverse amino acids and amino acid analogs on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in isolated epidermal cells.
PubMed:Effects of phenylalanine and analogues of methionine and phenylalanine on the composition of wool and mouse hair.
PubMed:Experimental study of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. I. Inhibition of protein and amino acid losses by single amino acids.
PubMed:The effect of phospholipids from Listeria monocytogenes and Aspergillus fumigatus on degradation of bacterial antigens by mouse peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Differences in amino acid transport and phospholipid contents during the cell cycle of Candida albicans.
PubMed:L-Alanine and L-phenylalanine activate Na+ and K+ conductance pathways in the exocrine mouse pancreas.
PubMed:Oxidation and oxygenation of L-amino acids catalyzed by a L-phenylalanine oxidase (deaminating and decarboxylating) from Pseudomonas sp. P-501.
PubMed:Genetic control of major histocompatibility complex-linked immune responses to synthetic polypeptides in man: poly(L-phenylalanine, L-glutamic acid)-poly (DL-alanine)--poly(L-lysine) and L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-tyrosine (60:30:10).
PubMed:Stereoselective aminoacylation of a dinucleoside monophosphate by the imidazolides of DL-alanine and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine.
PubMed:Differential effect of the serine protease inhibitor phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride on cytochemically detectable esterases in human leucocytes and platelets.
PubMed:Fine specificity of antibodies to the synthetic polypeptide poly(L-tyrosine, L-glutamic acid)-poly(DL-alanine)--poly(L-lysine) and its ordered analogs as followed by solid-phase radioimmunoassay.
PubMed:Glucagon and alanine-induced increases of the canine renal glomerular filtration rate.
PubMed:Suppression of the humoral antibody response in natural retrovirus infections.
PubMed:Water catalysis of peptide hydrogen isotope exchange.
PubMed:E.s.r. of spin-trapped radicals in gamma-irradiated polycrystalline DL-alanine. A quantitative determination of radical yield.
PubMed:Immunological and pharmacological characterization of poly-DL-alanyl-modified Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase.
PubMed:Assessment of murine lymph node lymphocyte priming with the tetrasialoganglioside GQ1b.
PubMed:Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in gamma-irradiated polycrystalline DL-alanine: a spin-trapping and e.s.r. study.
PubMed:Quantitative enzymatic, immunologic and histochemical studies of clinically relevant human kidney alterations using image analysis.
PubMed:Isolation of liver cells with Ca2+ and K+ chelating agents. Biochemistry and cell morphology.
PubMed:The mechanism of peptidergic miosis. I. The structural basis of miotic potency among biologically active polypeptides.
PubMed:An intensely sweet analogue of kynurenine: 3-(4-chloroanthraniloyl)-DL-alanine.
PubMed:E.s.r. of spin-trapped radicals in aqueous solutions of deuterated amino acids and alcohols.
PubMed:Chemistry of bleomycin. XXVI. Biosynthetic study using 13C-enriched precursors.
PubMed:Variations in amino acids and sugars in different tissues of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) during the pathogenesis of Uromyces fabae (Pers.) de Bary.
PubMed:Biochemical studies on sporulation in blue-green algae. III. Effect of amino acids on glycogen accumulation.
PubMed:The immunosuppressive effect of beta-[1-phenyl-5-bis(beta-chloroethyl)-aminobenzimidazolyl-(2)]-DL-alanine (ZIMET 3164) on cell-mediated immunity in mice.
PubMed:Beta-[1-Phenyl-5-bis(beta-chloroethyl)-amino-benzimidazolyl-(2)]-DL-alanine (ZIMET 3164): an immunosuppressant without marked anti-cancer effect.
PubMed:Enhancement of certain biological activities of muramyl dipeptide derivatives after conjugation to a multi-poly(DL-alanine)--poly(L-lysine) carrier.
PubMed:The mechanism of kynurenine hydrolysis catalyzed by kynureninase.
PubMed:Modifiers of heterocyst repression and spacing and formation of heterocysts without nitrogenase in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.
PubMed:Improvement in the therapeutic, immunological, and clearance properties of Escherichia coli and Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginases by attachment of poly-DL-alanyl peptides.
PubMed:Varying spectrum of amino acids in relation to growth in Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan.
PubMed:Amino acid content in relation to growth of Helminthosporium maydis Nishikado and Miyake.
PubMed:beta-2-Thienyl-DL-alanine as an inhibitor of phenylalanine hydroxylase and phenylalanine intestinal transport.
PubMed:[Alkylating derivatives of 2-amino-2-desoxy-1,3,4,6-tetraacetyl-D-glucopyranose (synthesis and experimental study)].
PubMed:Formation of DL-alanine by Corynebacterium sp. 9366-EMS/270.
PubMed:The free amino acid pool composition during growth of the culture of Xanthomonas citri (Hasse) Dowson.
PubMed:Hydrated electron-initiated main-chain scission in peptides: an e.s.r. and spin-trapping study.
PubMed:Adjuvant effect of a peptidoglycan attached covalently to a synthetic antigen provoking anti-phage antibodies.
PubMed:Mapping of the locus involved in the catabolic oxidation of D-amino acids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO.
PubMed:Prevention of oxalate urolithiasis by some compounds.
PubMed:Alanine derivatives with reactive groups.
PubMed:Expression of a single major histocompatibility complex locus controls the immune response to poly-L-(tyrosine, glutamic acid)-poly-DL-alanine-poly-L-lysine.
PubMed:Properties of glycolytic and related enzymes of normal and malignant human uterine tissues studied to optimise assay conditions.
PubMed:Production and chemical studies of protease from Bacillus subtilis (SH-6) Egyptian strain.
PubMed:Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of vitamin B6 Schiff base and carbinolamine formation in aqueous solution.1 1. The adduct of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and DL-alanine.
PubMed:Effect of different concentrations of dl-isoleucine, dl-valine, and dl-alanine on growth and sporulation in Fusarium oxysporum f. udum (Butl.) Sn. et H.
PubMed:Immune response genes in chickens: the multifarious responsiveness to (T,G)-A--L.
PubMed:Pathogenesis of polycation-induced alterations ("fusion") of glomerular epithelium.
PubMed:Antiviral effect on MS-2 coliphage obtained with a synthetic antigen.
PubMed:Asymmetric adsorption of DL-alanine hydrochloride by quartz.
PubMed:Immunological cross-reactivity of antibodies to a synthetic undecapeptide analogous to the amino terminal segment of carcinoembryonic antigen, with the intact protein and with human sera.
PubMed:Variations in elastaselike esterase activities in human leucocytes during cell maturation.
PubMed:Synthesis of 3-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-DL-alanine.
PubMed:Active transport in Escherichia coli B membrane vesicles. Differential inactivating effects from the enzymatic oxidation of beta-chloro-L-alanine and beta-chloro-D-alanine.
PubMed:Brevibacterium liquefaciens adenylate cyclase and its in vivo stimulation by pyruvate.
PubMed:Use of hydrazides of heterocyclic carboxylic acids for the resolution of Z-DL-alanine during papain catalysis.
PubMed:Maltose metabolism of Pseudomonas fluorescens.
PubMed:Control of oxalate urolithiasis by DL-alanine.
PubMed:Coupling of alanine racemase and D-alanine dehydrogenase to active transport of amino acids in Escherichia coli B membrane vesicles.
PubMed:Raman spectra of D and L amino acid copolymers. Poly-DL-alanine, poly-DL-leucine, and poly-DL-lysine.
PubMed:Modification of the surface structure of murine peritoneal macrophages following chemotherapy. A scanning electron microscopic study.
PubMed:Adenylate cyclase from Brevibacterium liquefaciens. III. In situ regulation of adenylate cyclase by pyruvate.
PubMed:Antibody response of inbred mouse strains to ordered tetrapeptides of tyrosine and glutamic acid attached to multichain polyalanine or polyproline. Tyr-Tyr-Glu-Glu is a major determinant of the random poly-(Tyr, Glu)-polyDLAla--polyLys.
PubMed:The role of the thymus in a genetically controlled defect of the immune response at the carrier level.
PubMed:D-alanine oxidase form Escherichia coli: localization and induction by L-alanine.
PubMed:Specific leukocyte receptors for small endogenous hormones. Detection by cell binding to insolubilized hormone preparations.
PubMed:Reversal by aromatic amino acids of 2-thiazole-DL-alanine inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium.
PubMed:Temperature-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 with an impaired D-alanine:D-alanine ligase.
PubMed:Influence of nutrition on the morphology of a strain of Bifidobacterium bifidum.
PubMed:Biogenic amine-depleting effects of benzimidazole-5(6)-DL-alanine.
PubMed:Contribution of different cell types to the genetic control of immune responses as a function of the chemical nature of the polymeric side chains (poly-L-prolyl and poly-DL-alanyl) of synthetic immunogens.
PubMed:Induction of prodigiosin biosynthesis after shift-down in temperature of nonproliferating cells of Serratia marcescens.
PubMed:The immune response to multichain poly-DL-alanine-poly-L-lysine in guinea pigs and its relation to the PLL gene.
PubMed:Potentiometric studies of ternary complex formation Cu(II), Ni, Zn or Cd iminodiacetic acid/amino-acid complexes.
PubMed:Induction of pigmentation in nonproliferating cells of Serratia marcescens by addition of single amino acids.
PubMed:Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of poly-DL-alanine and poly-L-alanine in solvents with strong acids.
PubMed:Dehydration of the brain of intra-peritoneal injections of hyper-osmotic solutions of -aminobutyric acid and DL- -alanine.
PubMed:Stereochemistry of the reactions of biopolymers. II. Asymmetric synthesis. 3. Kinetic resolution in the acylation of DL-alanine ethyl ester with benzyloxycarBONYLALANINE PEPTIDE AZIDES.
PubMed:Labelling of mouse alloantibody with tritiated dl-alanine.
PubMed:[Selective, rapid cleavage of peptide bonds in glycyl-DL-alanyl-DL-serine and glycyl-DL-alanyl-DL-alanine in pure water].
PubMed:Solution, phase coexistence, and related proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on poly-L- and poly-DL-alanine in helix--random coil interconverting media.
PubMed:Reaction of N-alpha-acetoxycinnamoyl)-N-hydroxy derivatives of DL-alanine esters. Formation of imidazolidinone and its transformations into pyrrolidinedione and oxazolidinone.
PubMed:The effect of hypothalamic injections of noradrenaline, serotonin, pyrogen, gamma-amino-n-butyric acid, triiodothyronine, triiodothyroacetic acid, DL-phenylalanine, DL-alanine and DL-gamma-amino-beta-hydroxy butyric acid on body temperature and oxygen consumption in the rat.
PubMed:[A selective strain of Streptomyces albus var. metamycinus JA 3626 (Bradler a. Thrum) producing DL-alanine and a prodigiosin-like pigment].
PubMed:Bacteriocin (hemolysin) of Streptococcus zymogenes.
PubMed:Fermentation of ornithine by Clostridium sticklandii.
PubMed:Taste stimuli: a behavioral categorization.
PubMed:Polymerization of alpha-amino acid N-carboxy anhydrides. 3. Mechanism of polymerization of L- and DL-alanine NCA in acetonitrile.
PubMed:Gamma irraidiation studies with synthetic polyamino acids. Studies with poly-l-tyrosine and poly-dl-alanine using monolayer technique.
PubMed:Oxidation of D-amino acids by a particulate enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Magnetic resonance studies on irradiated crystals of chloroacetyl DL-alanine.
PubMed:Polymerization of DL-alanine NCA and L-alanine NCA.
PubMed:Flavensomycin, an inhibitor of enzyme reactions involving hydrogen transfer.
PubMed:[Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on DL-alanine synthesis by Mycobacterium album 194].
PubMed:Amino Acid and vitamin requirements of several bacteroides strains.
PubMed:Inactivation of poly-DL-alanyl bacteriophage T4 with antisera specific toward poly-DL-alanine.
PubMed:Synthesis of beta-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)-DL-alanine.
PubMed:Kinetic and genetic analyses of D-cycloserine inhibition and resistance in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:[On formation of DL-alanine in cultures of a mutant of Streptomyces albus var. metamycinus JA 3626].
PubMed:Amino acids as gustatory stimuli in the rat.
PubMed:Physiological studies of the rumen protozoan Ophryoscolex caudatus Eberlein.
PubMed:[Contribution to the physico-chemical properties of mouse-fixed measles virus. I. Influence of 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-dl-alanine (No. 243 derivative of nitrogen mustard)].
PubMed:[Influence of some phenylacetic acid derivatives (CFT 1201, SKF 525A) on the incorporation of 1-C 14-dl-alanine in microsome proteins].
PubMed:The distribution of C 14 in the glycogen, dextrin and maltose from the livers of rats administered DL-alanine-2-C 14 and cortisone.
PubMed:[Obtaining of D-and L-alanines by cleavage of DL-alanine esters with pancreatin].
PubMed:Deuterium exchange of poly-DL-alanine in aqueous solution.
PubMed:In vitro metabolism of dl-alanine-2-C-14 and glycine-2-C-14 by Trichinella spiralis larvae.
PubMed:Effect of thyroxin treatment on the dissimilation of DL-alanine-1-C14 by kidney and liver homogenates.
PubMed:Effect of beta-2-thienyl-DL-alanine on the growth of sarcoma T241 in C57 black mice.
PubMed:On the dissimilation of DL-alanine-1-14C by rat brain homogenates.
PubMed:Acylchlorides of amino acids and peptides as monomers for the preparation of polymeric polypeptides. I. Syntheses of poly-beta-alanine, poly-DL-alanine, poly-L-leucine and poly-glycyl-DL-leucine.
PubMed:Dissimilation of DL-alanine-I-14C by rat brain homogenates.
PubMed:Effect of L-cysteine hydrochloride, DL-alanine, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydrosulfide on experimental polyarthritis of rats.
PubMed:Transamination in the metabolism of beta-2-thienyl-DL-alanine in normal and neoplastic cells in vitro.
PubMed:Resolution of DL-alanine into its components by pig's kidney maceration.
PubMed:The sulfur balance of rats fed excess DL-methionine plus glycine or DL-alanine.
PubMed:Preparation of L- and D-alanine by enzymatic resolution of acetyl-DL-alanine.
PubMed:Effect of insulin, adrenal cortical hormones, salt and dl-alanine on carbohydrate metabolism in scurvy.
PubMed:Incorporation in vitro of radioactive carbon from carboxyl-labeled dl-alanine and glycine into proteins of normal and malignant rat livers.
PubMed:The inhibitory effects of DL-alanine, L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, and L-histidine on the activity of intestinal, bone, and kidney phosphatases.
PubMed:Incorporation of C14 From Carboxyllabeled dl-Alanine Into the Proteins of Liver Slices.
PubMed:Variations of some constituents in the urine of rats receiving dl-serine and dl-alanine.
PubMed:Studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: Fumaryl-dl-alanine (fumaromono-dl-alanide), a metabolic product of Penicillium resticulosum sp.nov.
PubMed:Factors influencing bacterial deamination: The deamination of glycine, dl-alanine and l-glutamic acid by Bacterium coli.
Dietary supplement, nutrient, sweetening flavour enhancer in pickling spice mixts. Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A) is an alpha-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. The L-isomer is one of the 22 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GCU, GCC, GCA, and GCG. It is classified as a nonpolar amino acid. L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins. D-Alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics. (Wikipedia)
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