EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

propylene glycol
DL-1,2-propanediol

Sponsors

Flavor Demo Formulas
Name:propane-1,2-diol
CAS Number: 57-55-6Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-338-0
FDA UNII:6DC9Q167V3
Nikkaji Web:J1.918F
Beilstein Number:1340498
MDL:MFCD00064272
CoE Number:2065
XlogP3:-0.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:76.09516000
Formula:C3 H8 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:multipurpose additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1666 Propylene Glycol View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Propylene Glycol
GSFA Codex: Propylene glycol (1520)
DG SANTE Food Additives:propylene glycol
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:propylene glycol
FEMA Number:2940 propylene glycol
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm: PROPYLENE GLYCOL
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 169 -- FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.175 Vanilla extract.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.300 Resinous and polymeric coatings.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.320 Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.180 Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.210 Defoaming agents used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1390 Laminate structures for use at temperatures of 250 deg. F and above.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1680 Polyurethane resins.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2420 Polyester resins, cross-linked.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2600 Rubber articles intended for repeated use.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2800 Textiles and textile fibers.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart D--Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids
Sec. 178.3300 Corrosion inhibitors used for steel or tinplate.


FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1666 Propylene glycol.


FDA PART 582 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart E--Emulsifying Agents
Sec. 582.4666 Propylene glycol.


FDA PART 73 -- LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION
Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.30 Annatto extract.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear oily liquid (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Heavey Metals:5 PPM MAX
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Specific Gravity:1.03400 to 1.03700 @ 25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 8.604 to 8.629
Refractive Index:1.42500 to 1.43500 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -60.00 to -59.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 187.00 to 188.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 149.70 °C. @ 200.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.204000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density:2.62 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 225.00 °F. TCC ( 107.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.920
Shelf Life: 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly.
Storage:store in cool, dry place in tightly sealed containers, protected from heat and light.
Soluble in:
 ether
 miscible with water, acetone, chloroform
 solvent for rosin
 will dissolve many essential oils
 water, 1000000 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 paraffin oil
 fixed oils
Stability:
 stable under ordenary conditions
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Substantivity:400 Hour(s)
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless very slight alcoholic
Luebke, William tgsc, (1981)
Odor sample from: Berje Inc.
Flavor Type: sweet
sweet
Taste Description: sweet
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: humectants
skin conditioning
solvents
viscosity controlling agents
 
Suppliers:
Acme-Hardesty
Propylene Glycol USP
Odor: characteristic
Use: Moisturizer, Solvent for Food Colors and more.
ADM
PROPYLENE GLYCOL INDUSTRIAL
ADM
Propylene Glycol USP
Advanced Biotech
PROPYLENE GLYCOL NATURAL
Allan Chemical
Propylene Glycol
Anhui Haibei
Propylene glycol USP
APAC Chemical
Propylene Glycol
Flavor: characteristic
Propylene Glycol, C3H8O2, is an organic compound. It comes in several grades, and has various uses. It can be used as feedstock for production of polyester resins. In addition, it can also be used as humectant, solvent and preservative for food, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, and more. For industrial production, it can be used as an active ingredient in engine coolants and antifreeze.
Augustus Oils
Propylene Glycol
Services
BASF
Propylenglykol (Pharma)
Berjé
Propylene Glycol
Happening at Berje
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
1,2-Propanediol Purity >99%
Camden-Grey Essential Oils
Propylene Glycol
Odor: characteristic
Use: Propylene Glycol, Sold by weight. Propylene glycol is one of the most widely used cosmetic ingredients, it is a humectant. It is a clear, colorelss, viscous liquid, slightly bitter-tasting. It is the most common moisture-carrying vehicle, other than water itself, in cosmetics. Absorbs moisture, acts as a solvent and a wetting ingredient. Use as a carrier to dissolve your dry colorants and create liquid ones.
Charkit Chemical
PROPYLENE GLYCOL
Covalent Chemical
Propylene Glycol
Dow Chemical
Propylene Glycol
USP/EP (PG USP/EP)
ECSA Chemicals
Propylengycol
Company Profile
Ernesto Ventós
PROPYLENEGLYCOL (PG)
fnfsurplus.com
Propylene Glycol India
fnfsurplus.com
Propylene Glycol USP
Foodchem International
MonoPropylene Glycol
Fuzhou Farwell
1,2-Propanediol
Graham Chemical
Propylene Glycol
Indenta Group
Propylene Glycol
Kingyoung Bio Technical
Propylene Glycol
Kraft Chemical
Propylene Glycol USP
Kraft Chemical
Propylene Glycol
Lluch Essence
PROPYLENE GLYCOL
LyondellBasell Industries
Propylene Glycol Industrial Grade
LyondellBasell Industries
Propylene Glycol USP/EP
M&U International
Propylene Glycol
Moellhausen
PROPYLENE GLYCOL
Odor: practically odourless, slightly ethereal
Flavor: slightly sweet
Northwestern Extract
Propylene Glycol USP
OQEMA
LanCos MPG
OQEMA
MonoPropylene Glycol (mpg)
Penta International
PROPYLENE GLYCOL NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
PROPYLENE GLYCOL USP, Kosher
Penta International
PROPYLENE GLYCOL, Kosher
PerfumersWorld
PG (Propylene Glycol)
Prinova
Propylene Glycol
Rainbow Chemical
Propylene Glycol 99.5
Reincke & Fichtner
1,2-Propylene Glycol
Sigma-Aldrich
Propylene glycol, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
Silver Fern Chemical
Propylene Glycol USP Kosher
Odor: characteristic
Use: Propylene glycol USP is used as a non-active ingredient in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. It is also used as a humectant and emulsifier in the production of food, personal hygiene products and liquid detergents. The USP grade is produced according to the highest industry standards and tested for compliance with specifications of United States Pharmacopeia. The specified purity is more than 99.8%. Propylene Glycol is is often commonly abbreviated as PG-USP or PG-USP/K and sometimes goes by the name Monopropylene Glycol or MPG.
Silver Fern Chemical
Propylene Glycol, Industrial
Soapers Choice
PROPYLENE GLYCOL USP-99107SC
Odor: characteristic
Use: Propylene Glycol, USP Propylene Glycol, is a nearly odorless clear liquid with a mild sweet taste. In the skin and hair, propylene glycol works as a humescent, which causes retention of moisture content of skin or cosmetic products by preventing the escape of moisture or water. Propylene glycol is one of the most widely used cosmetic ingredients, as it is a humectant. It is a clear, colorelss, viscous liquid, slightly bitter-tasting. Propylene Glycol USP is the most common moisture-carrying vehicle, other than water itself, in cosmetics. Absorbs moisture, acts as a solvent and a wetting ingredient.
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
1,2-Propanediol >99.0%(GC)
The Perfumers Apprentice
Propylene Glycol (PG)
Treatt
1,2-Propylene Glycol
Vigon International
Propylene Glycol
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 20000 mg/kg
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 45, Pg. 362, 1978.

oral-guinea pig LD50 18350 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

oral-mouse LD50 22000 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 65, Pg. 89, 1939.

intravenous-mouse LD50 6630 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 26, Pg. 1581, 1976.

oral-rabbit LD50 18500 mg/kg
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. Vol. 53A, Pg. 491, 1974.

intravenous-rabbit LD50 6500 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-477

intravenous-rat LD50 6423 mg/kg
Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. Vol. 26, Pg. 1581, 1976.

intravenous-chicken LDLo 27000 mg/kg
VASCULAR: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 60, Pg. 312, 1937.

oral-child TDLo 79000 mg/kg/56W-I
BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD BRAIN AND COVERINGS: CHANGES IN SURFACE EEG BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC
Journal of Pediatrics. Vol. 93, Pg. 515, 1978.

intravenous-dog LD50 26000 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-477

oral-dog LD50 22000 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 21, Pg. 173, 1939.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 9718 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CHRONIC PULMONARY EDEMA BLOOD: CHANGES IN SPLEEN KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: CHANGES IN BOTH TUBULES AND GLOMERULI
Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 6, Pg. 342, 1947.

oral-quail LD50 > 2080 mg/kg
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 6, Pg. 149, 1982.

intramuscular-rabbit LDLo 6300 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: COMA LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: RESPIRATORY STIMULATION BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY)
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 44, Pg. 109, 1932.

intramuscular-rat LD50 14000 mg/kg
Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974Vol. 17JUN1974

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 6660 mg/kg
Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina. Cryobiology and Cryomedicine. Vol. 9, Pg. 36, 1981.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 20800 mg/kg
Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 101, 1974.

subcutaneous-guinea pig LDLo 15500 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. PB280-477

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 17370 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY) BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY)
Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina. Cryobiology and Cryomedicine. Vol. 8, Pg. 46, 1981

subcutaneous-rat LD50 22500 mg/kg
Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974Vol. 17JUN1974

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: multipurpose additives
Recommendation for propylene glycol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -1300.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -690.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -20.00000
confectionery froastings: -0.08000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -810.00000
fruit ices: -810.00000
gelatins / puddings: 250.00000290.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -1300.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: 10.0000040.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: -300.00000
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: -20.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 1 (FGE.20Rev1): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters from chemical group 23
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 3(FGE.20Rev3): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids, and related esters from chemical groups 23 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils ľ Part I of III
View page or View pdf

Re-evaluation of propane-1,2-diol (E 1520) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
EPA-Iris:IRIS
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):57-55-6
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :1030
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
propane-1,2-diol
Chemidplus:0000057556
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:57-55-6
 
References:
 propane-1,2-diol
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:57-55-6
Pubchem (cid):1030
Pubchem (sid):134971021
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00583
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB01881
FooDB:FDB008274
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB01405
Export Tariff Code:2905.32.0000
Haz-Map:View
Household Products:Search
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
FAO:Propylene glycol
Formulations/Preparations:
•grade: refined, technical, usp, fcc, feed •both the industrial-grade and usp grade have at least 99.5% purity. from table
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 deluent fragrance deluent
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
 chilisa FE
1,2-dihydroxypropane
 dowfrost
2-hydroxypropanol
 ilexan P
 PG
 prolugen
 propan-1,2-diol
1,2-propane diol
dextro,laevo-1,2-propane diol
 propane-1,2-diol
1,2-propane-diol
(±)-1,2-propanediol
(RS)-1,2-propanediol
1,2-propanediol
1,2-(RS)-propanediol
DL-1,2-propanediol
(±)-propylene glycol
1,2-propylene glycol
alpha-propylene glycol
mono-propylene glycol
 propylene glycol natural
 propylene glycol USP
1,2-propyleneglycol
1,2-propylenglykol
 propylenglykol (pharma)
 sirlene
 solargard P
 trimethyl glycol
 ucar 35
 

Articles:

PubMed:Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosol for the Presence of Selected Inhalation Toxins.
PubMed:Pharmaceutical optimization of lipid-based dosage forms for the improvement of taste-masking, chemical stability and solubilizing capacity of phenobarbital.
PubMed:Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.
PubMed:Antilisterial activity of hops beta acids in broth with or without other antimicrobials.
PubMed:Influence of flavor solvent on flavor release and perception in sugar-free chewing gum.
PubMed:The effect of solvent interactions on alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin/flavor molecular inclusion complexes.
PubMed:Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.
PubMed:Amino acid catabolism and generation of volatiles by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Furfural-cysteine model reaction in food grade nonionic oil/water microemulsions for selective flavor formation.
PubMed:beta-D(+) glucose-glucose oxidase-catalase for use as an antioxidant system.
PubMed:Ingestive and locomotor behaviours induced by pharmacological manipulation of <Alpha>-adrenoceptors into the median raphe nucleus.
PubMed:Efficacy of Heparinoid PSS in Treating Cardiovascular Diseases and Beyond-A Review of 27 Years Clinical Experiences in China.
PubMed:Chemical Additive To Enhance Antimicrobial Efficacy of Chlorine and Control Cross-Contamination during Immersion Chill of Broiler Carcasses.
PubMed:E-cigarettes: The lingering questions.
PubMed:Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosol for the Presence of Selected Inhalation Toxins.
PubMed:Quercetin, a natural dietary flavonoid, acts as a chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer in an in vivo model by inhibiting the EGFR signaling pathway.
PubMed:Effects of alkaline concentration, temperature, and additives on the strength of alkaline-induced egg white gel.
PubMed:Effects of propylene glycol alginate and sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of modified starch-stabilized beverage emulsions.
PubMed:Nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for polyunsaturated (¤ë-3) oils: formation using a spontaneous emulsification method.
PubMed:Combination of telmisartan with cisplatin controls oral cancer cachexia in rats.
PubMed:Thymol nanoemulsified by whey protein-maltodextrin conjugates: the enhanced emulsifying capacity and antilisterial properties in milk by propylene glycol.
PubMed:Notes from the field: electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2012.
PubMed:Improving the capacity of polypropylene to be used in antioxidant active films: incorporation of plasticizer and natural antioxidants.
PubMed:Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.
PubMed:Ketosis treatment in lactating dairy cattle.
PubMed:Impact of flavour solvent (propylene glycol or triacetin) on vanillin, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, 2,4-decadienal, 2,4-heptadienal, structural parameters and sensory perception of shortcake biscuits over accelerated shelf life testing.
PubMed:Nanovesicles system for rapid-onset sublingual delivery containing sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
PubMed:Multi-analyte approach for determining the extraction of tobacco constituents from pouched snus by consumers during use.
PubMed:Engineering a cyanobacterium as the catalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to 1,2-propanediol.
PubMed:Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios.
PubMed:Cryopreservation of rabbit semen: comparing the effects of different cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant-free vitrification, and the use of albumin plus osmoprotectants on sperm survival and fertility after standard vapor freezing and vitrification.
PubMed:Food avoidance diets for systemic, lip, and oral contact allergy: an american contact alternatives group article.
PubMed:Enhanced inactivation of Salmonella and Pseudomonas biofilms on stainless steel by use of T-128, a fresh-produce washing aid, in chlorinated wash solutions.
PubMed:Mechanisms of propylene glycol and triacetin pyrolysis.
PubMed:Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspective.
PubMed:Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.
PubMed:Evaluation of porous starch as a flavour carrier.
PubMed:Effects of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on primary drinking in rats.
PubMed:Baccharis dracunculifolia, the main source of green propolis, exhibits potent antioxidant activity and prevents oxidative mitochondrial damage.
PubMed:Reformulating polycaprolactone fumarate to eliminate toxic diethylene glycol: effects of polymeric branching and autoclave sterilization on material properties.
PubMed:Bioplastics from feather quill.
PubMed:Aphids preserved in propylene glycol can be used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detection of Potato virus Y.
PubMed:Quantitative evaluation of the sensitivity of library-based Raman spectral correlation methods.
PubMed:Safety and toxicology of cyclosporine in propylene glycol after 9-month aerosol exposure to beagle dogs.
PubMed:Percutaneous penetration of 5-methoxypsoralen in rhesus monkeys.
PubMed:Detection of diethylene glycol adulteration in propylene glycol--method validation through a multi-instrument collaborative study.
PubMed:Assessment of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, propylene glycol, polysorbate 80, and hydroxypropyl-╬▓-cyclodextrin for use in developmental and reproductive toxicology studies.
PubMed:Captures of pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in BioLure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii.
PubMed:Physical properties of gum karaya-starch-essential oil patches.
PubMed:A pilot study of emollient therapy for the primary prevention of atopic dermatitis.
PubMed:Effects of microbial inoculants on corn silage fermentation, microbial contents, aerobic stability, and milk production under field conditions.
PubMed:Comprehensive investigation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, propylene glycol, polysorbate 80, and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin for use in general toxicology studies.
PubMed:Simplified assay of diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol in various raw materials by capillary gas chromatography.
PubMed:Pectin, alginate and gum arabic polymers reduce citric acid erosion effects on human enamel.
PubMed:In vitro enhancement of lactate esters on the percutaneous penetration of drugs with different lipophilicity.
PubMed:Assessment of the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts--in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork.
PubMed:Assessment of the genotoxicity of three cryoprotectants used for human oocyte vitrification: dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol.
PubMed:Microbial production and applications of 1,2-propanediol.
PubMed:Sucrose: A prospering and sustainable organic raw material.
PubMed:Effects of feeding propylene glycol on dry matter intake, lactation performance, energy balance and blood metabolites in early lactation dairy cows.
PubMed:Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of ethyl N(alpha)-lauroyl-L-arginate hydrochloride in human volunteers.
PubMed:Chiral separation of catechins in buckwheat groats and the effects of phenolic compounds in mice subjected to restraint stress.
PubMed:Systemic contact dermatitis.
PubMed:Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy based investigation on propylene glycol toxicosis in a Holstein cow.
PubMed:Transient high glycaemic intake in the last trimester of pregnancy increases offspring birthweight and postnatal growth rate in sheep: a randomised control trial.
PubMed:Understanding the human salivary metabolome.
PubMed:Effects of polyols on the stability of whey proteins in intermediate-moisture food model systems.
PubMed:Antilisterial activity of hops beta acids in broth with or without other antimicrobials.
PubMed:Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.
PubMed:Contact dermatitis associated with food: retrospective cross-sectional analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group data, 2001-2004.
PubMed:Suitability of cryoprotectants and impregnation protocols for embryos of Japanese whiting Sillago japonica.
PubMed:Influence of flavor solvent on flavor release and perception in sugar-free chewing gum.
PubMed:Effect of restricted feeding and monopropylene glycol postpartum on metabolic hormones and postpartum anestrus in grazing dairy heifers.
PubMed:Systemic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol.
PubMed:Plasticizer types and coating methods affect quality and shelf life of eggs coated with chitosan.
PubMed:Production diseases of the transition cow.
PubMed:Intratracheal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide elicits pulmonary hypertension in broilers with primed airways.
PubMed:Beta-carotene-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers.
PubMed:The effect of feeding propylene glycol to dairy cows during the early postpartum period on follicular dynamics and on metabolic parameters related to fertility.
PubMed:Preclinical safety evaluation of inhaled cyclosporine in propylene glycol.
PubMed:Acceptance and purchase intent of US consumers for nonwheat rice butter cakes.
PubMed:Emissions from cooking microwave popcorn.
PubMed:Generation of quinoneimine intermediates in the bioactivation of 3-(N-phenylamino)alanine (PAA) by human liver microsomes: a potential link between eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and toxic oil syndrome.
PubMed:Structural study of BSA/poly(ethylene glycol) lipid conjugate complexes.
PubMed:In vitro bioactivation of 3-(N-phenylamino)propane-1,2-diol by human and rat liver microsomes and recombinant P450 enzymes. Implications for toxic oil syndrome.
PubMed:Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol.
PubMed:Bioavailability of seocalcitol III. Administration of lipid-based formulations to minipigs in the fasted and fed state.
PubMed:Phospholipid-based microemulsions suitable for use in foods.
PubMed:The effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and Pediococcus pentosaceus R1094 on the fermentation of corn silage.
PubMed:Production of ascorbyl palmitate by surfactant-coated lipase in organic media.
PubMed:Microemulsions as transdermal drug delivery vehicles.
PubMed:Analysis of ingested material and urine by GC-MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy: poisoning of an adult with adulterated soda.
PubMed:Characterizing NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes of Methylobacterium extorquens and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta).
PubMed:Synthesis and stability studies of the glutathione and N-acetylcysteine adducts of an iminoquinone reactive intermediate generated in the biotransformation of 3-(N-phenylamino)propane-1,2-diol: implications for toxic oil syndrome.
PubMed:Influence of a test preservative on sponge cakes under different storage conditions.
PubMed:NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Propylene Glycol (PG).
PubMed:Effects of the combination of hydrophobic polypeptides, iso-alpha acids, and malto-oligosaccharides on beer foam stability.
PubMed:Effects of hydrophilic plasticizers on mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of chitosan films.
PubMed:On the generation and outcome of 3-(N-phenylamino)propane-1,2-diol derivatives in deodorized model oils related to toxic oil syndrome.
PubMed:Fate of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto the surface of model Turkey frankfurter pieces treated with zein coatings containing nisin, sodium diacetate, and sodium lactate at 4 degrees C.
PubMed:The effect of solvent interactions on alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin/flavor molecular inclusion complexes.
PubMed:Prolactin-induced parental hyperphagia in ring doves: are glucocorticoids involved?
PubMed:Prevention of homocysteine thiolactone induced atherogenesis in rats.
PubMed:Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.
PubMed:Influence of aroma compounds on the mechanical properties of pectin gels.
PubMed:Robust and sensitive monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the herbicide molinate.
PubMed:Toxicological and metabolic investigations of the safety of N-alpha-lauroyl-L-arginine ethyl ester monohydrochloride (LAE).
PubMed:Toxicity of excipients--a Food and Drug Administration perspective.
PubMed:Estimation of inorganic food additive (nitrite, nitrate and sulfur dioxide), antioxidant (BHA and BHT), processing agent (propylene glycol) and sweetener (sodium saccharin) concentrations in foods and their daily intake based on official inspection results in Japan in fiscal year 1998.
PubMed:[Simultaneous analysis of four kinds of emulsifiers in beverages by GC/MS].
PubMed:Accumulation of 1,2-propanediol and enhancement of aerobic stability in whole crop maize silage inoculated with Lactobacillus buchneri.
PubMed:Human volunteer study with PGME: eye irritation during vapour exposure.
PubMed:Self-diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance, microstructure transitions, and solubilization capacity of phytosterols and cholesterol in Winsor IV food-grade microemulsions.
PubMed:Effect of various doses of palm vitamin E and tocopherol on aspirin-induced gastric lesions in rats.
PubMed:[Induction of CuZn-SOD mRNA expression and activity by PGMS in rat liver].
PubMed:Oxygen permeability of films made from CO2-precipitated casein and modified casein.
PubMed:Food-grade microemulsions based on nonionic emulsifiers: media to enhance lycopene solubilization.
PubMed:An examination of the physical properties, fate, ecotoxicity and potential environmental risks for a series of propylene glycol ethers.
PubMed:[Kooroo color: 90-day dietary toxicity study in F344 rats].
PubMed:Occurrence of 3-chloro-propane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and related compounds in foods: a review.
PubMed:Lipase-assisted generation of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and 2-furfurylthiol from thioacetates.
PubMed:Furfural-cysteine model reaction in food grade nonionic oil/water microemulsions for selective flavor formation.
PubMed:Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effects.
PubMed:Metabolism of (R)- and (S)-3-(phenylamino)propane-1,2-diol in C57BL/6- and A/J-strain mice. Identification of new metabolites with potential toxicological significance to the toxic oil syndrome.
PubMed:Improved oil solubilization in oil/water food grade microemulsions in the presence of polyols and ethanol.
PubMed:Plasticizer effect on oxygen permeability of beta-lactoglobulin films.
PubMed:Changes in susceptibility to acetaminophen-induced liver injury by the organic anion indocyanine green.
PubMed:Antioxidant prevention of Heinz body formation and oxidative injury in cats.
PubMed:Conversion of sugars to 1,2-propanediol by Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum HG-8.
PubMed:Stabilization of Aldehydes as Propylene Glycol Acetals.
PubMed:Formation of Sterilized Edible Films Based on Caseinates: Effects of Calcium and Plasticizers.
PubMed:Dry cow management for the prevention of ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows.
PubMed:Subclinical ketosis in lactating dairy cattle.
PubMed:Synergistic effects of food colors on the toxicity of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:Galloylglucosides from berries of Pimenta dioica.
PubMed:Biotransformation and clearance of 3-(phenylamino)propane-1,2-diol, a compound present in samples related to toxic oil syndrome, in C57BL/6 and A/J mice.
PubMed:[Biochemical and molecular characterization of Salmonella ser. enteritidis phage type 1 isolated from food poisoning outbreaks in Tokyo].
PubMed:Drug compatibility with the sponge phases formed in monoolein, water, and propylene glycol or poly(ethylene glycol).
PubMed:Update on media for isolation of Enterobacteriaceae from foods.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of luteolin and luteolin 7-O-beta-glucoside in rats and humans.
PubMed:Pathology of the oropharyngeal cavity in six strains of rats: predisposition of Fischer 344 rats for inflammatory and degenerative changes.
PubMed:Dermal penetration of 4"-(epi-methylamino)-4"-deoxyavermectin B1a benzoate in the rhesus monkey.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of cisapride in horses after intravenous and rectal administration.
PubMed:[Biochemical and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovar enteritidis phage type 4 isolated from food poisoning outbreaks in Tokyo].
PubMed:Safety of milbemycin as an oral or bath treatment for the tropical freshwater angelfish Pterophyllum scalare.
PubMed:Effect of method of delivery of propylene glycol on plasma metabolites of feed-restricted cattle.
PubMed:"Inactive" ingredients in pharmaceutical products: update (subject review). American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs.
PubMed:Systemic contact dermatitis caused by ingestion of certain foods in propylene glycol-sensitive patients.
PubMed:Hematological alterations in propylene glycol-dosed female rats are minimal.
PubMed:In vitro measurement of beta-carotene cleavage activity: methodological considerations and the effect of other carotenoids on beta-carotene cleavage.
PubMed:Effect of propylene glycol dosage during feed restriction on metabolites in blood of prepartum Holstein heifers.
PubMed:An investigation into the discriminative stimulus and reinforcing properties of the CCKB-receptor antagonist, L-365,260 in rats.
PubMed:Assessment of the reproductive and developmental toxicity of pesticide/fertilizer mixtures based on confirmed pesticide contamination in California and Iowa groundwater.
PubMed:Hematologic response of adult brown mink to oxidative stress.
PubMed:Confirmation of identities of propylene and ethylene glycols in anchovies by tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Specific solute effects on Staphylococcus aureus cells subjected to reduced water activity.
PubMed:Propylene glycol-induced skeletal muscle excitation.
PubMed:Hematological alterations in kittens induced by 6 and 12% dietary propylene glycol.
PubMed:Caloric vs. pharmacologic effects of ethanol consumption on activity anorexia in rats.
PubMed:Dietary effects of propylene glycol alginate in humans.
PubMed:Taste responses of dogs to ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol-based antifreeze.
PubMed:Mechanisms and variations in the food effect on propranolol bioavailability.
PubMed:New plate medium for facilitated differentiation of Salmonella spp. from Proteus spp. and other enteric bacteria.
PubMed:Subchronic nose-only inhalation study of propylene glycol in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:Contribution of propylene glycol-induced Heinz body formation to anemia in cats.
PubMed:The migration of propylene glycol, mono-, di-, and triethylene glycols from regenerated cellulose film into food.
PubMed:Safety and toxicological profile of the new antitussive levodropropizine.
PubMed:Inhibition of lipolytic activity in milk by polysaccharides.
PubMed:Pancreatic carcinogenesis in azaserine-treated rats: inhibition by a solvent mixture in the diet.
PubMed:The metabolic disposition of [methoxy-14C]-labelled trans-anethole, estragole and p-propylanisole in human volunteers.
PubMed:Dose-response relationship in complete oral 4NQO-carcinogenesis in rats.
PubMed:Studies on benzyl acetate. I. Effect of dose size and vehicle on the plasma pharmacokinetics and metabolism of [methylene-14C]benzyl acetate in the rat.
PubMed:Maternal social stress disrupts reproduction of hamsters drinking high-calorie fluids.
PubMed:Effect of chemical dips on unchilled fresh beef inoculated with E. coli, S. aureus, S. faecalis and Cl. perfringens and Stored at 30┬░C and 20┬░C.
PubMed:Teratologic evaluation of inhaled propylene glycol monomethyl ether in rats and rabbits.
PubMed:Metabolism of anethole. II. Influence of dose size on the route of metabolism of trans-anethole in the rat and mouse.
PubMed:Metabolism of anethole. I. Pathways of metabolism in the rat and mouse.
PubMed:Comparative study of methods chosen by the Association Fran├žaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) for evaluating sensitizing potential in the albino guinea-pig.
PubMed:The acute toxicity of perfluorooctanoic and perfluorodecanoic acids in male rats and effects on tissue fatty acids.
PubMed:The management of propylene glycol-sensitive patients.
PubMed:Teratologic evaluation of synthetic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rabbits.
PubMed:Prediction of water activity, a(w), in cook-soak equilibrated intermediate moisture meats.
PubMed:Propylene glycol dermatitis.
PubMed:Toxicity of delta9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administered subcutaneously for 13 days to female rabbits.
PubMed:Nutritional application and implication of 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Long-term toxicity of propylene glycol in rats.
PubMed:[Hyperglycemic action of propylene glycol].
PubMed:Results of feeding propylene glycol in the diet to dogs for two years.
 
Notes:
a clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations. Anticaking agent, antioxidant, dough strengthener, emulsifier, flavour agent, formulation aid, humectant, solvent, preservative, stabiliser, hog/poultry scald agent, surface active agent and other food uses. Present in roasted sesame seeds, oats, truffle and other mushrooms
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