EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

succinic acid
butanedioic acid

Supplier Sponsors

Name:butanedioic acid
CAS Number: 110-15-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-740-4
Nikkaji Web:J2.879G
Beilstein Number:1754069
CoE Number:24
XlogP3:-0.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:118.08862000
Formula:C4 H6 O4
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:flavor enhancers, pH control agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1091 Succinic acid View - review
EU SANCO Succinic acid View - review
GRN 552 Succinic acid View - notice PDF
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.024 succinic acid
DG SANTE Food Additives:succinic acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:succinic acid
FEMA Number:4719 succinic acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):110-15-6 ; SUCCINIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1091 Succinic acid.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 185.00 to 190.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 235.00 to 236.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.017000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 231.00 °F. TCC ( 110.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.590
Soluble in:
 water, 8.079e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 8.32E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Flavor Type: acidic
sour acidic
Taste Description: sour acidic
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid
Advanced Biotech
Advanced Biotech
99% min.
Odor: Odorless
Advanced Biotech
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic acid 98%
Odor: Odorless
Allan Chemical
Succinic Acid
Aromiens International
Succinic Acid, Natural
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Succinic acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid 99%
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic acid
Charkit Chemical
Charkit Chemical
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid from Plants ≥96%
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid
Ernesto Ventós
Fuzhou Farwell
Succinic Acid,Natural
Glentham Life Sciences
Succinic acid
Indukern F&F
Lluch Essence
Lluch Essence
M&U International
M&U International
Succinic Acid
Nagar Haveli Perfumes & Aromatics
Succinic Acid 98.0% (min)
Natural Advantage
Succinic Acid, FCC Nat
Flavor: sour
Riverside Aromatics the exclusive distributor for Europe in UK for any non-US based inquiries
O'Laughlin Industries
Oamic Ingredients
Succinic Acid
EU Natural
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Succinic Acid
Riverside Aromatics
Biosuccinium™ succinic acid
Succinic acid, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
SysKem Chemie
Succinic Acid
For experimental / research use only.
Succinic Acid >99.0%(T)
Tianjin Danjun International
Natural succinic acid
United International
Succinic Acid
Vigon International
Succinic Acid Natural
WEN International
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 37/38 - Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 2702 mg/kg
Toxicology. Vol. 62, Pg. 203, 1990.

intravenous-mouse LD50 1400 mg/kg
Yaoxue Tongbao. Bulletin of Pharmacology. Vol. 18, Pg. 100, 1983.

oral-rat LD50 2260 mg/kg
Kodak Company Reports. Vol. #82-0158

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavor enhancers, pH control agents
Recommendation for succinic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 25
Click here to view publication 25
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 60.00000200.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 30.00000100.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 60.00000200.00000
breakfast cereal: 60.00000200.00000
cheese: 60.00000200.00000
chewing gum: 60.00000200.00000
condiments / relishes: 60.00000200.00000
confectionery froastings: 60.00000200.00000
egg products: 60.00000200.00000
fats / oils: 60.00000200.00000
fish products: 60.00000200.00000
frozen dairy: 60.00000200.00000
fruit ices: 60.00000200.00000
gelatins / puddings: 60.00000200.00000
granulated sugar: 60.00000200.00000
gravies: 60.00000200.00000
hard candy: 60.00000200.00000
imitation dairy: 60.00000200.00000
instant coffee / tea: 60.00000200.00000
jams / jellies: 60.00000200.00000
meat products: 60.00000200.00000
milk products: 60.00000200.00000
nut products: 60.00000200.00000
other grains: 60.00000200.00000
poultry: 60.00000200.00000
processed fruits: 60.00000200.00000
processed vegetables: 60.00000200.00000
reconstituted vegetables: 60.00000200.00000
seasonings / flavors: 100.000001000.00000
snack foods: 60.00000200.00000
soft candy: 60.00000200.00000
soups: 60.00000200.00000
sugar substitutes: 100.000001000.00000
sweet sauces: 60.00000200.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):110-15-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :1110
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
butanedioic acid
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:WM4900000 for cas# 110-15-6
 butanedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:110-15-6
Pubchem (cid):1110
Pubchem (sid):134974176
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00042
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00254
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00338
Export Tariff Code:2917.19.2700
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
grades: technical, cp, fcc
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 buffering agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
Search Trop Picture
 apple plant
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 apricot fruit
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 asparagus shoot
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 banana fruit
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 banana leaf
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 basil plant
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 bean black bean fruit
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 bean field bean fruit
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 bilberry leaf
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli plant
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 brussel sprout leaf
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 buckthorn sea buckthorn fruit
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 cabbage leaf
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 carrot root
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 celery root
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 cheese swiss cheese @ 4.00 ± 1 mmol
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 cherry sour cherry fruit
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 chive leaf
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 coconut root
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 coconut seed
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 corn plant
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 corn seed
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 currant red currant fruit
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 fig fruit
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 fig fruit juice
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 garlic plant
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 ginkgo biloba leaf
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 ginkgo biloba pollen
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 grape fruit
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 kiwi plant
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 lemon balm plant
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 lime fruit
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 loquat fruit
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 mango fruit
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 onion bulb
Search Trop Picture
 onion leaf
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 orange fruit
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 orange fruit juice
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 parsley plant
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 parsley root
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 pea seed
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 pomegranate fruit
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 poppy opium poppy latex
Search Trop Picture
 potato plant
Search Trop Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 raspberry red raspberry fruit, leaf
Search Trop Picture
 raspberry red raspberry leaf
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 rhubarb plant
Search Trop Picture
 soybean root
Search Trop Picture
 soybean seed
Search Trop Picture
 soybean sprout
Search Trop Picture
 star fruit fruit
Search Trop Picture
 sunflower leaf
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 tamarind fruit
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 tamarind seed
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 tomatillo fruit
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 tomato fruit
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 acidum succinicum
 amber acid
 butane dioic acid
1,4-butane dioic acid
 butane dionic acid
 butanedioic acid
1,4-butanedioic acid
 dihydrofumaric acid
1,2-ethane dicarboxylic acid
1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
 ethylene dicarboxylic acid
 ethylene succinic acid
 spirit of amber
bio-succinic acid
 succinic acid FCC
 succinic acid N.F. grade
 succinic acid natural
 succinic acid synthetic
 succinic acid technical grade
 wormwood acid


Perfumer & Flavorist:Organoleptic Characteristics of Flavor Materials
PubMed:Integration of metabolomics and subcellular organelle expression microarray to increase understanding the organic acid changes in post-harvest citrus fruit.
Leffingwell & Associates:Flavor Properties of FEMA GRAS List 25 flavor chemicals
PubMed:Robust nanobioconjugates of Candida antarctica lipase B--multiwalled carbon nanotubes: characterization and application for multiple usages in non-aqueous biocatalysis.
PubMed:Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.
PubMed:Identification and analysis of the metabolic functions of a high-salt-tolerant halophilic aromatic yeast Candida etchellsii for soy sauce production.
PubMed:Oxygen consumption rate of permeabilized cells and isolated mitochondria from pork M. masseter and liver examined fresh and after freeze-thawing at different pH values.
PubMed:Nonvolatile taste compounds in cooked Chinese Nanjing duck meat following postproduction heat treatment.
PubMed:Metabolomics-based component profiling of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses with gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and its application to sensory predictive modeling.
PubMed:Sources of umami taste in Cheddar and Swiss cheeses.
PubMed:Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed:A hybrid of ant colony optimization and minimization of metabolic adjustment to improve the production of succinic acid in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Anaerobic organic acid metabolism of Candida zemplinina in comparison with Saccharomyces wine yeasts.
PubMed:Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.
PubMed:Evolution of polyphenols and organic acids during the fermentation of apple cider.
PubMed:Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of the Korean Traditional Rice Wine, Makgeolli, Supplemented with Banana during Fermentation.
PubMed:[Progress in microbial production of succinic acid].
PubMed:Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.
PubMed:Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.
PubMed:Recent advances in production of succinic acid from lignocellulosic biomass.
PubMed:High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.
PubMed:Microbiological Characteristics of Wild Yeast Strain Pichia anomala Y197-13 for Brewing Makgeolli.
PubMed:Contributions of citrate in redox potential maintenance and ATP production: metabolic pathways and their regulation in Lactobacillus panis PM1.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to minimize byproduct formate and improving succinate productivity through increasing NADH availability by heterologous expression of NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Stability of monacolin K and citrinin and biochemical characterization of red-koji vinegar during fermentation.
PubMed:Quality of tomato slices disinfected with ozonated water.
PubMed:Microbial succession and metabolite changes during long-term storage of Kimchi.
PubMed:Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment.
PubMed:Influence of oxygen on NADH recycling and oxidative stress resistance systems in Lactobacillus panis PM1.
PubMed:Wheat flour based propionic acid fermentation: an economic approach.
PubMed:Effects of succinate and pH on cooked beef color.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Analysis of Taiwan patents for the medicinal mushroom "Niu-Chang- Chih".
PubMed:Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.
PubMed:(-) Epicatechin attenuates mitochondrial damage by enhancing mitochondrial multi-marker enzymes, adenosine triphosphate and lowering calcium in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats.
PubMed:The genetic basis of natural variation in oenological traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of novel 1,3-propanediol-producing Lactobacillus panis PM1 from bioethanol thin stillage.
PubMed:Textural characteristic, antioxidant activity, sugar, organic acid, and phenolic profiles of 10 promising jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) selections.
PubMed:Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.
PubMed:Role of anionic charges of periplasmic glucans of Shigella flexneri in overcoming detergent stress.
PubMed:Identification of organic acids in wine that stimulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.
PubMed:A metabolomic approach to the study of wine micro-oxygenation.
PubMed:Review of biological and pharmacological activities of the endemic Taiwanese bitter medicinal mushroom, Antrodia camphorata (M. Zang et C. H. Su) Sh. H. Wu et al. (higher Basidiomycetes).
PubMed:High level production of 5-aminolevulinic acid by Propionibacterium acidipropionici grown in a low-cost medium.
PubMed:Metabolic profiling of Staphylococcus aureus cultivated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with (1)H NMR-based nontargeted analysis.
PubMed:Metabolomics-based component profiling of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses with gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and its application to sensory predictive modeling.
PubMed:Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:The effect of once daily omeprazole and succinic acid (VECAM) vs once daily omeprazole on 24-h intragastric pH.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo characterization of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and crystalline ziprasidone formulations.
PubMed:Genes involved in lactose catabolism and organic acid production during growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 in skimmed milk.
PubMed:Identification of beer bitter acids regulating mechanisms of gastric acid secretion.
PubMed:Microbial production of propionic acid from propionibacteria: current state, challenges and perspectives.
PubMed:Role of anionic charges of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 in mice virulence.
PubMed:Integrated separation process for isolation and purification of biosuccinic acid.
PubMed:Proteomic analysis on acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4.
PubMed:Preparation and characterization of succinic acid deamidated wheat gluten microspheres for encapsulation of fish oil.
PubMed:Influence of dietary blueberry and broccoli on cecal microbiota activity and colon morphology in mdr1a(-/-) mice, a model of inflammatory bowel diseases.
PubMed:Effects of freeze-drying of samples on metabolite levels in metabolome analyses.
PubMed:Rapid NMR method for the quantification of organic compounds in thin stillage.
PubMed:[Phenotropyl succinate as the means for correction of neuroimmune disturbances under conditions of informational-physical stress].
PubMed:Purification of d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by a temperature-modulated silica gel column chromatography: use of Taguchi method to optimize purification conditions.
PubMed:Transcellular transport of domoic acid across intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.
PubMed:Effects of pyruvate, succinate, and lactate enhancement on beef longissimus raw color.
PubMed:Sensorically and antimicrobially active metabolite production of Lactobacillus strains on Jerusalem artichoke juice.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Designing carbohydrate nanoparticles for prolonged efficacy of antimicrobial peptide.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.
PubMed:Metabolite profiling of Cheonggukjang, a fermented soybean paste, inoculated with various Bacillus strains during fermentation.
PubMed:Effect of pH, aeration and feeding non-sterilized agave juice in a continuous agave juice fermentation.
PubMed:Determination of non-volatile and volatile organic acids in Korean traditional fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).
PubMed:Use of response surface methodology in a fed-batch process for optimization of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates to achieve high levels of canthaxanthin from Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1.
PubMed:Global regulation of food supply by Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.
PubMed:Metabolomics analysis reveals the compositional differences of shade grown tea (Camellia sinensis L.).
PubMed:A portable photoelectrochemical probe for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.
PubMed:Cereal-based biorefinery development: utilisation of wheat milling by-products for the production of succinic acid.
PubMed:Effect of succinate sodium on the metmyoglobin reduction and color stability of beef patties.
PubMed:A thorough study on the use of quantitative 1H NMR in Rioja red wine fermentation processes.
PubMed:Characterization of low-molecular-weight antiyeast metabolites produced by a food-protective Lactobacillus-Propionibacterium coculture.
PubMed:Screening and selection of marine isolate for L-glutaminase production and media optimization using response surface methodology.
PubMed:[Breeding of Actinobacillus succiniogenes mutants with improved succinate production based on metabolic flux analysis].
PubMed:Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) and its potential in treating liver diseases.
PubMed:[Screening, breeding and metabolic analysis of a succinic-acid-producing strain].
PubMed:A succinate-based composition reverses menopausal symptoms without sex hormone replacement therapy.
PubMed:Use of dicarboxylic acids to improve and diversify the material properties of porous chitosan membranes.
PubMed:Quantitative reconstruction of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of a red wine.
PubMed:Succinic acid production from cheese whey using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z.
PubMed:Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).
PubMed:Determination of differences in the nonvolatile metabolites of pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) according to different parts and heating times using 1H NMR and principal component analysis.
PubMed:Sources of umami taste in Cheddar and Swiss cheeses.
PubMed:Bioconversion of tyrosol into hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid under hypersaline conditions by the new Halomonas sp. strain HTB24.
PubMed:Bacterial synthesis of poly(hydroxybutyrate- co-hydroxyvalerate) using carbohydrate-rich mahua (Madhuca sp.) flowers.
PubMed:Population dynamics and metabolite target analysis of lactic acid bacteria during laboratory fermentations of wheat and spelt sourdoughs.
PubMed:In situ measurements of pH changes in beta-lactoglobulin solutions under high hydrostatic pressure.
PubMed:A convenient route to the synthesis of isotopomeric dihydro-2(3H)furanones.
PubMed:[Simultaneous determination of twenty-one organic acids in food by ion chromatography with eluent autogeneration].
PubMed:Ion chromatographic determination of organic acids in food samples using a permanent coating graphite carbon column.
PubMed:High-throughput microplate enzymatic assays for fast sugar and acid quantification in apple and tomato.
PubMed:Profiling the chlorogenic acids and other caffeic acid derivatives of herbal chrysanthemum by LC-MSn.
PubMed:Cholesterol hemisuccinate: a selective inhibitor of family X DNA polymerases.
PubMed:Profiling the chlorogenic acids of aster by HPLC-MS(n).
PubMed:Bifidobacterium infantis strains with and without a combination of oligofructose and inulin (OFI) attenuate inflammation in DSS-induced colitis in rats.
PubMed:Metabolomic discrimination of different grades of pine-mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) using 1H NMR spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.
PubMed:Lactobacillus casei metabolic potential to utilize citrate as an energy source in ripening cheese: a bioinformatics approach.
PubMed:Kinetic analysis of bifidobacterial metabolism reveals a minor role for succinic acid in the regeneration of NAD+ through its growth-associated production.
PubMed:Use of Rhodotorula minuta live cells hosted in water-in-oil macroemulsion for biotrasformation reaction.
PubMed:Quantitative studies, taste reconstitution, and omission experiments on the key taste compounds in morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed:Molecular and sensory studies on the umami taste of Japanese green tea.
PubMed:Growth of Campylobacter in media supplemented with organic acids.
PubMed:Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Rapid determination of short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents and faeces of humans and rats by acidified water-extraction and direct-injection gas chromatography.
PubMed:Effects of succinylation on the structure and thermostability of lysozyme.
PubMed:Metabolic adaptations of liver mitochondria during restricted feeding schedules.
PubMed:Activity-guided identification of (S)-malic acid 1-O-D-glucopyranoside (morelid) and gamma-aminobutyric acid as contributors to umami taste and mouth-drying oral sensation of morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed:Succinate production and citrate catabolism by Cheddar cheese nonstarter lactobacilli.
PubMed:A sphingolipid and tyrosinase inhibitors from the fruiting body of Phellinus linteus.
PubMed:Intra-oral acid production associated with eating whole or pulped raw fruits.
PubMed:c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.
PubMed:Food restriction affects energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria.
PubMed:Combined impact of pH and organic acids on iron uptake by Caco-2 cells.
PubMed:Anxiolytic-like effect of succinic acid in mice.
PubMed:Energy metabolism and valve closure behaviour in the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea.
PubMed:A pilot study to investigate effects of inulin on Caco-2 cells through in vitro metabolic fingerprinting.
PubMed:Skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and uncoupling protein 3 are differently influenced by semistarvation and refeeding.
PubMed:NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tetrahydrofuran (CAS No. 109-99-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).
PubMed:Effect of organic acids and nitrogen source on alcoholic fermentation: study of their buffering capacity.
PubMed:Roles of Fas signaling pathway in vitamin E succinate-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells.
PubMed:Organic acids influence iron uptake in the human epithelial cell line Caco-2.
PubMed:Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed:RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate inhibits human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell growth by inducing apoptosis and DNA synthesis arrest.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl succinate on benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in female mice.
PubMed:Potent enantioselective auxin: indole-3-succinic acid.
PubMed:Characterization of cigar tobaccos by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of nonvolatile organic acids: application to the authentication of Cuban cigars.
PubMed:Comparative study on chemical changes in olive juice and brine during green olive fermentation.
PubMed:Potentiation of the insulinotropic action of GLP-1 by succinic acid dimethyl ester in fed anaesthetized rats.
PubMed:Effects of the dimethyl ester on succinic acid on the hormonal and metabolic response to exercise in hereditarily diabetic starved rats.
PubMed:Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid content during beni-koji making.
PubMed:Anaerobiosis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
PubMed:Production of multifunctional organic acids from renewable resources.
PubMed:Assessment of the nutritional value of glycerol-1,2, 3-tris(methylsuccinate) in fed and starved rats.
PubMed:Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase. Effects of inhibitors on reverse electron transfer from the iron-sulfur protein to cytochrome b.
PubMed:Simultaneous quantification of released succinic acid and a weakly basic drug compound in dissolution media.
PubMed:Influence of culture conditions on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7.
PubMed:[The correction of disorders of the internal body environment in animals and man by the addition of succinic acid to food].
PubMed:Octenylsuccinic aciduria in children fed protein-hydrolysate formulas containing modified cornstarch.
PubMed:Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to lactic acid.
PubMed:Lack of toxicity/carcinogenicity of monosodium succinate in F344 rats.
PubMed:NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Succinic Anhydride (CAS No. 108-30-5) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).
PubMed:[Functional properties of isolated kidney mitochondria of rats in food deprivation].
PubMed:Phosphoglycerol substituents present on the cyclic beta-1,2-glucans of Rhizobium meliloti 1021 are derived from phosphatidylglycerol.
PubMed:Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on chicken drumsticks using chemicals and radiation.
PubMed:[Detection of anion residues of surface-active compounds of the type sulfosuccinic acid salts and succinic acid monoesters on the surface of containers in contact with food].
PubMed:The destruction of Salmonella typhimurium in chicken exudate by different freeze-thaw treatments.
PubMed:Simultaneous gas chromatographic determination of carboxylic acids in soft drinks and jams.
PubMed:Immobilization of fumarase by entrapment of rat liver mitochondria in polyacrylamide gel using gamma rays.
PubMed:Special bacterial polysaccharides and polysaccharases.
PubMed:Depressed growth of Morris hepatomas in altitude- and heat-stressed but not in cold-stressed buffalo rats.
PubMed:[Breeding of a biotype of Myzus persicae sulzer on a synthetic medium. V- Influence of oxalic and gentisic acids on the nutritive value of a synthetic medium].
PubMed:Lactic and succinic acid levels and refractive indices in the determinations of the age of eggs.
PubMed:2,4-D metabolism: enzymatic conversion of chloromaleylacetic acid to succinic acid.
a water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. it is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (hawley's condensed chemical dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; mcgraw-hill dictionary of scientific and technical terms, 4th ed, p1851) Widely distributed in higher plants and prod. by microorganisms. Present in cheeses and fresh meats. Flavour enhancer, pH control agent [DFC]
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