EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

lactic acid
DL-2-hydroxypropanoic acid

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Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:2-hydroxypropanoic acid
CAS Number: 50-21-5Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):598-82-3
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-018-0
Nikkaji Web:J1.358G
Beilstein Number:1209341
CoE Number:4
XlogP3:-0.70 (est)
Molecular Weight:90.07842000
Formula:C3 H6 O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
Racemate (EFFA, 2010a). According to JECFA: Min. Assay value is "95 by chemical analysis (acid/base titration)".
Category: flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1061 L(+)-lactic acid View - review
1978 Lactic acid View - review
GRN 378 Cultured [dairy sources, sugars, wheat, malt, and fruit- and vegetable-based sources] View - notice PDF
EU SANCO Lactic acid View - review
JECFA Food Flavoring:930 lactic acid
JECFA Food Additive: Lactic Acid
GSFA Codex: Lactic acid (L-, D- and DL-) (270)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.004 lactic acid
DG SANTE Food Additives:lactic acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:lactic acid
FEMA Number:2611 lactic acid
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):50-21-5 ; LACTIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.123 Cold-pack and club cheese.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.129 Dry curd cottage cheese.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.169 Pasteurized process cheese.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.173 Pasteurized process cheese food.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.141 Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.161 Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

Subpart I--Multipurpose Additives
Sec. 172.814 Hydroxylated lecithin.

Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions.

Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1061 Lactic acid.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear viscous liquid or solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:1.17200 to 1.21000 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 9.752 to 10.068
Refractive Index:1.42600 to 1.43600 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: 16.00 to 17.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 122.00 °C. @ 15.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.015000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.720
Soluble in:
 water, 1000000 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 paraffin oil
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Substantivity:400 Hour(s)
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Flavor Type: sour
sour acidic
Taste Description: sour acid
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
skin conditioning
Advanced Biotech
87% min.
Advanced Biotech
American International Chemical, LLC.
American International Chemical, LLC.
Anhui Haibei
Lactic Acid 88%
Augustus Oils
Lactic Acid
Axxence Aromatic
Lactic Acid 88%
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Lactic Acid 85%
ECSA Chemicals
Excellentia International
Lactic Acid Natural
lactic acid natural
Foodchem International
Lactic Acid
Glentham Life Sciences
DL-Lactic acid, 85% solution
Graham Chemical
Lactic Acid
Indenta Group
Lactic Acid
Kraft Chemical
Lactic Acid
Lipo Chemicals
Orgasol® Pure
Odor: characteristic
Use: Orgasol® Pure has been designed to boost the efficiency of lactic acid by including it in a lipophilic carrier, while reducing skin irritation.Orgasol® Pure can be viewed as a delivery system for lactic acid. Cleansers containing Orgasol® Pure return oily skin to normal sebum levels. Color cosmetic formulations including pressed powders help to control sebum. Lactic acid aids in the treatment of acne and provides anti-aging effect.
Lluch Essence
M&U International
Lactic Acid
M&U International
Nat. Lactic Acid
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
Lactic Acid
Rung International
Lactic Acid
Lactic acid, 85%, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
Lactic acid, natural, ≥85%
Silver Fern Chemical
Lactic Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Lactic Acid is commonly used in the dairy industry as an acidulant. Other areas of application include salts, plastics, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, textiles, and detergents.
SRS Aromatics
For experimental / research use only.
DL-Lactic Acid >85.0%(T)
Tianjin Talent Chemical
Lactic Acid
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: In food, apart from its nutritional function for normal growth, it improves flavor and taste, improves quality of food and beverage products such as confectionery, cake, milk powder, yogurt etc. as firming agent, buffering agent and flour regulator. It increases effectiveness of antioxidants, prevents decolorization of fruits and vegetables.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Zhong Ya Chemical
Lactic Acid
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 34 - Causes burns.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 27 - Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 3543 mg/kg
Farm Chemicals Handbook. Vol. -, Pg. C252, 1991.

oral-mouse LD50 4875 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 40, Pg. 144, 1967.

oral-quail LD50 > 2250 mg/kg
Farm Chemicals Handbook. Vol. -, Pg. C252, 1991.

oral-guinea pig LD50 1810 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 2000 mg/kg
Farm Chemicals Handbook. Vol. -, Pg. C252, 1991.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
RIFM Fragrance Material Safety Assessment: Search
IFRA Code of Practice Notification of the 49th Amendment to the IFRA Code of Practice
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 19000.00 (μg/capita/day)
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-USA): 47000.00 (μg/capita/day)
Structure Class: I
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3. Update in publication number(s): 29
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 2.0000089.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): 0.0200034.00000
beverages(alcoholic): 3000.0000011000.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: 19.0000037.00000
chewing gum: 5000.000005000.00000
condiments / relishes: 1200.0000024000.00000
confectionery froastings: 0.30000300.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: 1.000002.00000
fish products: --
frozen dairy: 0.0300066.00000
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: 14.0000025.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: 2.000002.00000
hard candy: 20000.0000020000.00000
imitation dairy: 0.800001.00000
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 4.000004.00000
milk products: 0.900001.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: 0.020000.03000
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: 0.300000.40000
soft candy: 14000.0000014000.00000
soups: 0.100000.10000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: 0.500000.50000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 1: (FGE.09 Rev1)[1] - Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical groups 8 and 30, and an ester of a phenol carboxylic acid from chemical group 25 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 14, Revision 1 (FGE.14Rev1): Phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acetals, carboxylic acid and related esters from chemical group 15 and 22 [1] - Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 1 (FGE.20Rev1): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters from chemical group 23
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 2 (FGE.20Rev2): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 9, Revision 2 (FGE.09Rev2): Secondary alicyclic saturated and unsaturated alcohols, ketones and esters containing secondary alicyclic alcohols from chemical group 8 and 30, and an ester of a phenol derivative from chemical group 25
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3(FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of lactic acid for the removal of microbial surface contamination of beef carcasses, cuts and trimmings
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 96 (FGE.96): Consideration of 88 flavouring substances considered by EFSA for which EU production volumes / anticipated production volumes have been submitted on request by DG SANCO. Addendum to FGE. 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 79, 80, 83, 84, 85 and 87.
View page or View pdf

Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of lactic acid and calcium lactate when used as technological additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Safety of lactic acid and calcium lactate when used as technological additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the organic acids lactic and acetic acids to reduce microbiological surface contamination on pork carcasses and pork cuts
View page or View pdf

Safety of lactic acid and calcium lactate when used as technological additives for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Re-evaluation of acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, mono- and diacetyltartaric acid, mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (E 472a-f) as food additives
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):50-21-5
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :612
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
2-hydroxypropanoic acid
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
 2-hydroxypropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:50-21-5
Pubchem (cid):612
Pubchem (sid):134971008
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C01432
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:2918.11.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 buffering agents
 skin conditioning
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 apple plant
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 borage leaf
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 cacao bean
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 cherry sour cherry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 corn plant
Search Trop Picture
 cotton seed
Search Trop Picture
 elder black elder fruit
Search Trop Picture
 ginkgo biloba pollen
Search Trop Picture
 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 loquat fruit
Search Trop Picture
 poppy opium poppy latex
Search Trop Picture
 potato plant
Search Trop Picture
 raspberry red raspberry leaf
Search Trop Picture
 rhubarb plant
Search Trop Picture
 sunflower leaf
Search Trop Picture
 tamarind fruit
Search Trop Picture
 tamarind seed
Search Trop Picture
 tomato fruit
Search Trop Picture
 acidum lacticum
 acidum sarcolacticum
 ethylidene lactic acid
2-hydroxy-2-methylacetic acid
1-hydroxyethane carboxylic acid
(±)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
2-hydroxypropanoic acid
alpha-hydroxypropanoic acid
DL-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
dextro,laevo-2-hydroxypropanoic acid
2-hydroxypropionic acid
a-hydroxypropionic acid
alpha-hydroxypropionic acid
(±)-lactic acid
DL-lactic acid
 lactic acid 50% FCC
 lactic acid 80%, (naturals)
 lactic acid 88% USP heat stable (fermented)
DL-lactic acid FCC
 lactic acid natural
 lactic acid powder
 lactic acid synthetic
 lactic acid, 88% USP
 milk acid
 propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-
 propionic acid, 2-hydroxy-


PubMed:Gene Knockout and Overexpression Analysis Revealed the Role of N-Acetylmuramidase in Autolysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Ljj-6.
PubMed:Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.
PubMed:Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.
PubMed:Characteristics and in vitro Anti-diabetic Properties of the Korean Rice Wine, Makgeolli Fermented with Laminaria japonica.
PubMed:Manufacture and characterization of a yogurt-like beverage made with oat flakes fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Stress responses in probiotic Lactobacillus casei.
PubMed:Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.
PubMed:Bacteriophages of leuconostoc, oenococcus, and weissella.
PubMed:Utilization of buffered vinegar to increase the shelf life of chicken retail cuts packaged in carbon dioxide.
PubMed:Physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of nanopowdered eggshell-supplemented yogurt during storage.
PubMed:Transcription profiling of interactions between Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 and Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 during Cheddar cheese simulation.
PubMed:Effect of temperature on Chinese rice wine brewing with high concentration presteamed whole sticky rice.
PubMed:Cheddar cheese ripening and flavor characterization: a review.
PubMed:Transcriptomic clues to understand the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in cheese.
PubMed:Lactobacillus acidophilus: characterization of the species and application in food production.
PubMed:Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.
PubMed:Prokaryotic communities in pit mud from different-aged cellars used for the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.
PubMed:Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.
PubMed:Combining chemoinformatics with bioinformatics: in silico prediction of bacterial flavor-forming pathways by a chemical systems biology approach "reverse pathway engineering".
PubMed:Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.
PubMed:Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.
PubMed:Informatic prediction of Cheddar cheese flavor pathway changes due to sodium substitution.
PubMed:Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Exploring microbial succession and diversity during solid-state fermentation of Tianjin duliu mature vinegar.
PubMed:Study of the physicochemical parameters and spontaneous fermentation during the traditional production of yakupa, an indigenous beverage produced by Brazilian Amerindians.
PubMed:Genome-scale metabolic model for Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and its application to the analysis of flavor formation.
PubMed:Complete Genome Sequence for Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, an Industrial Cheese Starter and Cheese Flavor Adjunct.
PubMed:Research on soybean curd coagulated by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Dynamics and rRNA transcriptional activity of lactococci and lactobacilli during Cheddar cheese ripening.
PubMed:Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.
PubMed:Role of the microbial population on the flavor of the soft-bodied cheese Torta del Casar.
PubMed:Branched-chain 2-keto acid decarboxylases derived from Psychrobacter.
PubMed:A new method for the production of low-fat Cheddar cheese.
PubMed:Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria volatilomes produced using cheese components.
PubMed:Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactis single-strain starter.
PubMed:Sucuk and past─▒rma: microbiological changes and formation of volatile compounds.
PubMed:Physico-chemical and functional properties of spray-dried sourdough in breadmaking.
PubMed:Role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in Korean wines produced from Campbell Early grapes: potential use of Hanseniaspora uvarum as a starter culture.
PubMed:Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.
PubMed:Development of an effective treatment for A 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli in refrigerated pickle products.
PubMed:Methionine metabolism: major pathways and enzymes involved and strategies for control and diversification of volatile sulfur compounds in cheese.
PubMed:Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.
PubMed:Perspectives on the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cheese flavor development.
PubMed:Uptake of ╬▒-ketoglutarate by citrate transporter CitP drives transamination in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Effect of oxygen on the biosynthesis of flavor compound 3-methylbutanal from leucine catabolism during batch culture in Carnobacterium maltaromaticum LMA 28.
PubMed:Isolation of Pediococcus acidilactici Kp10 with ability to secrete bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance from milk products for applications in food industry.
PubMed:Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.
PubMed:Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.
PubMed:Effect of liquid smoke as an ingredient in frankfurters on Listeria monocytogenes and quality attributes.
PubMed:"Green preservatives": combating fungi in the food and feed industry by applying antifungal lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.
PubMed:Identification and analysis of the metabolic functions of a high-salt-tolerant halophilic aromatic yeast Candida etchellsii for soy sauce production.
PubMed:Identification of metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis of flavor compound 3-methylbutanal from leucine catabolism by Carnobacterium maltaromaticum LMA 28.
PubMed:Influence of storage, heat treatment, and solids composition on the bleaching of whey with hydrogen peroxide.
PubMed:The effect of sodium lactate and lactic acid combinations on the microbial, sensory, and chemical attributes of marinated chicken thigh.
PubMed:Optimal growth of Lactobacillus casei in a Cheddar cheese ripening model system requires exogenous fatty acids.
PubMed:Use of Taiwanese ropy fermented milk (TRFM) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris isolated from TRFM in manufacturing of functional low-fat cheeses.
PubMed:Utilization of African grains for sourdough bread making.
PubMed:Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets.
PubMed:Metabolomics-based component profiling of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses with gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and its application to sensory predictive modeling.
PubMed:Identification of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented yak milk and evaluation of their application in fermented milk products.
PubMed:Physicochemical Properties of Roasted Soybean Flour Bioconverted by Solid-State Fermentation Using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum.
PubMed:The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species.
PubMed:Manufacture of Fior di Latte cheese by incorporation of probiotic lactobacilli.
PubMed:The effect of crowding stress on bacterial growth and sensory properties of chilled Atlantic salmon fillets.
PubMed:CRISPR: new horizons in phage resistance and strain identification.
PubMed:No effect of protein coingestion on exogenous glucose oxidation during exercise.
PubMed:Microbial dynamics during the ripening of a mixed cow and goat milk cheese manufactured using frozen goat milk curd.
PubMed:Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.
PubMed:Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour congee in Inner Mongolia of China.
PubMed:Effects of electron-beam and gamma irradiation treatments on the microbial populations, respiratory activity and sensory characteristics of Tuber melanosporum truffles packaged under modified atmospheres.
PubMed:Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the biosynthesis gene cluster of putrescine-producing Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in sian-sianzih (fermented clams), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan.
PubMed:Volatile compound fingerprinting of mixed-culture fermentations.
PubMed:Engineering lactic acid bacteria for increased industrial functionality.
PubMed:Proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria strains and fungal biota for potential use as starter cultures in dry-cured ham.
PubMed:Osmosonication of blackberry juice: impact on selected pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and main quality parameters.
PubMed:Antibiotic resistance determinants in the interplay between food and gut microbiota.
PubMed:Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.
PubMed:Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.
PubMed:Original features of cell-envelope proteinases of Lactobacillus helveticus. A review.
PubMed:The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.
PubMed:Molecular description and industrial potential of Tn6098 conjugative transfer conferring alpha-galactoside metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Citrate uptake in exchange with intermediates in the citrate metabolic pathway in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.
PubMed:Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.
PubMed:Metatranscriptome analysis for insight into whole-ecosystem gene expression during spontaneous wheat and spelt sourdough fermentations.
PubMed:Invited review: Lactobacillus helveticus--a thermophilic dairy starter related to gut bacteria.
PubMed:Biochemical changes during the storage of high hydrostatic pressure processed avocado paste.
PubMed:Proteolysis, lipolysis, volatile compounds, texture, and flavor of Hispánico cheese made using frozen ewe milk curds pressed for different times.
PubMed:Effect of exopolysaccharide-producing strains of Streptococcus thermophilus on technological attributes of fat-free lassi.
PubMed:Role of lactic acid bacteria during meat conditioning and fermentation: peptides generated as sensorial and hygienic biomarkers.
PubMed:Chemical and instrumental approaches to cheese analysis.
PubMed:Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from different ecosystems.
PubMed:Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry monitoring of the evolution of volatile compounds during lactic acid fermentation of milk.
PubMed:Improvements in the quality and shelf life of kimchi by fermentation with the induced bacteriocin-producing strain, Leuconostoc citreum GJ7 as a starter.
PubMed:Microbiota during fermentation of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce mash inoculated with halotolerant microbial starters: analyses using the plate count method and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).
PubMed:Protective action of Lactobacillus curvatus CRL705 on vacuum-packaged raw beef. Effect on sensory and structural characteristics.
PubMed:Influence of microfiltration and adjunct culture on quality of Domiati cheese.
PubMed:A comparative study of an intensive malolactic transformation of cider using Lactobacillus brevis and Oenococcus oeni in a membrane bioreactor.
PubMed:Sub-lethal stress effects on virulence gene expression in Enterococcus faecalis.
PubMed:The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria revisited: a genomic comparison.
PubMed:Genotypic identification of some lactic acid bacteria by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and investigation of their potential usage as starter culture combinations in Beyaz cheese manufacture.
PubMed:Development and validation of a species-independent functional gene microarray that targets lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Probiotic cheddar cheese: influence of ripening temperatures on proteolysis and sensory characteristics of cheddar cheeses.
PubMed:Application of infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate analysis for monitoring the effect of adjunct cultures during Swiss cheese ripening.
PubMed:Cloning, production, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a glycosidase from the food lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748(T).
PubMed:The effect of bacterial strain and aging on the secondary volatile metabolites produced during malolactic fermentation of tannat red wine.
PubMed:Production of fresh Cheddar cheese curds with controlled postacidification and enhanced flavor.
PubMed:Genome-scale model of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 for metabolic comparison of lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Heterologous production of methionine-gamma-lyase from Brevibacterium linens in Lactococcus lactis and formation of volatile sulfur compounds.
PubMed:Incorporation of nisI-mediated nisin immunity improves vector-based nisin-controlled gene expression in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Modeling and experimental studies on intermittent starch feeding and citrate addition in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to flavor compounds.
PubMed:The D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase incorrectly annotated PanE is the sole reduction system for branched-chain 2-keto acids in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Purification of an alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the conversion of methional to methionol in Oenococcus oeni IOEB 8406.
PubMed:Diversity of the bacterial community found in samma-narezushi (saury narezushi) revealed by the 16S rRNA gene clone library.
PubMed:Optimization of L-(+)-lactic acid production using pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395.
PubMed:Comparative genomics of enzymes in flavor-forming pathways from amino acids in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Microbial and sensory changes throughout the ripening of Prato cheese made from milk with different levels of somatic cells.
PubMed:[Gene regulation to lactic acid bacteria for increasing production of flavor metabolite].
PubMed:Diversity of predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with cocoa fermentation in Nigeria.
PubMed:Differences between Cheddar cheese manufactured by the milled-curd and stirred-curd methods using different commercial starters.
PubMed:The sensory interactions of organic acids and various flavors in ramen soup systems.
PubMed:Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations.
PubMed:Sources of umami taste in Cheddar and Swiss cheeses.
PubMed:Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of amino acid auxotrophy in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32.
PubMed:Rheological properties and sensory characteristics of set-type soy yogurt.
PubMed:Assessment of the microbial contribution to the processing of salted salmon roe (Sujiko).
PubMed:Invited review: Advances in starter cultures and cultured foods.
PubMed:Advanced molecular tools for the identification of lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Expression of plant flavor genes in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Production of ingredient-type cheddar cheese with accelerated flavor development by addition of enzyme-modified cheese powder.
PubMed:Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production.
PubMed:Mousy off-flavor: a review.
PubMed:Optimization of L-(+)-lactic acid production using pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395.
PubMed:Determination of the biogenic amines in musts and wines before and after malolactic fermentation using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate as the derivatizing agent.
PubMed:Probiotic cheese production using Lactobacillus casei cells immobilized on fruit pieces.
PubMed:Liquid chromatography with accurate mass measurement on a triple quadrupole mass-spectrometer for the identification and quantification of N-lactoyl ethanolamine in wine.
PubMed:Interactions of meat-associated bacteriocin-producing Lactobacilli with Listeria innocua under stringent sausage fermentation conditions.
PubMed:Genomic analysis of Oenococcus oeni PSU-1 and its relevance to winemaking.
PubMed:Effect of culture conditions on production of butter flavor compounds by Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus acidophilus in semisolid maize-based cultures.
PubMed:Activity of adventitious Enterococcus strains on model curdled caprine milk: microbial growth and evolution of concentration of organic acids and lactose throughout time.
PubMed:Pasta made from durum wheat semolina fermented with selected lactobacilli as a tool for a potential decrease of the gluten intolerance.
PubMed:Control of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters with antimicrobials in the formulation and by dipping in organic acid solutions.
PubMed:The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality.
PubMed:Determination of growth characteristics and lipolytic and proteolytic activities of Penicillium strains isolated from Argentinean salami.
PubMed:Overexpression of Lactobacillus casei D-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase in cheddar cheese.
PubMed:Genetic organization and expression of citrate permease in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Meat-model system development for proteolytic activity determination.
PubMed:Determination of esterolytic and lipolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Purification of antilisterial bacteriocins.
PubMed:Genome data mining of lactic acid bacteria: the impact of bioinformatics.
PubMed:Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance.
PubMed:Quality characteristics of Chinese sausages made from PSE pork.
PubMed:Antimicrobial properties of commercial annatto extracts against selected pathogenic, lactic acid, and spoilage microorganisms.
PubMed:Cooperation between Lactococcus lactis and nonstarter lactobacilli in the formation of cheese aroma from amino acids.
PubMed:Mousy off-flavor of wine: precursors and biosynthesis of the causative N-heterocycles 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine, 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine, and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline by Lactobacillus hilgardii DSM 20176.
PubMed:Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Determination of shelf life of concentrated yogurt (labneh) produced by in-bag straining of set yogurt using hazard analysis.
PubMed:Proteolysis in Hispánico cheese manufactured using a mesophilic starter, a thermophilic starter, and bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 adjunct culture.
PubMed:Effect of beta-glycosidase activity of Oenococcus oeni on the glycosylated flavor precursors of Tannat wine during malolactic fermentation.
PubMed:Development of a CE method to analyze organic acids in dairy products: application to study the metabolism of heat-shocked spores.
PubMed:Influence of ovine milk in mixture with bovine milk on the quality of reduced fat Muenster-type cheese.
PubMed:Consumer acceptance of raw apples treated with an antibacterial solution designed for home use.
PubMed:Cloning and expression of an oligopeptidase, PepO, with novel specificity from Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20).
PubMed:Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.
PubMed:Lipolytic and proteolytic properties of dry-cured boneless hams ripened in modified atmospheres.
PubMed:Tryptophan catabolism in Brevibacterium linens as a potential cheese flavor adjunct.
PubMed:Isoflavone transformation during soybean koji preparation and subsequent miso fermentation supplemented with ethanol and NaCl.
PubMed:Effect of rennet coagulation time on composition, yield, and quality of reduced-fat cheddar cheese.
PubMed:Tyrosine and phenylalanine catabolism by Lactobacillus cheese flavor adjuncts.
PubMed:Growth of nisin-producing lactococci in cooked rice supplemented with soybean extract and its application to inhibition of Bacillus subtilis in rice miso.
PubMed:A survey of lipolytic and glycolytic end-products in commercial Cheddar enzyme-modified cheese.
PubMed:Isolation, characterization, and influence of native, nonstarter lactic acid bacteria on Cheddar cheese quality.
PubMed:Diversity of sulfur compound production in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Acetaldehyde metabolism by wine lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Characterization and localization of a cheese georegion using edaphic criteria (Jura mountains, France).
PubMed:Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction for the isotopic analysis of volatile compounds produced during fermentation by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Aroma comparisons of traditional and mild yogurts: headspace gas chromatography quantification of volatiles and origin of alpha-diketones.
PubMed:Off-flavor compounds in wine and other food products formed by enzymatical, physical, and chemical degradation of tryptophan and its metabolites.
PubMed:Organic acids and volatile flavor components evolved during refrigerated storage of kefir.
PubMed:Chemical and microbiological characteristics of ewes' milk cheese manufactured with extracts from flowers of Cynara cardunculus and Cynara humilis as coagulants.
PubMed:Sulfur metabolism in bacteria associated with cheese.
PubMed:Changes in the components of dry-fermented sausages during ripening.
PubMed:Fermentation of low-salt miso as affected by supplementation with ethanol.
PubMed:Conversion of methionine to thiols by lactococci, lactobacilli, and brevibacteria
PubMed:Influence of salt on the quality of reduced fat cheddar cheese.
PubMed:Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum sp. nov., a new acid-tolerant omega-cyclohexyl fatty acid-containing propionibacterium isolated from spoiled orange juice.
PubMed:Improving the flavor of calcium chloride and lactic acid injected mature beef top round steaks.
PubMed:Formation of flavor compounds in cheese.
PubMed:Metabolic engineering of sugar catabolism in lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Microbiological and biochemical characterization of cassava retting, a traditional lactic Acid fermentation for foo-foo (cassava flour) production.
PubMed:Genetic manipulation of the pathway for diacetyl metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed:Diacetyl formation by lactic bacteria.
PubMed:The influence of controlled atmosphere and vacuum packaging upon chilled pork keeping quality.
PubMed:Growth and viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cheddar cheese.
PubMed:Evaluation of calcium chloride and lactic acid injection on chemical, microbiological and descriptive attributes of mature cow beef.
PubMed:Scanning electron and light microscopic study of microbial succession on bethlehem st. Nectaire cheese.
PubMed:Changes in chemical composition and sensory qualities of peanut milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Impact of bovine somatotropin on dairying in eastern Europe.
PubMed:Influence of aflatoxin B1 on gas production by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:The effects of differences in inherent muscle quality and frozen storage on the flavor and texture profiles of pork loin roasts.
PubMed:Glycolysis and related reactions during cheese manufacture and ripening.
PubMed:Food biotechnology review: traditional solid-state fermentations of plant raw materials--application, nutritional significance, and future prospects.
a normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. the concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (from stedman, 26th ed) Widely distributed in nature as a fermentation product from starch, molasses, potatoes etc. "Natural" lactic acid is produced commercially by fermentation of beet/cane sugar or glucose. No commercial lactic acid is dairy-based. Synthetic lactic acid is a racemic mixture of the L- and D-forms. Among the oldest known preservatives used to preserve milk products and a broad range of traditional fermented vegetables. The modern use of lactic acid as a food additive covers several functions: flavouring, acidity control, preservation. Due to its mild flavour, lactic acid can be used in high concentrations. Also in brewing, manuf. of cheese and confectionery Lactic acid is chiral and has two optical isomers. One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(-)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. L-(+)-Lactic acid is the biologically important isomer. (Wikipedia)
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