EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

caffeine
3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine

Supplier Sponsors

Name:1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
CAS Number: 58-08-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:71701-02-5
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-362-1
FDA UNII:3G6A5W338E
Nikkaji Web:J2.330B
Beilstein Number:0017705
MDL:MFCD00005758
CoE Number:11741
XlogP3:-0.10 (est)
Molecular Weight:194.19410000
Formula:C8 H10 N4 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:cosmetic and flavor agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
182.1180 Caffeine View-review
GRN 347 7 Caffeine View-notice PDF
FLAVIS Number:16.016 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:16.016 caffeine
FEMA Number:2224 caffeine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: CAFFEINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances
Sec. 182.1180 Caffeine.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline prisms (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 235.00 to 237.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 416.79 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
PH Number:6.50
Vapor Pressure:15.000000 mm/Hg @ 89.00 °C.
Flash Point:> 350.00 °F. TCC ( > 176.67 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.070
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Storage:refrigerate in tightly sealed containers.
Soluble in:
 acetone, 1 gram in 50 ml acetone
 alcohol, 1 gram in 22 ml alcohol of 60%
 water, 1 gram in 46 ml water
 water, 45.5 grams in 100 ml water @ 65C
 water, 2.16E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Flavor Type: astringent
astringent
Taste Description: astringent
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
Caffeine Anhydrous
AIDP
Caffeine (Natural) 98.5% min
AIDP
Caffeine 98.5%-101.5%
Allan Chemical
Caffeine
American International Chemical, LLC.
Caffeine
Atlantic Chemicals
Caffeine Anhydrous
AuNutra® Industries
Caffeine Anhydrous
Balchem
Caffeine
VitaShure®
Flavor: characteristic
Vitashure is an extensive line of microencapsulated vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and bioactive substances, specifically designed for the supplementation and fortification industries.
BASF
Caffeine Powder
Bell Flavors & Fragrances
Caffeine (USP Fine)
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Caffeine min. 99%. (TLC)
Changsha Organic Herb
Guarana Seed Extract
Charkit Chemical
CAFFEINE ANHYDROUS USP SYNTHETIC 100 MESH NLG 85%
Coompo
For experimental / research use only.
Caffeine from Plants ≥95%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Caffeine has many effects on the body's metabolism, including stimulating the central nervous system. This can make you more alert and give you a boost of energy. For most people, the amount of caffeine in two to four cups of coffee a day is not harmful. However, too much caffeine can make you restless, anxious, and irritable. It may also keep you from sleeping well and cause headaches, abnormal heart rhythms, or other problems. If you stop using caffeine, you could get withdrawal symptoms. Inside the body caffeine acts through several mechanisms, but its most important effect is to counteract a substance called adenosine that naturally circulates at high levels throughout the body, and especially in the nervous system. In the brain, adenosine plays a generally protective role, part of which is to reduce neural activity levels – for example, there is some evidence that adenosine helps to induce torpor in animals that seasonally hibernate. Caffeine is toxic at sufficiently high doses. Ordinary consumption can have low health risks, even when carried on for years – there may be a modest protective effect against some diseases, including certain types of cancer. Caffeine can have both positive and negative effects on anxiety disorders. Some people experience sleep disruption if they consume caffeine, especially during the evening hours, but others show little disturbance and the effect of caffeine on sleep is highly variable. Evidence of a risk to pregnancy is equivocal, but some authorities have concluded that prudent advice is for pregnant women to limit consumption to the equivalent of two cups of coffee per day or less.
ECSA Chemicals
Caffeine
Company Profile
Foodchem International
Caffeine Anhydrous
George Uhe Company
Caffeine
Graham Chemical
Caffeine
Kraft Chemical
Caffeine
M&U International
Caffeine, Kosher
Maypro Industries
Caffeine Anhydrous USP
Noble Molecular Research
For experimental / research use only.
Caffeine
Northwestern Extract
Caffeine Artificial or Natural
OQEMA
Natural Caffeine
Penta International
CAFFEINE POWDER NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
CAFFEINE USP FCC POWDER ANHYDROUS, Kosher
Prinova
Caffeine
Sigma-Aldrich
Caffeine, anhydrous, FCC, 99%
Certified Food Grade Products
Silver Fern Chemical
Caffeine Anhydrous
Synthite Industries
Caffeine
E-books and Brochures
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Caffeine >98.0%(LC)(T)
The Ingredient House
Caffeine
Vigon International
CAFFEINE NATURAL
WEN International
CAFFEINE Natural
Xi'an Herbphar
Anhydrous Caffeine 20
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 192 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS BEHAVIORAL: WITHDRAWAL BRAIN AND COVERINGS: OTHER DEGENERATIVE CHANGES
Journal of New Drugs. Vol. 5, Pg. 252, 1965.

intravenous-rat LD50 105 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: STRUCTURAL OR FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN URETER LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 82, Pg. 89, 1944.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 240 mg/kg
Zeitschrift fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft. Vol. 15, Pg. 64, 1976.

oral-rabbit LD50 224 mg/kg
Zeitschrift fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft. Vol. 15, Pg. 64, 1976.

intravenous-rabbit LD50 58 mg/kg
Kiso to Rinsho. Clinical Report. Vol. 13, Pg. 791, 1979.

oral-mouse LD50 127 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 44, Pg. 1, 1978.

intravenous-mouse LD50 62 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Toxicology Letters. Vol. 29, Pg. 25, 1985.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 168 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: URINE VOLUME INCREASED BEHAVIORAL: AGGRESSION BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. Vol. 22, Pg. 1459, 1974.

oral-hamster LD50 230 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 44, Pg. 1, 1978.

oral-guinea pig LD50 230 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

oral-bird - wild LD50 316 mg/kg
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 12, Pg. 355, 1983.

intraperitoneal-cat LDLo 180 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

intravenous-cat LDLo 80 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

oral-cat LDLo 100 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

oral-child LDLo 320 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS
Forensic Science. Vol. 3, Pg. 275, 1974.

oral-child TDLo 140 mg/kg
BLOOD: HEMORRHAGE BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY) CARDIAC: PULSE RATE INCREASE WITHOUT FALL IN BP
Pediatric Emergency Care. Vol. 10, Pg. 349, 1994.

oral-dog LD50 140 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 174, 1982.

intravenous-dog LDLo 4 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

parenteral-frog LDLo 120 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: STIFFNESS BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 166, Pg. 437, 1932.

oral-guinea pig LD50 230 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 2, Pg. 23, 1960.

intraperitoneal-guinea pig LDLo 220 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

oral-human LDLo 192 mg/kg
Journal of New Drugs. Vol. 5, Pg. 252, 1965.

intravenous-human TDLo 7 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 15, Pg. 331, 1959.

oral-man TDLo 13 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: TOXIC PSYCHOSIS
American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 143, Pg. 1320, 1986.

oral-man TDLo 51 mg/kg
MUSCULOSKELETAL: TUMORS KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: "CHANGES IN TUBULES (INCLUDING ACUTE RENAL FAILURE, ACUTE TUBULAR NECROSIS)" CARDIAC: CHANGE IN RATE
Annals of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 18, Pg. 94, 1989.

unreported-mouse LD50 251 mg/kg
Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. Vol. 53, Pg. 2S, 1957.

oral-rabbit LD50 224 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: "HYPERMOTILITY, DIARRHEA"
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 44, Pg. 1, 1978.

intramuscular-rabbit LDLo 200 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 1, Pg. 572, 1910.

intraperitoneal-rabbit LDLo 150 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rat LD50 170 mg/kg
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Journal of New Drugs. Vol. 7, Pg. 131, 1967.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 242 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 6, Pg. 601, 1956.

subcutaneous-cat LDLo 150 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

subcutaneous-dog LD50 100 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 174, 1982.

subcutaneous-frog LDLo 120 mg/kg
Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 15, Pg. 331, 1959.

subcutaneous-guinea pig LDLo 200 mg/kg
"Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." Vol. 4, Pg. 1335, 1935.

subcutaneous-rabbit LDLo 275 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 1, Pg. 572, 1910.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic and flavor agents
Recommendation for caffeine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 380.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: III
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: --
beverages(nonalcoholic): -120.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 20.0000070.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 20.0000070.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 25.00000100.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): --
Bakery wares (07.0): --
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): --
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): --
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 100.00000175.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 25.00000100.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): --
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, (FGE.49)[1]: Xanthin alkaloids from the Priority list from chemical group 30
View page or View pdf

Gathering consumption data on specific consumer groups of energy drinks
View page or View pdf

Extensive literature search as preparatory work for the safety assessment for caffeine
View page or View pdf

Outcome of a public consultation on the draft Scientific Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) on the safety of caffeine
View page or View pdf

EFSA explains risk assessment: Caffeine
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):58-08-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :2519
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WISER:UN 1544
WGK Germany:1
1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
Chemidplus:0000058082
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:58-08-2
 
References:
 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:58-08-2
Pubchem (cid):2519
Pubchem (sid):134971358
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C07481
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01847
FooDB:FDB002100
Export Tariff Code:2939.30.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Haz-Map:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•formulation names: caffedrine, vivarin, quick-pep •grades: technical; usp; fcc •nodoz keep alert tablets contain 100% caffeine in each tablet •vivarin contains 200 mg caffeine alkaloid and 150 mg dextrose in each tablet
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 skin conditioning
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 cacao bean
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 cacao petiole
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 cacao testa
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 cherimoya seed
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 clover yellow sweet clover
Search Trop Picture
 coffee
Search Trop Picture
 coffee arabica coffee
Search Trop Picture
 coffee bean
Search Trop Picture
 coffee canephora coffee
Search Trop Picture
 coffee green coffee
PbMd Search Trop Picture
 guarana
Search Trop Picture
 kola
Search Trop Picture
 lemon
Search Trop Picture
 lemon flower
Search Trop Picture
 orange bud
Search Trop Picture
 orange flower
Search Trop Picture
 orange leaf
Search Trop Picture
 petitgrain orange
Search Trop Picture
 pomelo
Search Trop Picture
 tea anther
Search Trop Picture
 tea flower
Search Trop Picture
 tea green tea
Search Trop Picture
 tea leaf
Search Trop Picture
 tea pericarp
Search Trop Picture
 tea plant
Search Trop Picture
 tea seed
Search Trop Picture
 tea seed coat
Search Trop Picture
 tea shoot
Search Trop Picture
 tea stem
Search Trop Picture
 tea tissue culture
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 biogenic caffeine-210
 caffeine anhydrous
 caffeine anhydrous USP
 caffeine natural
 caffeine USP FCC powder anhydrous
 coffeine
3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine
 guaranine
 methyl theobromine
7-methyl theophylline
1-methyl-theobromine
1H-purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-
 theine
1,3,7-trimethyl xanthine
1,3,7-trimethyl-1,3,7-trihydropurine-2,6-dione
1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione
1,3,7-trimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropurine
1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
1,3,7-trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
1,3,7-trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione
1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
 

Articles:

PubMed:The coffee genome provides insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine biosynthesis.
J-Stage:Coffee and Caffeine Improve Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
PubMed:Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum.
PubMed:The role of dissolved cations in coffee extraction.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of caffeine and some selected polyphenols in Wuyi Rock tea by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Cardiovascular and ride time-to-exhaustion effects of an energy drink.
PubMed:Chemical composition and sensory evaluation of fermented tea with medicinal mushrooms.
PubMed:Design, formulation and evaluation of caffeine chewing gum.
PubMed:Determination of the alkylpyrazine composition of coffee using stable isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SIDA-GC-MS).
PubMed:Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.
PubMed:The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men.
PubMed:Identification of enterodiol as a masker for caffeine bitterness by using a pharmacophore model based on structural analogues of homoeriodictyol.
PubMed:Influence of caffeine on the liking of novel-flavored soda in adolescents.
PubMed:Effect of physicochemical parameters on enzymatic biodecaffeination during tea fermentation.
PubMed:Enhancement of fermentation process in Pu-erh tea by tea-leaf extract.
PubMed:[Neurophysiological effect of flavor and caffeine added to toothpaste].
PubMed:Identification of bisprenylated benzoic acid derivatives from yerba santa (Eriodictyon ssp.) using sensory-guided fractionation.
PubMed:Characterization of flavor modulating effects in complex mixtures via high temperature liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Taste disorders and oral evaluation in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.
PubMed:Identification and quantification of free radical scavengers in Pu-erh tea by HPLC-DAD-MS coupled online with 2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt assay.
PubMed:Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.
PubMed:Conditioned flavor avoidance as a measure of withdrawal in rats chronically exposed to a caffeine solution.
PubMed:Structural analogues of homoeriodictyol as flavor modifiers. Part III: short chain gingerdione derivatives.
PubMed:Fast and direct screening of solid materials for their potential liberation of hydrophobic organic compounds using hot cell membrane inlet mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide decaffeination on volatile components of green teas.
PubMed:Caffeine as a flavor additive in soft-drinks.
PubMed:New bitter-masking compounds: hydroxylated benzoic acid amides of aromatic amines as structural analogues of homoeriodictyol.
PubMed:Reinforcing and aversive effects of caffeine measured by flavor preference conditioning in caffeine-naive and caffeine-acclimated rats.
PubMed:Product-oriented flavor research: learnings from the past, visions for the future.
PubMed:Taste masking analysis in pharmaceutical formulation development using an electronic tongue.
PubMed:Chlorogenic acids and lactones in regular and water-decaffeinated arabica coffees.
PubMed:Does dietary learning occur outside awareness?
PubMed:Phenolic metabolites from honeybush tea (Cyclopia subternata).
PubMed:Age-associated increases in intensity discrimination for taste.
PubMed:Researching on new species of "Mate": Ilex brevicuspis: phytochemical and pharmacology study.
PubMed:Caffeine-reinforced conditioned flavor preferences in rats.
PubMed:The science and complexity of bitter taste.
PubMed:Is caffeine a flavoring agent in cola soft drinks?
PubMed:Genetic engineering of foods to reduce the risk of heart disease and cancer.
PubMed:Oral caffeine consumption by rats: the role of flavor history, concentration, concurrent food, and an adenosine agonist.
PubMed:Solventless determination of caffeine in beverages using solid-phase microextraction with fused-silica fibers.
PubMed:Use of flavor-amplified foods to improve nutritional status in elderly patients.
PubMed:Aversive conditioning properties of caffeine in rats.
PubMed:A confirmatory study of the up-and-down method for acute oral toxicity testing.
PubMed:Caffeine enhancement of saccharin but not cyclamate flavor avoidance.
PubMed:Use of taste repellants and emetics to prevent accidental poisoning of dogs.
PubMed:Caffeine: an update.
PubMed:The biochemistry and technology of tea manufacture.
PubMed:Evidence for withdrawal from caffeine by rats.
PubMed:Caffeine: preferential consumption by rats.
 
Notes:
a methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. it also relaxes smooth muscle, stimulates cardiac muscle, stimulates diuresis, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, antagonism of adenosine receptors, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling. Component of coffee beans (Coffea arabica), many other Coffea spp., chocolate (Theobroma cacao), tea (Camellia thea), kolanut (Cola acuminata) and several other Cola spp. and several other plants. Used in many cola-type beverages as a flavour enhancer
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