succinic acid
butanedioic acid
a water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. it is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (hawley's condensed chemical dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; mcgraw-hill dictionary of scientific and technical terms, 4th ed, p1851) Widely distributed in higher plants and prod. by microorganisms. Present in cheeses and fresh meats. Flavour enhancer, pH control agent [DFC]
  • Advanced Biotech
  • Alfrebro
    • Alfrebro LLC
      Let's get reacquainted
      Building great taste with aroma chemicals, extracts, and distillates
      The Alfrebro brand was established in the early 1900s by Alex Fries & Brothers, a Cincinnati Flavor Company. In 1980, the brand was re-launched as an aroma chemical manufacturer. Since its inception, Alfrebro’s primary focus has been to provide quality natural and high value synthetic chemicals.
      Email: Sarah Forbis
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 513-539-3021
      Fax: 513-539-7372
      US Voice: 513-539-7373
  • Beijing Lys Chemicals
    • Beijing Lys Chemicals Co, LTD.
      From Grams to Tons
      Fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales.
      BEIJING LYS CHEMICALS CO, LTD, established in 2004, is a fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales. We mainly engaged in export and technology development of flavor and fragrance materials and pharmaceutical intermediates. We have nearly 500 kinds of products, from grams to tons, exported to USA, Europe, South Asia and etc. And we custom manufacture new products according to customers’ needs, and serve good quality products and service. Our goal is to become a fine chemical enterprise which could provide special products and services.
      Email: Mr. Jia
      Email: Mr. Guo
      Voice: 86-10-68418738
      Fax: 86-10-68418739
      Mr. Guo86-10-68483445
      Mr. Guo86-10-68418739
      10588 Succinic acid
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve as our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Our substantial portfolio of personal care ingredients now include a wide array of luxury and exotic components to compliment the key products we have always offered. We have expanded our offerings to the nutraceutical, industrial, and resin markets with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. We continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions. Please contact us to learn how we can help you reach your goals.
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 203-299-3220
      Fax: 203-299-1355
      Latest News
      Products List: View
  • Indukern F&F
  • M&U International
    • M&U International LLC
      Steady supply & demand
      Meeting customers increasing demands at home as well as abroad.
      M&U dedicates itself to the development and production of new products as well as continuously promoting those new products. We’ve maintained a steady supply&demand relationship with a large number of manufacturers at home and abroad. We’ve developed an extensive network and because of our relationships with these manufacturers, we’re able to provide a stable supply of great quality materials. We’re located in China’s largest communications hub, Shanghai and in the U.S. near one of the largest sea ports on the East Coast. The strategic locations of our facilities ensure convenient, prompt and secure delivery of our products to our customers. We warmly welcome your inquiries, come witness our solemn commitment for yourself.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Voice: +86-21-32515501 60762991 60762992
      Fax: +86-21-32515502 64204960
      US Voice: 908-359-9000
      US Fax: 908-359-9002
  • Natural Advantage
    • Natural Advantage
      Manufacturer of natural flavor ingredients
      With over 25 years experience in the flavor and food ingredient industries.
      Natural Advantage was formed over seventeen years ago to supply the growing demand for natural food and flavor ingredients. We employ a wide range of multi-disciplined scientists who are dedicated to high quality service, customer satisfaction and creating an outstanding value for our clients.
      Email: Info
      Email: Customer service
      Voice: 318-215-1456
      Fax: 318-335-1579
      What We Do
      Products List: View
      Succinic Acid, FCC Nat

      Flavor Use: Acidulant. Use Level: 0.1 ppm to 1,000 ppm
  • O'Laughlin Industries
    • O'Laughlin Industries Inc.
      Manufacturer of Aroma
      Leading the Flavor and Fragrance Industry since 1980.
      O'Laughlin was established in 1980 by its owner and chief executive Michael O'Laughlin, when he moved to Beijing, China and established a small office. Since then it has grown to be a world class producer of chemicals, with significant production facilities in China, and distribution and sales in all major world markets.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Joe Schreiber
      Voice: (852) 2527-1031
      Fax: (852) 2529-0231
      US Voice: (973) 376-4600
      US Fax: (973) 376-4630
  • Penta International
  • Riverside Aromatics
    • Riverside Aromatics Ltd.
      Speciality Aroma Chemicals, Naturals and Synthetics
      A specialist supplier of raw materials to the flavour industry.
      Peter Cannon & David Rowe established Riverside Aromatics in 2006 in Poole, UK, to offer a new type of specialist raw material supplier to the Flavour & Fragrance Industry. We bring together over 40 years of commercial & technical experience in the F&F industry which allows us to understand the needs of the Global F&F business and especially that of the West European Market.
      Email: Info
      Email: Peter Cannon (sales)
      Voice: +44 (0) 1202 679532
      Fax: +44 (0) 1202 679532
      Products List: View
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 800-244-1173
      US Fax: 800-368-4661
      Certified Food Grade Products
      W471920 Succinic acid, ≥99%, FCC, FG
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
      Email: Sales
      US Email: Sales
      Email: Global Business
      Voice: +81-3-5640-8878
      Fax: +81-3-5640-8902
      US Voice: 800-423-8616
      US Fax: 888-520-1075
      Tokyo Tel:03-5640-8851
      Tokyo Fax:03-5640-8865
      S0100 Succinic Acid >99.0%(T)
  • Vigon International
    • Vigon International, Inc.
      Passion for Simplicity
      Manufacturer and supplier of high quality flavor and fragrance ingredients.
      The growth and success of Vigon is due in large part to a unique corporate concept that Vigon has developed and established within the industry: Creative Partnerships. This partnership concept has been and continues to be the foundation and guiding principle for all of Vigon's activities.
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 570-476-6300
      US Fax: 570-476-1110
      Products List: View
      503718 Succinic Acid Natural
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
butanedioic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 110-15-6Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 203-740-4
Nikkaji Web: J2.879G
Beilstein Number: 1754069
MDL: MFCD00002789
CoE Number: 24
XlogP3: -0.60 (est)
Molecular Weight: 118.08862000
Formula: C4 H6 O4
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: flavor enhancers, pH control agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1091 Succinic acid View-review
EU SANCO Succinic acid View-review
GRN 552 Succinic acid View-notice PDF
Flavis Number: 08.024 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 08.024  succinic acid
DG SANTE Food Additives: succinic acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials: succinic acid
FEMA Number: 4719  succinic acid
FDA Regulation:
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1091 Succinic acid.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 185.00 to  190.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 235.00 to  236.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.017000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 231.00 °F. TCC ( 110.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.590
Soluble in:
 water, 8.079e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 8.32E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
Flavor Type: acidic
 sour  acidic  
Taste Description:
sour acidic
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
masking agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
A.C.S. International
Succinic Acid NATURAL
Odor: pungent, sweetcorn, roasted, hazlenut, barley
Operational Capabilities
Succinic Acid FCC
Advanced Biotech
99% min.
Odor: Odorless
Advanced Biotech
Odor: Odorless
Allan Chemical
Succinic Acid
Aromiens International
Succinic Acid, Natural
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Succinic acid
Bio-Succinic Acid
Flavor: characteristic
Bio-succinic acid is a direct substitute for petroleum-derived succinic acid. BioAmber is capable of producing it cheaper, at scale, using its proprietary technology platform.
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid 99%
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic acid
Charkit Chemical
Charkit Chemical
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid from Plants ≥96%
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid
Succinic acid
Natural (EU,US), Kosher & Halal
Fuzhou Farwell
Succinic Acid,Natural
Indukern F&F
M&U International
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Succinic Acid 98.0% (min)
Natural Advantage
Succinic Acid, FCC Nat
Flavor: Acidic
Flavor Use: Acidulant. Use Level: 0.1 ppm to 1,000 ppm
O'Laughlin Industries
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Succinic Acid
Riverside Aromatics
Biosuccinium™ succinic acid
Succinic acid, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
SysKem Chemie
Succinic Acid
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid >99.0%(T)
Vigon International
Succinic Acid Natural
WEN International
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 37/38 - Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  2702 mg/kg
Toxicology. Vol. 62, Pg. 203, 1990.

intravenous-mouse LD50  1400 mg/kg
Yaoxue Tongbao. Bulletin of Pharmacology. Vol. 18, Pg. 100, 1983.

oral-rat LD50  2260 mg/kg
Kodak Company Reports. Vol. #82-0158

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor enhancers, pH control agents
Recommendation for succinic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 25
Click here to view publication 25
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 60.00000200.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 30.00000100.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 60.00000200.00000
breakfast cereal: 60.00000200.00000
cheese: 60.00000200.00000
chewing gum: 60.00000200.00000
condiments / relishes: 60.00000200.00000
confectionery froastings: 60.00000200.00000
egg products: 60.00000200.00000
fats / oils: 60.00000200.00000
fish products: 60.00000200.00000
frozen dairy: 60.00000200.00000
fruit ices: 60.00000200.00000
gelatins / puddings: 60.00000200.00000
granulated sugar: 60.00000200.00000
gravies: 60.00000200.00000
hard candy: 60.00000200.00000
imitation dairy: 60.00000200.00000
instant coffee / tea: 60.00000200.00000
jams / jellies: 60.00000200.00000
meat products: 60.00000200.00000
milk products: 60.00000200.00000
nut products: 60.00000200.00000
other grains: 60.00000200.00000
poultry: 60.00000200.00000
processed fruits: 60.00000200.00000
processed vegetables: 60.00000200.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 60.00000200.00000
seasonings / flavors: 100.000001000.00000
snack foods: 60.00000200.00000
soft candy: 60.00000200.00000
soups: 60.00000200.00000
sugar substitutes: 100.000001000.00000
sweet sauces: 60.00000200.00000
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View search
Daily Med: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 110-15-6
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 1110
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 butanedioic acid
Chemidplus: 0000110156
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: WM4900000 for cas# 110-15-6
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 butanedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 110-15-6
Pubchem (cid): 1110
Pubchem (sid): 134974176
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
UM BBD: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00042
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00254
FooDB: FDB001931
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00338
Export Tariff Code: 2917.19.2700
Haz-Map: View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
grades: technical, cp, fcc
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 buffering agents 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
Search Trop  Picture
 apple plant
Search Trop  Picture
 apricot fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 asparagus shoot
Search Trop  Picture
 banana fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 banana leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 basil plant
Search Trop  Picture
 bean black bean fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 bean field bean fruit
Search Trop  Picture
Search  PMC Picture
 bilberry leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 broccoli asparagus broccoli plant
Search Trop  Picture
 brussel sprout leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 buckthorn sea buckthorn fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 cabbage leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 carrot root
Search Trop  Picture
 celery root
Search Trop  Picture
 cheese swiss cheese @ 4.00 ± 1 mmol
Data  GC  Search Trop  Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 chive leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 coconut root
Search Trop  Picture
 coconut seed
Search Trop  Picture
 corn plant
Search Trop  Picture
 corn seed
Search Trop  Picture
 currant red currant fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 fig fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 fig fruit juice
Search Trop  Picture
 garlic plant
Search Trop  Picture
 ginkgo biloba leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 ginkgo biloba pollen
Search Trop  Picture
 grape fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 kiwi plant
Search Trop  Picture
 lemon balm plant
Search Trop  Picture
 lime fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 loquat fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 lupine white lupine seed
Search Trop  Picture
 mango fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 onion bulb
Search Trop  Picture
 onion leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 orange fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 orange fruit juice
Search Trop  Picture
 parsley plant
Search Trop  Picture
 parsley root
Search Trop  Picture
 pea seed
Search Trop  Picture
 pistachio nut
Search Trop  Picture
 plum fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 pomegranate fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 poppy opium poppy latex
Search Trop  Picture
 potato plant
Search Trop  Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit, leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 raspberry red raspberry leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 rhubarb plant
Search Trop  Picture
 soybean root
Search Trop  Picture
 soybean seed
Search Trop  Picture
 soybean sprout
Search Trop  Picture
 star fruit fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 sunflower leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 tamarind fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 tamarind seed
Search Trop  Picture
 tomatillo fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop  Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
 acidum succinicum
 amber acid
 butane dioic acid
1,4-butane dioic acid
 butane dionic acid
 butanedioic acid
1,4-butanedioic acid
 dihydrofumaric acid
1,2-ethane dicarboxylic acid
1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
 ethylene dicarboxylic acid
 ethylene succinic acid
 spirit of amber
bio-succinic acid
 succinic acid FCC
 succinic acid N.F. grade
 succinic acid natural
 succinic acid synthetic
 succinic acid technical grade
 wormwood acid
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Perfumer & Flavorist: Organoleptic Characteristics of Flavor Materials
PubMed: Integration of metabolomics and subcellular organelle expression microarray to increase understanding the organic acid changes in post-harvest citrus fruit.
Leffingwell & Associates: Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals
PubMed: Robust nanobioconjugates of Candida antarctica lipase B--multiwalled carbon nanotubes: characterization and application for multiple usages in non-aqueous biocatalysis.
PubMed: Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.
PubMed: Identification and analysis of the metabolic functions of a high-salt-tolerant halophilic aromatic yeast Candida etchellsii for soy sauce production.
PubMed: Oxygen consumption rate of permeabilized cells and isolated mitochondria from pork M. masseter and liver examined fresh and after freeze-thawing at different pH values.
PubMed: Nonvolatile taste compounds in cooked Chinese Nanjing duck meat following postproduction heat treatment.
PubMed: Metabolomics-based component profiling of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses with gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and its application to sensory predictive modeling.
PubMed: Sources of umami taste in Cheddar and Swiss cheeses.
PubMed: Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed: A hybrid of ant colony optimization and minimization of metabolic adjustment to improve the production of succinic acid in Escherichia coli.
PubMed: Anaerobic organic acid metabolism of Candida zemplinina in comparison with Saccharomyces wine yeasts.
PubMed: Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.
PubMed: Evolution of polyphenols and organic acids during the fermentation of apple cider.
PubMed: Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of the Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with Banana during Fermentation.
PubMed: [Progress in microbial production of succinic acid].
PubMed: Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.
PubMed: Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.
PubMed: Recent advances in production of succinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.
PubMed: High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.
PubMed: Microbiological Characteristics of Wild Yeast Strain Pichia anomala Y197-13 for Brewing Makgeolli.
PubMed: Contributions of citrate in redox potential maintenance and ATP production: metabolic pathways and their regulation in Lactobacillus panis PM1.
PubMed: Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to minimize byproduct formate and improving succinate productivity through increasing NADH availability by heterologous expression of NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase.
PubMed: Stability of monacolin K and citrinin and biochemical characterization of red-koji vinegar during fermentation.
PubMed: Quality of tomato slices disinfected with ozonated water.
PubMed: Microbial succession and metabolite changes during long-term storage of Kimchi.
PubMed: Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment.
PubMed: Influence of oxygen on NADH recycling and oxidative stress resistance systems in Lactobacillus panis PM1.
PubMed: Wheat flour based propionic acid fermentation: an economic approach.
PubMed: Effects of succinate and pH on cooked beef color.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed: Analysis of Taiwan patents for the medicinal mushroom "Niu-Chang- Chih".
PubMed: Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.
PubMed: (-) Epicatechin attenuates mitochondrial damage by enhancing mitochondrial multi-marker enzymes, adenosine triphosphate and lowering calcium in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.
PubMed: The genetic basis of natural variation in oenological traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor.
PubMed: Isolation and characterization of novel 1,3-propanediol-producing Lactobacillus panis PM1 from bioethanol thin stillage.
PubMed: Textural characteristic, antioxidant activity, sugar, organic acid, and phenolic profiles of 10 promising jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) selections.
PubMed: Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.
PubMed: Role of anionic charges of periplasmic glucans of Shigella flexneri in overcoming detergent stress.
PubMed: Identification of organic acids in wine that stimulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.
PubMed: A metabolomic approach to the study of wine micro-oxygenation.
PubMed: Review of biological and pharmacological activities of the endemic Taiwanese bitter medicinal mushroom, Antrodia camphorata (M. Zang et C. H. Su) Sh. H. Wu et al. (higher Basidiomycetes).
PubMed: High level production of 5-aminolevulinic acid by Propionibacterium acidipropionici grown in a low-cost medium.
PubMed: Metabolic profiling of Staphylococcus aureus cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with (1)H NMR-based nontargeted analysis.
PubMed: Metabolomics-based component profiling of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses with gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and its application to sensory predictive modeling.
PubMed: Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed: The effect of once daily omeprazole and succinic acid (VECAM) vs once daily omeprazole on 24-h intragastric pH.
PubMed: In vitro and in vivo characterization of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and crystalline ziprasidone formulations.
PubMed: Genes involved in lactose catabolism and organic acid production during growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 in skimmed milk.
PubMed: Identification of beer bitter acids regulating mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.
PubMed: Microbial production of propionic acid from propionibacteria: current state, challenges and perspectives.
PubMed: Role of anionic charges of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in mice virulence.
PubMed: Integrated separation process for isolation and purification of biosuccinic acid.
PubMed: Proteomic analysis on acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4.
PubMed: Preparation and characterization of succinic acid deamidated wheat gluten microspheres for encapsulation of fish oil.
PubMed: Influence of dietary blueberry and broccoli on cecal microbiota activity and colon morphology in mdr1a(-/-) mice, a model of inflammatory bowel diseases.
PubMed: Effects of freeze-drying of samples on metabolite levels in metabolome analyses.
PubMed: Rapid NMR method for the quantification of organic compounds in thin stillage.
PubMed: [Phenotropyl succinate as the means for correction of neuroimmune disturbances under conditions of informational-physical stress].
PubMed: Purification of d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by a temperature-modulated silica gel column chromatography: use of Taguchi method to optimize purification conditions.
PubMed: Transcellular transport of domoic acid across intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.
PubMed: Effects of pyruvate, succinate, and lactate enhancement on beef longissimus raw color.
PubMed: Sensorically and antimicrobially active metabolite production of Lactobacillus strains on Jerusalem artichoke juice.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed: Designing carbohydrate nanoparticles for prolonged efficacy of antimicrobial peptide.
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
PubMed: Metabolite profiling of Cheonggukjang, a fermented soybean paste, inoculated with various Bacillus strains during fermentation.
PubMed: Effect of pH, aeration and feeding non-sterilized agave juice in a continuous agave juice fermentation.
PubMed: Determination of non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).
PubMed: Use of response surface methodology in a fed-batch process for optimization of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates to achieve high levels of canthaxanthin from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.
PubMed: Global regulation of food supply by Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.
PubMed: Metabolomics analysis reveals the compositional differences of shade grown tea (Camellia sinensis L.).
PubMed: A portable photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.
PubMed: Cereal-based biorefinery development: utilisation of wheat milling by-products for the production of succinic acid.
PubMed: Effect of succinate sodium on the metmyoglobin reduction and color stability of beef patties.
PubMed: A thorough study on the use of quantitative 1H NMR in Rioja red wine fermentation processes.
PubMed: Characterization of low-molecular-weight antiyeast metabolites produced by a food-protective Lactobacillus-Propionibacterium coculture.
PubMed: Screening and selection of marine isolate for L-glutaminase production and media optimization using response surface methodology.
PubMed: [Breeding of Actinobacillus succiniogenes mutants with improved succinate production based on metabolic flux analysis].
PubMed: Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) and its potential in treating liver diseases.
PubMed: [Screening, breeding and metabolic analysis of a succinic-acid-producing strain].
PubMed: A succinate-based composition reverses menopausal symptoms without sex hormone replacement therapy.
PubMed: Use of dicarboxylic acids to improve and diversify the material properties of porous chitosan membranes.
PubMed: Quantitative reconstruction of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of a red wine.
PubMed: Succinic acid production from cheese whey using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z.
PubMed: Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).
PubMed: Determination of differences in the nonvolatile metabolites of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to different parts and heating times using 1H NMR and principal component analysis.
PubMed: Sources of umami taste in Cheddar and Swiss cheeses.
PubMed: Bioconversion of tyrosol into hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid under hypersaline conditions by the new Halomonas sp. strain HTB24.
PubMed: Bacterial synthesis of poly(hydroxybutyrate- co-hydroxyvalerate) using carbohydrate-rich mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers.
PubMed: Population dynamics and metabolite target analysis of lactic acid bacteria during laboratory fermentations of wheat and spelt sourdoughs.
PubMed: In situ measurements of pH changes in beta-lactoglobulin solutions under high hydrostatic pressure.
PubMed: A convenient route to the synthesis of isotopomeric dihydro-2(3H)furanones.
PubMed: [Simultaneous determination of twenty-one organic acids in food by ion chromatography with eluent autogeneration].
PubMed: Ion chromatographic determination of organic acids in food samples using a permanent coating graphite carbon column.
PubMed: High-throughput microplate enzymatic assays for fast sugar and acid quantification in apple and tomato.
PubMed: Profiling the chlorogenic acids and other caffeic acid derivatives of herbal chrysanthemum by LC-MSn.
PubMed: Cholesterol hemisuccinate: a selective inhibitor of family X DNA polymerases.
PubMed: Profiling the chlorogenic acids of aster by HPLC-MS(n).
PubMed: Bifidobacterium infantis strains with and without a combination of oligofructose and inulin (OFI) attenuate inflammation in DSS-induced colitis in rats.
PubMed: Metabolomic discrimination of different grades of pine-mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) using 1H NMR spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.
PubMed: Lactobacillus casei metabolic potential to utilize citrate as an energy source in ripening cheese: a bioinformatics approach.
PubMed: Kinetic analysis of bifidobacterial metabolism reveals a minor role for succinic acid in the regeneration of NAD+ through its growth-associated production.
PubMed: Use of Rhodotorula minuta live cells hosted in water-in-oil macroemulsion for biotrasformation reaction.
PubMed: Quantitative studies, taste reconstitution, and omission experiments on the key taste compounds in morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed: Molecular and sensory studies on the umami taste of Japanese green tea.
PubMed: Growth of Campylobacter in media supplemented with organic acids.
PubMed: Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed: Rapid determination of short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents and faeces of humans and rats by acidified water-extraction and direct-injection gas chromatography.
PubMed: Effects of succinylation on the structure and thermostability of lysozyme.
PubMed: Metabolic adaptations of liver mitochondria during restricted feeding schedules.
PubMed: Activity-guided identification of (S)-malic acid 1-O-D-glucopyranoside (morelid) and gamma-aminobutyric acid as contributors to umami taste and mouth-drying oral sensation of morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed: Succinate production and citrate catabolism by Cheddar cheese nonstarter lactobacilli.
PubMed: A sphingolipid and tyrosinase inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.
PubMed: Intra-oral acid production associated with eating whole or pulped raw fruits.
PubMed: c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.
PubMed: Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria.
PubMed: Combined impact of pH and organic acids on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.
PubMed: Anxiolytic-like effect of succinic acid in mice.
PubMed: Energy metabolism and valve closure behaviour in the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea.
PubMed: A pilot study to investigate effects of inulin on Caco-2 cells through in vitro metabolic fingerprinting.
PubMed: Skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and uncoupling protein 3 are differently influenced by semistarvation and refeeding.
PubMed: NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrahydrofuran (CAS No. 109-99-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).
PubMed: Effect of organic acids and nitrogen source on alcoholic fermentation: study of their buffering capacity.
PubMed: Roles of Fas signaling pathway in vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.
PubMed: Organic acids influence iron uptake in the human epithelial cell line Caco-2.
PubMed: Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed: RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibits human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell growth by inducing apoptosis and DNA synthesis arrest.
PubMed: Inhibitory effects of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate on benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in female mice.
PubMed: Potent enantioselective auxin: indole-3-succinic acid.
PubMed: Characterization of cigar tobaccos by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of nonvolatile organic acids: application to the authentication of Cuban cigars.
PubMed: Comparative study on chemical changes in olive juice and brine during green olive fermentation.
PubMed: Potentiation of the insulinotropic action of GLP-1 by succinic acid dimethyl ester in fed anaesthetized rats.
PubMed: Effects of the dimethyl ester on succinic acid on the hormonal and metabolic response to exercise in hereditarily diabetic starved rats.
PubMed: Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid content during beni-koji making.
PubMed: Anaerobiosis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
PubMed: Production of multifunctional organic acids from renewable resources.
PubMed: Assessment of the nutritional value of glycerol-1,2, 3-tris(methylsuccinate) in fed and starved rats.
PubMed: Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase. Effects of inhibitors on reverse electron transfer from the iron-sulfur protein to cytochrome b.
PubMed: Simultaneous quantification of released succinic acid and a weakly basic drug compound in dissolution media.
PubMed: Influence of culture conditions on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7.
PubMed: [The correction of disorders of the internal body environment in animals and man by the addition of succinic acid to food].
PubMed: Octenylsuccinic aciduria in children fed protein-hydrolysate formulas containing modified cornstarch.
PubMed: Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to lactic acid.
PubMed: Lack of toxicity/carcinogenicity of monosodium succinate in F344 rats.
PubMed: NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Succinic Anhydride (CAS No. 108-30-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).
PubMed: [Functional properties of isolated kidney mitochondria of rats in food deprivation].
PubMed: Phosphoglycerol substituents present on the cyclic beta-1,2-glucans of Rhizobium meliloti 1021 are derived from phosphatidylglycerol.
PubMed: Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken drumsticks using chemicals and radiation.
PubMed: [Detection of anion residues of surface-active compounds of the type sulfosuccinic acid salts and succinic acid monoesters on the surface of containers in contact with food].
PubMed: The destruction of Salmonella typhimurium in chicken exudate by different freeze-thaw treatments.
PubMed: Simultaneous gas chromatographic determination of carboxylic acids in soft drinks and jams.
PubMed: Immobilization of fumarase by entrapment of rat liver mitochondria in polyacrylamide gel using gamma rays.
PubMed: Special bacterial polysaccharides and polysaccharases.
PubMed: Depressed growth of Morris hepatomas in altitude- and heat-stressed but not in cold-stressed buffalo rats.
PubMed: [Breeding of a biotype of Myzus persicae sulzer on a synthetic medium. V- Influence of oxalic and gentisic acids on the nutritive value of a synthetic medium].
PubMed: Lactic and succinic acid levels and refractive indices in the determinations of the age of eggs.
PubMed: 2,4-D metabolism: enzymatic conversion of chloromaleylacetic acid to succinic acid.
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