EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

monosodium glutamate
sodium L-glutamate

Supplier Sponsors

Name:sodium 2-amino-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoate
CAS Number: 142-47-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:116268-41-8
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:205-538-1
FDA UNII:C3C196L9FG
MDL:MFCD00150138
CoE Number:11898
Molecular Weight:170.12029928
Formula:C5 H9 N O4 Na
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavor enhancers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
182.1 Monosodium L-glutamate View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Monosodium L-Glutamate
GSFA Codex: Monosodium glutamate (621)
DG SANTE Food Additives:monosodium glutamate
FEMA Number:2756 monosodium glutamate
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):142-47-2 ; MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 101 -- FOOD LABELING
Subpart B--Specific Food Labeling Requirements
Sec. 101.22 Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.


FDA PART 155 -- CANNED VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans.


FDA PART 155 -- CANNED VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.130 Canned corn.


FDA PART 155 -- CANNED VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.170 Canned peas.


FDA PART 155 -- CANNED VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.200 Certain other canned vegetables.


FDA PART 155 -- CANNED VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.201 Canned mushrooms.


FDA PART 158 -- FROZEN VEGETABLES
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables
Sec. 158.170 Frozen peas.


FDA PART 161 -- FISH AND SHELLFISH
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish
Sec. 161.190 Canned tuna.


FDA PART 169 -- FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.115 French dressing.


FDA PART 169 -- FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.140 Mayonnaise.


FDA PART 169 -- FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.150 Salad dressing.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.


FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.1 Substances that are generally recognized as safe.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white colorless crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 230.00 to 232.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 333.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:0.000025 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 312.00 °F. TCC ( 155.70 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -1.435 (est)
Shelf Life: 12.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 ethyl alcohol, slightly
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 3.85E+05 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength:low
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. bland peptone
Flavor Type: salty
salty meaty
Taste Description: salty meaty
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: hair conditioning
masking agents
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Ajinomoto USA
Ajinomoto® MSG
Flavor: characteristic
A flavor enhancer that delivers the purest taste of Umami. MSG provides exceptional taste advantages in the formulation of snacks, soups, and gravies.
Anhui Haibei
Sodium Glutamate
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Sodium Hydrogen Glutamate
Doug Jeffords Company
MSG
ECSA Chemicals
monoSodium Glutamate
Company Profile
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Glutamic acid monosodium salt hydrate
Graham Chemical
MSG
Kraft Chemical
monoSodium Glutamate
Penta International
MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE NATURAL
Penta International
MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE
Sinofi Food Ingredients
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
Flavor: characteristic
Flavour Enhancer, Instant Noodle, Pizza, Cheese, Snack Foods, Potato Chip, Crackers, Sauces, Fast Food, Baking Food, Ice Cream, Canned Food, Meats, Poultry, Sauces, Soups, Soft Candy, Puddings, Condiments, Seasonings, Feed, Dietary Supplement.
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 16600 mg/kg
Farmaco, Edizione Pratica. Vol. 27, Pg. 19, 1972.

intraperitoneal-guinea pig LD50 15000 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 53A, Pg. 424, 1974.

intravenous-human TDLo 714 ug/kg
BEHAVIORAL: HEADACHE
Science. Vol. 163, Pg. 826, 1969.

oral-human TDLo 43 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING BEHAVIORAL: "HALLUCINATIONS, DISTORTED PERCEPTIONS" BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Hygiene and Sanitation Vol. 36(9), Pg. 364, 1971.

oral-man TDLo 3571 ug/kg
SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): "DERMATITIS, OTHER: AFTER SYSTEMIC EXPOSURE"
Lancet. Vol. 1, Pg. 988, 1987.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 3800 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 227, Pg. 214, 1955.

intravenous-mouse LD50 30000 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 53A, Pg. 424, 1974.

oral-mouse LD50 11400 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 227, Pg. 214, 1955.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 4253 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD BEHAVIORAL: TETANY
Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische Chemie. Vol. 300, Pg. 97, 1955.

intravenous-rat LD50 3300 mg/kg
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: OTHER (DIRECT) PARASYMPATHOMIMETIC SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 15, Pg. 433, 1978.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-cat LD50 8000 mg/kg
Personal Communication from A.G. Ebert, International Glutamate Technical Committee, 85 Walnu St., Watertown, MA 02172, Nov. 19, 1973Vol. 19NOV1973

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 8200 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 15, Pg. 433, 1978.

subcutaneous-rat LD50 5580 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 15, Pg. 433, 1978.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavor enhancers
Recommendation for monosodium glutamate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -61.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -1900.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -1.30000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -2900.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: -4300.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Re-evaluation of glutamic acid (E 620), sodium glutamate (E 621), potassium glutamate (E 622), calcium glutamate (E 623), ammonium glutamate (E 624) and magnesium glutamate (E 625) as food additives
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):142-47-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :23677676
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
sodium 2-amino-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoate
Chemidplus:0000142472
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:MA1578000 for cas# 142-47-2
 
References:
 sodium 2-amino-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoate
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:142-47-2
Pubchem (cid):23677676
Pubchem (sid):134973227
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEMBL:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
FooDB:FDB010881
Export Tariff Code:2922.42.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Haz-Map:View
Household Products:Search
MedlinePlusSupp:View
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
grades: technical, 99%; new drugs (nd); "food chemicals codex".
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 biological additives
FLchicken
 hair conditioning
 skin conditioning
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
 glutacyl
L-glutamic acid monosodium salt
laevo-glutamic acid monosodium salt
 glutamic acid sodium salt
DL-glutamic acid sodium salt
 glutamic acid, monosodium salt
 glutamic acid, sodium salt (1:1)
 glutamic acid, sodium salt(1:1)
 glutavene
 M.S.G.
 MSG
 pentanedioate, 2-amino-, hydrogen sodium salt (1:1:1)
 sodium 2-amino-4-carboxybutanoate
 sodium 2-amino-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoate
 sodium 2-ammoniopentanedioate
 sodium 2-azaniumylpentanedioate
 sodium 5-oxido-5-oxonorvaline
 sodium glutamate
DL-monosodium glutamate
 sodium hydrogen 2-aminopentanedioate (1:1:1)
 sodium hydrogen glutamate
 sodium L-glutamate
 sodium laevo-glutamate
 

Articles:

Info:Monosodium Glutamate
PubMed:Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.
PubMed:Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against monosodium glutamate-induced astrocytic cell death.
PubMed:Persistent enhancement of ethanol drinking following a monosodium glutamate-substitution procedure in C57BL6/J and DBA/2J mice.
PubMed:Dried bonito dashi: a preferred fish broth without postoral reward actions in mice.
PubMed:To study the effect of monosodium glutamate on histomorphometry of cortex of kidney in adult albino rats.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by oral monosodium glutamate in mice.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by intragastric monosodium glutamate in mice.
PubMed:Intragastric administration of glutamate increases REM sleep in rats.
PubMed:Umami evaluation in taste epithelium on microelectrode array by extracellular electrophysiological recording.
PubMed:Application of Diet-derived Taste Active Components for Clinical Nutrition: Perspectives from Ancient AyurvedicMedical Science, Space Medicine, and Modern Clinical Nutrition.
PubMed:Neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate lastingly facilitates spreading depression in the rat cortex.
PubMed:Long-term ingestion of monosodium L-glutamate did not induce obesity, dyslipidemia or insulin resistance: a two-generation study in mice.
PubMed:Effect of flavor enhancers on the nutritional status of older persons.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by postingestive effect of sucrose and porcine digestive peptides in postweaning pigs.
PubMed:Restoration of brain antioxidant status by hydroalcoholic extract of Mimusops elengi flowers in rats treated with monosodium glutamate.
PubMed:N-geranyl cyclopropyl-carboximide modulates salty and umami taste in humans and animal models.
PubMed:No effects of monosodium glutamate consumption on the body weight or composition of adult rats and mice.
PubMed:MSG intake and preference in mice are influenced by prior testing experience.
PubMed:The effect of vitamin C administration on monosodium glutamate induced liver injury. An experimental study.
PubMed:Somatosensory factors in taste perception: effects of active tasting and solution temperature.
PubMed:Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef stock containing the glutathione-xylose Maillard reaction product and/or monosodium glutamate.
PubMed:Sensory characteristics and cross-cultural consumer acceptability of Bulgogi (Korean traditional barbecued beef).
PubMed:Sub-chronic concomitant ingestion of L-arginine and monosodium glutamate improves feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.
PubMed:Effect of monosodium glutamate on lipid peroxidation and certain antioxidant enzymes in cardiac tissue of alcoholic adult male mice.
PubMed:Preparation of culinary-medicinal king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii-fermented products with high ergothioneine content and their taste quality.
PubMed:Pilot study on which foods should be avoided by patients with psoriasis.
PubMed:Preparation of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus-fermented rice using solid-state fermentation and its taste quality and antioxidant property.
PubMed:Central representation of postingestive chemosensory cues in mice that lack the ability to taste.
PubMed:Flavor preferences conditioned by post-oral infusion of monosodium glutamate in rats.
PubMed:Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).
PubMed:Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.
PubMed:Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).
PubMed:Effects of ad libitum ingestion of monosodium glutamate on weight gain in C57BL6/J mice.
PubMed:Effects of monosodium glutamate supplementation on glutamine metabolism in adult rats.
PubMed:The role of ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate in thymocyte apoptosis.
PubMed:Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione and/or MSG.
PubMed:Glutamate. Its applications in food and contribution to health.
PubMed:Brain-gut communication via vagus nerve modulates conditioned flavor preference.
PubMed:Deciphering the MSG controversy.
PubMed:The role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 on neural responses to acids by the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal and superior laryngeal nerves in mice.
PubMed:Optimal preferred MSG concentration in potatoes, spinach and beef and their effect on intake in institutionalized elderly people.
PubMed:Sensory and receptor responses to umami: an overview of pioneering work.
PubMed:Functional neuroimaging of umami taste: what makes umami pleasant?
PubMed:Ascorbic acid modulates monosodium glutamate induced cytotoxicity in rat thymus.
PubMed:No effect on intake and liking of soup enhanced with mono-sodium glutamate and celery powder among elderly people with olfactory and/or gustatory loss.
PubMed:Saltiness enhancement by the characteristic flavor of dried bonito stock.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor preference learning by intragastric administration of L-glutamate in rats.
PubMed:Brain activation by umami substances via gustatory and visceral signaling pathways, and physiological significance.
PubMed:Experimental studies of food choices and palatability responses in European subjects exposed to the Umami taste.
PubMed:Acquired flavor acceptance and intake facilitated by monosodium glutamate in humans.
PubMed:Sources of umami taste in Cheddar and Swiss cheeses.
PubMed:Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
PubMed:[Effects of food supplements on the safety and quality of seafoods].
PubMed:Effect of monosodium glutamate on apoptosis and Bcl-2/Bax protein level in rat thymocyte culture.
PubMed:Consensus meeting: monosodium glutamate - an update.
PubMed:No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home elderly.
PubMed:Monosodium glutamate in its anhydrous and monohydrate form: differentiation by Raman spectroscopies and density functional calculations.
PubMed:Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in the rat: modulatory role of vitamin C, vitamin E and quercetin.
PubMed:Taste quality of monascal adlay.
PubMed:Effects of added glutamate on liking for novel food flavors.
PubMed:Responses to di-sodium guanosine 5'-monophosphate and monosodium L-glutamate in taste receptor cells of rat fungiform papillae.
PubMed:MSG. A common flavor enhancer.
PubMed:Oral health, taste, and olfaction.
PubMed:Effect of taste and smell on secretion rate of salivary IgA in elderly and young persons.
PubMed:Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study.
PubMed:Peripheral glutamate receptors: molecular biology and role in taste sensation.
PubMed:The representation of umami taste in the taste cortex.
PubMed:Intensification of sensory properties of foods for the elderly.
PubMed:Glutamate and the flavor of foods.
PubMed:Portal hyperglutamatemia after dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate in pigs.
PubMed:Effects of monosodium glutamate on human food palatability.
PubMed:The neurophysiology of taste and olfaction in primates, and umami flavor.
PubMed:Flavor characteristics of glutathione in raw and cooked foodstuffs.
PubMed:Stimulus specificity in flavor acceptance learning.
PubMed:Are the tastes of polycose and monosodium glutamate unique?
PubMed:Dietary preferences in early lactation cows as affected by primary tastes and some common feed flavors.
PubMed:Evaluation of free D-glutamate in processed foods.
PubMed:A report of the proceedings of an MSG workshop held August 1991.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of flavor enhancers inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine 5'-monophosphate in food preparations by derivative spectrophotometry.
PubMed:Preference of Old World monkeys for amino acids and other gustatory stimuli: the influence of monosodium glutamate.
PubMed:Parabrachial gustatory neural responses to monosodium glutamate ingested by awake rats.
PubMed:MSG and hydrolyzed vegetable protein induced headache: review and case studies.
PubMed:Can sodium contents of foods be reduced by adding flavors? Studies with beef broth.
PubMed:[Adverse reactions induced by food additives: sulfites].
PubMed:Monosodium L-glutamate-induced asthma.
PubMed:Synergistic effects of 5'-nucleotides on rat taste responses to various amino acids.
PubMed:Flavor potentiators.
PubMed:Flavor preferences in malnourished Mexican infants.
PubMed:A flavor panel study of the application of monosodium glutamate to the flavor of pharmaceutical products.
 
Notes:
one of the flavoring agents used to impart a meat-like flavor. medically it has been used to reduce blood ammonia levels in ammoniacal azotemia, therapy of hepatic coma, in psychosis, and mental retardation. Food flavour enhancer Monosodium glutamate, also known as sodium glutamate or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids. It has been classified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and by the European Union as a food additive. MSG has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621. The glutamate of MSG confers the same umami taste of glutamate from other foods, being chemically identical. Industrial food manufacturers market and use MSG as a flavor enhancer because it balances, blends and rounds the total perception of other tastes. Trade names of monosodium glutamate include AJI-NO-MOTO®, Vetsin, and Ac'cent. [Wikipedia]
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