glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome/root
plant material derived from the dried rhizomes and roots of the licorice, glycyrrhiza glabra l., leguminosae
 
Notes:
None found
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Name: glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome/root
FDA internal no.: 977004-31-1 
Category: licorice and licorice derivatives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1408 Glycyrrhiza View-review
184.1408 Licorice, Glycyrrhiza, and Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin View-review
FEMA Number: 2630  licorice rhizome/root
FDA Mainterm: LICORICE (GLYCYRRHIZA SPP.)
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1408 Licorice and licorice derivatives.
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Physical Properties:
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: anise
Odor Strength: medium
 licorice  
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
licorice
 licorice  
Taste Description:
licorice
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: emollients
moisturising agents
smoothing agents
soothing agents
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Suppliers:
Indo World Trading
Glycyrrhiza glabra root Powder/Paste
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: licorice and licorice derivatives
Recommendation for glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome/root usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -75.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -130.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: -3200.00000
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: -460.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome/root
Chemidplus: 0977004311
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References:
 glycyrrhiza glabra rhizome/root
Pubchem (sid): 135274690
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Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
None Found
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 licorice
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
 glycyrrhiza glabra root powder/paste
 licorice rhizome/root
 plant material derived from the dried rhizomes and roots of the licorice, glycyrrhiza glabra l., leguminosae
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Articles:
PubMed: Comparative Analysis of Antibacterial Properties and Chemical Composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan Region (Russia) and Calabria Region (Italy).
PubMed: Evaluation of sodium benzoate and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract as heat-sensitizing additives against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mildly heated young coconut liquid endosperm.
PubMed: Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats.
PubMed: Qualitative identification of dibenzoylmethane in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
PubMed: A Simple Semi-preparative Reversed-phase HPLC/PDA Method for Separation and Quantification of Glycyrrhizin in Nine Samples of Glycyrrhiza glabra Root Collected from Different Geographical Origins.
PubMed: Liquorice, a unique "guide drug" of traditional Chinese medicine: a review of its role in drug interactions.
PubMed: Absolute configuration of naturally occurring glabridin.
PubMed: Beneficial effect of aqueous root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra on learning and memory using different behavioral models: An experimental study.
PubMed: Transdermal microemulsions of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.: characterization, stability and evaluation of antioxidant potential.
PubMed: Improving the thrombin inhibitory activity of glycyrrhizin, a triterpenic saponin, through a molecular simplification of the carbohydrate moiety.
PubMed: Glycyrrhizin ameliorates insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome-X in rat model.
PubMed: Comparison of three officinal Chinese pharmacopoeia species of Glycyrrhiza based on separation and quantification of triterpene saponins and chemometrics analysis.
PubMed: Effect of GutGard in the Management of Helicobacter pylori: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study.
PubMed: Application of Glycyrrhiza glabra root as a novel adsorbent in the removal of toluene vapors: equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic study.
PubMed: Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats.
PubMed: [Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems].
PubMed: In vitro studies on protective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts against cadmium-induced genetic and oxidative damage in human lymphocytes.
PubMed: Treatment of licorice seeds with colchicine: changes in seedling DNA levels and anthocyanin and glycyrrhizic acid contents of derived callus cultures.
PubMed: Chromolithic method development, validation and system suitability analysis of ultra-sound assisted extraction of glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra.
PubMed: High throughput screening to identify natural human monoamine oxidase B inhibitors.
PubMed: An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts.
PubMed: Licorice induced hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia.
PubMed: Licochalcone a inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed: ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.
PubMed: Glycyrrhizin and long-term histopathologic changes in a murine model of asthma.
PubMed: Biogeography of symbiotic and other endophytic bacteria isolated from medicinal Glycyrrhiza species in China.
PubMed: Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of standardized extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™).
PubMed: Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra).
PubMed: Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and its phytoconstituents.
PubMed: Ameliorative effects of glycyrrhizin on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.
PubMed: Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of the Leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera Grown in Iran, as a Possible Renewable Source for Anticonvulsant Compounds.
PubMed: Black licorice ingestion: Yet another confounding agent in patients with melena.
PubMed: Metabolic profiling of roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) from different geographical areas by ESI/MS/MS and determination of major metabolites by LC-ESI/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS.
PubMed: Leaves Antimicrobial Activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
PubMed: Dual inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™) on COX and LOX products.
PubMed: 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits periodontitis via glucocorticoid-independent nuclear factor-κB inactivation in interleukin-10-deficient mice.
PubMed: The effect of licorice drink on the systemic exposure of verapamil in rabbits.
PubMed: The Effect of Licorice Drink on the Systemic Exposure of Verapamil in Rabbits.
PubMed: Natural anti-inflammatory products and leukotriene inhibitors as complementary therapy for bronchial asthma.
PubMed: Antidyslipidaemic activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in high fructose diet induced dsyslipidaemic Syrian golden hamsters.
PubMed: Licorice and licochalcone-A induce autophagy in LNCaP prostate cancer cells by suppression of Bcl-2 expression and the mTOR pathway.
PubMed: A rapid screening method for prenylated flavonoids with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in licorice root extracts.
PubMed: Hepatoprotective and anti-hepatocarcinogenic effects of glycyrrhizin and matrine.
PubMed: Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra root using in vitro models.
PubMed: [Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding Psammosilene tunicoides squalene synthase].
PubMed: Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, plays a dual role in regulating gastrointestinal motility in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed: In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on the growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.
PubMed: Anti-proliferative effect of licochalcone A on vascular smooth muscle cells.
PubMed: Glycyrrhizin reduces secondary inflammatory process after spinal cord compression injury in mice.
PubMed: Glycyrrhizin attenuates the development of carrageenan-induced lung injury in mice.
PubMed: Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, relaxes guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle in vitro and in vivo: role of cGMP/PKG pathway.
PubMed: Activation of rapid signaling pathways and the subsequent transcriptional regulation for the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells by the treatment with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root.
PubMed: Role of P-glycoprotein in limiting the brain penetration of glabridin, an active isoflavan from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
PubMed: Chemoprofile and bioactivities of Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.: a wild relative and possible substitute of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
PubMed: Role of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption of glabridin, an active flavonoid from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
PubMed: Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn) in rats.
PubMed: Protective effects of isoliquiritigenin in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
PubMed: Simultaneous HPLC analysis, with isocratic elution, of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetic acid in liquorice roots and confectionery products.
PubMed: Chemopreventive properties of the ethanol extract of chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) root: induction of apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
PubMed: Effect of licorice root on peripheral blood indexes upon vibration exposure.
PubMed: Separation and analysis of glycyrrhizin, 18beta-glycyrrhetic acid and 18alpha-glycyrrhetic acid in liquorice roots by means of capillary zone electrophoresis.
PubMed: Assays of physical stability and antioxidant activity of a topical formulation added with different plant extracts.
PubMed: Licorice flavonoids suppress abdominal fat accumulation and increase in blood glucose level in obese diabetic KK-A(y) mice.
PubMed: [Effects of nutrient solution concentration on inorganic and glycyrrhizin contents of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn].
PubMed: Licochalcone-A, a novel flavonoid isolated from licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra), causes G2 and late-G1 arrests in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells.
PubMed: Differential expression of three oxidosqualene cyclase mRNAs in Glycyrrhiza glabra.
PubMed: Isoliquiritigenin inhibits the growth of prostate cancer.
PubMed: Chemical modification of glycyrrhizic acid as a route to new bioactive compounds for medicine.
PubMed: Antioxidant effect of licorice root on blood catalase activity in vibration stress.
PubMed: Protection of DNA and microsomal membranes in vitro by Glycyrrhiza glabra L. against gamma irradiation.
PubMed: Immunological studies of Revitonil, a phytopharmaceutical containing Echinacea purpurea and Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract.
PubMed: [Comparative study of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza echinata L. of different origin. Medicinal plant polysaccharides III].
PubMed: Flavonoid constituents from Glycyrrhiza glabra hairy root cultures.
PubMed: Antioxidant activity of parapharmaceutics containing natural inhibitors of free radical processes.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of the dimethylallyl moiety of glabrol in Glycyrrhiza glabra hairy root cultures via a non-mevalonate pathway.
PubMed: Antimicrobial flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza glabra hairy root cultures.
PubMed: Activation of macrophages by crude polysaccharide fractions obtained from shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra and hairy roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in vitro.
PubMed: [Polysaccharides of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza echinata L. Medicinal plants II].
PubMed: Seasonal variation of glycyrrhizin and isoliquiritigenin glycosides in the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
PubMed: Structural aspects of the inhibitory effect of glabridin on LDL oxidation.
PubMed: The antioxidative effects of the isoflavan glabridin on endogenous constituents of LDL during its oxidation.
PubMed: Antioxidant constituents from licorice roots: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidative capacity toward LDL oxidation.
PubMed: Inhibition of human complement by beta-glycyrrhetinic acid.
PubMed: Distribution Pattern of Saponins in Different Organs of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
PubMed: A further contribution to the triterpenoid constituents of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
PubMed: Triterpenoid biosynthesis in tissue cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. glandulifera.
PubMed: Biotransformation of 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
PubMed: Examination of triterpenoids produced by callus and cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra.
PubMed: [Identification of some flavonic aglycones in root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L].
PubMed: Isolation of two new flavonoids from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra var. typica.
PubMed: [Differences between the root and rhizome of Ural licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) and those of smooth licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.)].
PubMed: [Liquiritoside, flavonoside from root of licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra L].
PubMed: Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of standardized extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard™).
PubMed: Exploring the possible metabolism mediated interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.
PubMed: Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice.
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