EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

phenethyl amine

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 64-04-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-574-4
Nikkaji Web:J4.833J
Beilstein Number:0507488
CoE Number:708
XlogP3:1.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:121.18267000
Formula:C8 H11 N
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1589 phenethylamine
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:11.006 phenethylamine
FEMA Number:3220 phenethylamine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):64-04-0 ; PHENETHYLAMINE
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:0.96100 to 0.96700 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.996 to 8.046
Refractive Index:1.52600 to 1.53200 @ 25.00 °C.
Boiling Point: 194.00 to 195.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.398000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density:4.18 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 178.00 °F. TCC ( 81.11 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.410
Soluble in:
 water, 6.325e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: fishy
ammoniacal fishy
Odor Description:at 0.10 % in propylene glycol. ammoniacal fishy
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Beijing Lys Chemicals
Phenethyl amine
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Phenethylamine 98%
DeLong Chemicals America
Phenethylamine, Kosher
Penta International
Penta International
Shijiazhuang Donglian Nankai Aroma Chemicals
Odor: fishy
For experimental / research use only.
2-Phenethylamine analytical standard
Phenethyl Amine
For experimental / research use only.
2-Phenylethylamine >98.0%(GC)(T)
Phenethyl amine
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
C - Corrosive.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 34 - Causes burns.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 23 - Do not breath vapour.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 28 - After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of water.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S 45 - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-guinea pig LD50 200 mg/kg

oral-guinea pig LD50 200 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0555348

intraperitoneal-guinea pig LD50 200 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0555348

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 175 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 24, Pg. 24, 1974.

intravenous-mouse LD50 100 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 106, Pg. 341, 1952.

parenteral-mouse LD50 100 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 195, Pg. 647, 1940.

unreported-mouse LDLo 300 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 153, Pg. 161, 1930.

intraperitoneal-rat LDLo 100 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 195, Pg. 647, 1940.

oral-rat LDLo 800 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 195, Pg. 647, 1940.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 320 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 7, Pg. 620, 1957.

subcutaneous-rat LDLo 450 ug/kg
"Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948Vol. -, Pg. 109, 1948.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents
Recommendation for phenethyl amine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.075 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 0.05 (μg/capita/day)
Threshold of Concern:540 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: II
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 4
Click here to view publication 4
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -0.10000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -0.10000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -0.10000
fruit ices: -0.10000
gelatins / puddings: -0.10000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -0.10000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, (FGE.86)[1] - Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting) - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives - Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, Revision 1 (FGE.86Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 86, Revision 2 (FGE.86Rev2): Consideration of aliphatic and arylalkyl amines and amides evaluated by JECFA (65th meeting)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):64-04-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :1001
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
RTECS:SG8750000 for cas# 64-04-0
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:64-04-0
Pubchem (cid):1001
Pubchem (sid):134971963
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C05332
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB12275
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01558
Export Tariff Code:2921.49.5000
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
grades: technical; scintillation.
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 almond bitter almond
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 almond seed
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 banana fruit
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 beet root
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 cabbage cooked cabbage
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 cabbage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 grape fruit juice
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 pear fruit
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 spinach leaf
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1-amino-2-phenyl ethane
beta-aminoethyl benzene
2-aminoethyl benzoate
(2-aminoethyl) benzene
 benzene ethanamine
beta-phenethyl amine
2-phenyl ethyl amine


Info:aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides
PubMed:Bioactive amines in Mozzarella cheese from milk with varying somatic cell counts.
PubMed:A beating heart cell model to predict cardiotoxicity: Effects of the dietary supplement ingredients higenamine, phenylethylamine, ephedrine and caffeine.
PubMed:Effects of Plant Polyphenols and α-Tocopherol on Lipid Oxidation, Microbiological Characteristics, and Biogenic Amines Formation in Dry-Cured Bacons.
PubMed:Biogenic amines in Zamorano cheese: factors involved in their accumulation.
PubMed:Brewing effect on levels of biogenic amines in different coffee samples as determined by LC-UV.
PubMed:Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.
PubMed:Bioactive amines in sorghum: method optimisation and influence of line, tannin and hydric stress.
PubMed:Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.
PubMed:The optimisation of traditional fermentation process of white cabbage (in relation to biogenic amines and polyamines content and microbiological profile).
PubMed:Determination of biogenic amines in oysters by capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence.
PubMed:Effect of autochthonous starter cultures on the biogenic amine content of ewe's milk cheese throughout ripening.
PubMed:Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean.
PubMed:Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.
PubMed:Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?
PubMed:Soma, food of the immortals according to the Bower Manuscript (Kashmir, 6th century A.D.).
PubMed:Ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC²) method for the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented foods.
PubMed:Toxicological findings in a fatal multidrug intoxication involving mephedrone.
PubMed:Determination of biogenic amines in traditional Chinese fermented foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).
PubMed:A cocktail of synthetic stimulants found in a dietary supplement associated with serious adverse events.
PubMed:Effects of salt concentration on biogenic amine formation and quality changes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 and 20 °C.
PubMed:Heterologous expression and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase from Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 and Enterococcus faecium R615Z1.
PubMed:Ammonia and formaldehyde participate in the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in addition to creati(ni)ne and phenylacetaldehyde.
PubMed:Inactivation of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase by natural betalains and semi-synthetic analogues.
PubMed:β-phenylethylamine, a small molecule with a large impact.
PubMed:Biogenic amines formation in high-pressure processed pike flesh (Esox lucius) during storage.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of selected biogenic amines in alcoholic beverage samples by isotachophoretic and chromatographic methods.
PubMed:Nitrogen fertilisation increases biogenic amines and amino acid concentrations in Vitis vinifera var. Riesling musts and wines.
PubMed:Determination of selected biogenic amines in Acacia rigidula plant materials and dietary supplements using LC-MS/MS methods.
PubMed:Construction of a bifunctional enzyme fusion for the combined determination of biogenic amines in foods.
PubMed:Influence of microflora composition on safety and colour parameters of "kumpia wieprzowa" during ripening.
PubMed:ß-Phenylethylamine as a novel nutrient treatment to reduce bacterial contamination due to Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef meat.
PubMed:The effect of treating method of pithed pheasant on the content of biogenic amines in the meat during the course of storage.
PubMed:A survey of biogenic amines in vinegars.
PubMed:Quality properties, fatty acids, and biogenic amines profile of fresh tilapia stored in ice.
PubMed:Monitoring of biogenic amines in cheeses manufactured at small-scale farms and in fermented dairy products in the Czech Republic.
PubMed:Proteolysis and biogenic amine buildup in high-pressure treated ovine milk blue-veined cheese.
PubMed:[Determination of eight biogenic amines in animal-derived foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization].
PubMed:Production of tyramine by Enterococcus faecalis strains in water-boiled salted duck.
PubMed:Contribution of β-phenethylamine, a component of chocolate and wine, to dopaminergic neurodegeneration: implications for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.
PubMed:Bioactive amines and internal quality of commercial eggs.
PubMed:Melatonin is formed during winemaking at safe levels of biogenic amines.
PubMed:A review of the liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of biogenic amines in foods.
PubMed:Characterization of amine oxidases from Arthrobacter aurescens and application for determination of biogenic amines.
PubMed:Study of the photocatalytic transformation of synephrine: a biogenic amine relevant in anti-doping analysis.
PubMed:Effect of high-pressure treatment on biogenic amines formation in vacuum-packed trout flesh (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
PubMed:Levels of biogenic amines in retail market fermented meat products.
PubMed:Biogenic amine formation and bacterial contribution in Natto products.
PubMed:Chemometric analysis for the detection of biogenic amines in Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines: a comparative study between organic and nonorganic production.
PubMed:Bioactive amines in soy sauce: Validation of method, occurrence and potential health effects.
PubMed:Changes in biogenic amines of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets stored at different temperatures and their relation to total volatile base nitrogen, microbiological and sensory score.
PubMed:Evaluation of biogenic amines content in chilean reserve varietal wines.
PubMed:Chemical conversion of phenylethylamine into phenylacetaldehyde by carbonyl-amine reactions in model systems.
PubMed:Biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate in primitivo wine: survey of their concentrations in commercial products and relationship with the use of malolactic starter.
PubMed:Tyramine and phenylethylamine biosynthesis by food bacteria.
PubMed:Putative chemosensory receptors of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, identified by antennal transcriptome analysis.
PubMed:Impact of Gram-negative bacteria in interaction with a complex microbial consortium on biogenic amine content and sensory characteristics of an uncooked pressed cheese.
PubMed:Assessment of the genetic polymorphism and biogenic amine production of indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from Greek red wines.
PubMed:Influence of technological conditions of sausage fermentation on the aminogenic activity of L. curvatus CTC273.
PubMed:Biogenic amines and potential histamine - Forming bacteria in Rihaakuru (a cooked fish paste).
PubMed:Beneficial nutraceutical modulation of cerebral erythropoietin expression and oxidative stress: an experimental study.
PubMed:Determination of biogenic amines in infusions of tea (Camellia sinensis) by HPLC after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl).
PubMed:Molecular cloning and expression of gene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in 'Vidal blanc' grape berries.
PubMed:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assessment of amines in Port wine and grape juice after fast chloroformate extraction/derivatization.
PubMed:Influence of fertilisation with foliar urea on the content of amines in wine.
PubMed:Control of biogenic amines in food--existing and emerging approaches.
PubMed:The effect of different packaging methods on the formation of biogenic amines and organic acids in Kashar cheese.
PubMed:Levels of histamine and other biogenic amines in high-quality red wines.
PubMed:Binding to extracellular matrix proteins and formation of biogenic amines by food-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci.
PubMed:Development of an ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction method for sensitive determination of biogenic amines: application to the analysis of octopamine, tyramine and phenethylamine in beer samples.
PubMed:Galactoglucomannan oligosaccharide supplementation affects nutrient digestibility, fermentation end-product production, and large bowel microbiota of the dog.
PubMed:A 4-hydroxy-N'-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]benzohydrazide-based sorbent material for the extraction-HPLC determination of biogenic amines in food samples.
PubMed:Biogenic amine formation in Turkish dry fermented sausage (sucuk) as affected by nisin and nitrite.
PubMed:2-Phenylethylamine, a constituent of chocolate and wine, causes mitochondrial complex-I inhibition, generation of hydroxyl radicals and depletion of striatal biogenic amines leading to psycho-motor dysfunctions in Balb/c mice.
PubMed:Synthesis and quantitation of six phenolic amides in Amaranthus spp.
PubMed:Distribution of aminogenic activity among potential autochthonous starter cultures for dry fermented sausages.
PubMed:Global regulation of food supply by Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.
PubMed:Survey on indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from red wines of Valtellina, a cold climate wine-growing Italian area.
PubMed:The serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist TCB-2: a behavioral and neurophysiological analysis.
PubMed:A new ultra-pressure liquid chromatography method for the determination of biogenic amines in cheese.
PubMed:Formation of styrene during the Maillard reaction is negligible.
PubMed:Foods and supplements in the management of migraine headaches.
PubMed:First evidence of a membrane-bound, tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine producing, tyrosine decarboxylase in Enterococcus faecalis: a two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic study.
PubMed:A method for benzoyl chloride derivatization of biogenic amines for high performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Irradiated Chinese Rugao ham: Changes in volatile N-nitrosamine, biogenic amine and residual nitrite during ripening and post-ripening.
PubMed:Genetic diversity and physiological traits of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from Tuscan Sangiovese wines.
PubMed:Model studies on the oxygen-induced formation of benzaldehyde from phenylacetaldehyde using pyrolysis GC-MS and FTIR.
PubMed:Occurrence of lactic acid bacteria and biogenic amines in biologically aged wines.
PubMed:Determination of primary biogenic amines in various food products using isocratic HPLC with 3-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde as a new precolumn fluorogenic reagent.
PubMed:Dopamine D4 receptor involvement in the discriminative stimulus effects in rats of LSD, but not the phenethylamine hallucinogen DOI.
PubMed:Modeling the aminogenic potential of Enterococcus faecalis EF37 in dry fermented sausages through chemical and molecular approaches.
PubMed:Detection of biogenic amine producer bacteria in a typical Italian goat cheese.
PubMed:Amino acid decarboxylation by Lactobacillus curvatus CTC273 affected by the pH and glucose availability.
PubMed:Conversion of phenylalanine into styrene by 2,4-decadienal in model systems.
PubMed:Determination of biogenic amines in alcoholic beverages by ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection and integrated pulsed amperometric detection.
PubMed:Tyramine and phenylethylamine production among lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine.
PubMed:Biogenic amines in natural ciders.
PubMed:Relation of biogenic amines' formation with microbiological and sensory attributes in Lactobacillus-inoculated vacuum-packed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets.
PubMed:Formation of amines and aldehydes from parent amino acids during thermal processing of cocoa and model systems: new insights into pathways of the strecker reaction.
PubMed:Formation of biogenic amines throughout the industrial manufacture of red wine.
PubMed:Safety properties and molecular strain typing of lactic acid bacteria from slightly fermented sausages.
PubMed:Metabolic transformation plays a primary role in the psychostimulant-like discriminative-stimulus effects of selegiline [(R)-(-)-deprenyl].
PubMed:Determination of biogenic amines in chocolate by ion chromatographic separation and pulsed integrated amperometric detection with implemented wave-form at Au disposable electrode.
PubMed:Molecular, technological and safety characterization of Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci from slightly fermented sausages.
PubMed:Influence of cultivar and germination on bioactive amines in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merril).
PubMed:Lactobacillus oligofermentans sp. nov., associated with spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged poultry products.
PubMed:Rapid assay for analyzing biogenic amines in cheese: matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:A rapid and inexpensive method for the determination of biogenic amines from bacterial cultures by thin-layer chromatography.
PubMed:Interrelationships among microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical properties of Terrincho cheese, with emphasis on biogenic amines.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of aromatic amine dehydrogenase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans.
PubMed:New solvent systems for thin-layer chromatographic determination of nine biogenic amines in fish and squid.
PubMed:Relation of biogenic amines with microbial and sensory changes of whole and filleted freshwater rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) stored on ice.
PubMed:Tyramine functions as a toxin in honey bee larvae during Varroa-transmitted infection by Melissococcus pluton.
PubMed:On-line solid-phase extraction with surfactant accelerated on-column derivatization and micellar liquid chromatographic separation as a tool for the determination of biogenic amines in various food substrates.
PubMed:Comparison of biogenic amine profile in cheeses manufactured from fresh and stored (4 degrees C, 48 hours) raw goat's milk.
PubMed:Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review.
PubMed:Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.
PubMed:Determination of biogenic amines as their benzoyl derivatives after cloud point extraction with micellar liquid chromatographic separation.
PubMed:Yeasts associated with Manteca.
PubMed:The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine.
PubMed:Monitoring volatile and nonvolatile amines in dried and salted roes of tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) during manufacture and storage.
PubMed:Formation of biogenic amines in a typical semihard Italian cheese.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in poultry carcasses.
PubMed:Content of biogenic amines in a Chardonnay wine obtained through spontaneous and inoculated fermentations.
PubMed:Characterization of selected Spanish table wine samples according to their biogenic amine content from liquid chromatographic determination.
PubMed:Free radical scavenging and antioxidative activity of caffeic acid amide and ester analogues: structure-activity relationship.
PubMed:Do we know the mechanism of chiral recognition between cyclodextrins and analytes?
PubMed:Biogenic amine accumulation in ripened sausages affected by the addition of sodium sulphite.
PubMed:Following the trace of elusive amines.
PubMed:Amino acid-decarboxylase activity of bacteria isolated from fermented pork sausages.
PubMed:Evolution of microbial populations and biogenic amine production in dry sausages produced in Southern Italy.
PubMed:Effect of the interaction between a low tyramine-producing Lactobacillus and proteolytic staphylococci on biogenic amine production during ripening and storage of dry sausages.
PubMed:Growth and metabolic activity of Shewanella putrefaciens maintained under different CO2 and O2 concentrations.
PubMed:Biogenic amines in vacuum-packaged and carbon dioxide-controlled atmosphere-packaged fresh pork stored at -1.50 degrees C.
PubMed:Effects of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration on the growth kinetics, proteolytic activity and biogenic amine production of Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed:Changes in biogenic amine and polyamine contents in slightly fermented sausages manufactured with and without sugar.
PubMed:Mixed starter cultures to control biogenic amine production in dry fermented sausages.
PubMed:Formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Hispánico cheese manufactured with proteinases and different levels of starter culture.
PubMed:Influence of hygienic quality of raw materials on biogenic amine production during ripening and storage of dry fermented sausages.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in fermented foods after derivatization with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride.
PubMed:Effect of added proteinases and level of starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Manchego cheese.
PubMed:Effect of proteolytic starter cultures of Staphylococcus spp. on biogenic amine formation during the ripening of dry fermented sausages.
PubMed:Changes in biogenic amines in mature and germinating legume seeds and their behavior during cooking.
PubMed:Histamine and biogenic amine production by Morganella morganii isolated from temperature-abused albacore.
PubMed:Reduction of biogenic amine formation using a negative amino acid-decarboxylase starter culture for fermentation of Fuet sausages.
PubMed:Formation of biogenic amine in mayonnaise, herring and tuna fish salad by lactobacilli.
PubMed:The effects of nutrients on mood.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of NS-49, a phenethylamine class alpha 1A-adrenoceptor agonist. 1st communication: absorption and excretion in rats after a single administration of 14C-NS-49.
PubMed:Histamine and tyramine degradation by food fermenting microorganisms.
PubMed:Effects of biogenic amines in broiler chickens.
PubMed:Determination of biogenic amines in cheese.
PubMed:Venlafaxine and nefazodone, two pharmacologically distinct antidepressants.
PubMed:Intravenous self-injection of four novel phenethylamines in baboons.
PubMed:Wine and headache.
PubMed:Biogenic amine formation by poultry-associated spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.
PubMed:[Automated pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA)> A new RP-HPLC method for the determination of biogenic amines in food].
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic method for determination of biogenic amines in fish and fish products.
PubMed:The formation of biogenic amines by fermentation organisms.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of beta-phenylethylamine for the estimation of in vivo protein synthesis.
PubMed:Purification, characterization, and crystallization of monoamine oxidase from Escherichia coli K-12.
PubMed:Effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and dopamine agonists on the behavior of mammal- and frog-eating snakes.
PubMed:Genotoxicity of nitrosated red wine and of the nitrosatable phenolic compounds present in wine: tyramine, quercetin and malvidine-3-glucoside.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of biogenic amines in dry sausages.
PubMed:Reversal of cirazoline- and phenylpropanolamine-induced anorexia by the alpha 1-receptor antagonist prazosin.
PubMed:Improvement of extraction procedure for biogenic amines in foods and their high-performance liquid chromatographic determination.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of amines in wine by liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Trapping of reactive intermediates from the nitrosation of primary amines by a new type of scavenger reagent.
PubMed:Caffeine-phenylethylamine combinations mimic the cocaine discriminative cue.
PubMed:Presence of tetrahydroisoquinoline and 1-methyl-tetrahydro-isoquinoline in foods: compounds related to Parkinson's disease.
PubMed:On tyramine, food, beverages and the reversible MAO inhibitor moclobemide.
PubMed:The restaurant syndromes.
PubMed:A behavioural and pharmacological examination of phenylethylamine-induced anorexia and hyperactivity--comparisons with amphetamine.
PubMed:Studies of the free faecal amines of infants with gastroenteritis and of healthy infants.
PubMed:Inactivation of metalloenzymes by food constituents.
PubMed:Inactivation of metalloenzymes by lysinoalanine, phenylethylaminoalanine, alkali-treated food proteins, and sulfur amino acids.
PubMed:Inhibition of in vivo histamine metabolism in rats by foodborne and pharmacologic inhibitors of diamine oxidase, histamine N-methyltransferase, and monoamine oxidase.
PubMed:Cold-restraint stress and urinary endogenous beta-phenylethylamine excretion in rats.
PubMed:Caffeine-phenylethylamine combinations mimic the amphetamine discriminative cue.
PubMed:Acquisition and recovery of tolerance to the discriminative stimulus properties of cocaine.
PubMed:New contributions from basic science to understanding the effects of monoamine oxidase inhibiting antidepressants.
PubMed:High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of putrefactive amines in foods.
PubMed:Determination of mono-, di- and polyamines in foods using a single-column amino acid auto-analyzer.
PubMed:[Biogenic amines in food: effects of histamine, tyramine and phenylethylamine in the human].
PubMed:Serotonin receptor blockade potentiates behavioural effects of beta-phenylethylamine.
PubMed:Antagonism of the behavioral effects of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM) and quipazine by metergoline.
PubMed:Drug and food-deprivation modulation of activity in rats given chronic dietary lead: significance of type of activity measure.
PubMed:Central 5-hydroxytryptamine and the effects of hallucinogens and phenobarbital on operant responding in rats.
PubMed:The effects of acute and chronic administration of beta-phenylethylamine on food intake and body weight in rats.
PubMed:Naloxone potentiates the disruptive effects of mescaline on operant responding in the rat.
PubMed:Enhancement of the behavioral effects of 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (DOM) by pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine.
PubMed:Stimulus properties of antidepressants in the rat.
PubMed:Anti-hypertriglyceridaemic activity of some phenylethylamine anorectic compounds.
PubMed:Mazindol effects on schedule-controlled responding of the pigeon.
PubMed:The identification and significance of 2-phenylethylamine in foods.
Present in cooked cabbage, cheeses, sherry, wine, processed lean fish, cocoa, raw cauliflower, raw beetroot and raw radish. Flavouring ingredient D-Phenylalanine increases the brain content of phenylethylamine. Phenylethylamine has been shown at least indirectly to satisfy the four main criteria required to demonstrate that a neuroamine sustains mood and that its deficit can be responsible for depression. Antidepressant drug therapy is an indirect (pharmacological) "replacement" of brain phenylethylamine. Phenethylamine is an aromatic amine, which is a colorless liquid at room temperature. It is soluble in water, ethanol, and ether. Similar to other low-molecular-weight amines, it has a fishy odor. Upon exposure to air, it forms a solid carbonate salt with carbon dioxide. Phenethylamine is strongly basic and forms a stable crystalline hydrochloride salt with a melting point of 217 oC. Phenethylamine is also a skin irritant and possible sensitizer.; Phenethylamine (PEA) is a natural monoamine alkaloid, trace amine, and psychoactive drug with stimulant effects. In the mammalian central nervous system, phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. It is biosynthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation. Besides mammals, phenethylamine is found in many other organisms and foods such as chocolate, especially after microbial fermentation. It is sold as a dietary supplement for purported mood and weight loss-related therapeutic benefits; however, orally ingested phenethylamine is usually inactive on account of extensive first-pass metabolism by monoamine oxidase (MAO) into phenylacetic acid, preventing significant concentrations from reaching the brain.; Phenethylamine is an aromatic amine, which is a colorless liquid at room temperature. It is soluble in water, ethanol, and ether. Similar to other low-molecular-weight amines, it has a fishy odor. Upon exposure to air, it forms a solid carbonate salt with carbon dioxide. Phenethylamine is strongly basic and forms a stable crystalline hydrochloride salt with a melting point of 217 C. Phenethylamine is also a skin irritant and possible sensitizer.; Phenethylamine, or 2-phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. Phenethylamine also has a constitutional isomer (+)-phenylethylamine (1-phenylethylamine), which has two stereoisomers: (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine. In the human brain, 2-phenethylamine is believed to function as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter (trace amine). Phenethylamine is a natural compound biosynthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine by enzymatic decarboxylation. It is also found in many foods such as chocolate, especially after microbial fermentation. However trace amounts from food are quickly metabolized by the enzyme MAO-B, preventing significant concentrations from reaching the brain.; Phenylethylamine is a precursor to the neurotransmitter phenylethanolamine.
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