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crocus sativus

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Name:crocus sativus l.
FDA internal no.: 977051-90-3
FDA UNII: Search
Category:spices, other natural seasonings and flavorings
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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JECFA Food Additive: Saffron
FEMA Number:2998 saffron
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):977051-90-3 ; SAFFRON (CROCUS SATIVUS L.)
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Specific Food Labeling Requirements
Sec. 101.22 Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.140 Mayonnaise.

Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Food Dressings and Flavorings
Sec. 169.150 Salad dressing.

Subpart A--General Provisions
Sec. 182.10 Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings.

Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.500 Saffron.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:yellow to golden brown powder (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: herbal
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. saffron
Flavor Type: herbal
Taste Description: saffron
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
Aditi Essentials
Odor: characteristic
Use: Crocus plant is bulbous perennial grass that belongs to iris family (Iridaceae). The Crocus flower is very attractive and beautiful. Among the 85 species belonging to the genus Crocus, C. sativus L. (Saffron) is the most fascinating and intriguing species. Questions as when it originated; the native area or areas; the ancestor species and the mechanisms of origin; the wild or naturalized plants; the infertility and consequent absence of fruit and seeds; remain to be explained. Greece (Crete) has been mentioned as probable origin of this old crop with probably more than 4,500 years of age
American Natural & Organic Spices
Saffron, Available as 100% Certified Organic
Atlantic Chemicals
Bristol Botanicals
Saffron - Mancha Crocus sativus
Doug Jeffords Company
Elite Spice
Penta International
Whole Herb
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
spices, other natural seasonings and flavorings
contains the following IFRA (Annex) restricted components: (non-analysis max. level reference only)
isophorone Max. Found: 0.2 % and Reason: Insufficint data
Recommendation for saffron usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -10.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -1.30000
beverages(alcoholic): -200.00000
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -260.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
crocus sativus l.
 crocus sativus l.
Pubchem (sid):135334475
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FDA Color Additive Status ListView
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
Search Trop Picture
 c.i. 75100
 ci 75100
 crocus sativus
 natural yellow 6
 saffron powder
 saffron, available as 100% certified organic


PubMed:Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.
PubMed:Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities.
PubMed:AFLP and MS-AFLP analysis of the variation within saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L.) germplasm.
PubMed:GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review.
PubMed:Anti-asthma potential of crocin and its effect on MAPK signaling pathway in a murine model of allergic airway disease.
PubMed:Neuropharmacological aspects of Crocus sativus L.: a review of preclinical studies and ongoing clinical research.
PubMed:Effects of sulfur water extraction on anthocyanins properties of tepals in flower of saffron (Crocus sativus L).
PubMed:Gas chromatography of safranal as preferable method for the commercial grading of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant adulterants by (1)H NMR metabolite fingerprinting.
PubMed:Safranal, a Crocus sativus L constituent suppresses the growth of K-562 cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia. In silico and in vitro study.
PubMed:Challenges of climate change: omics-based biology of saffron plants and organic agricultural biotechnology for sustainable saffron production.
PubMed:Antitumor effects of saffron-derived carotenoids in prostate cancer cell models.
PubMed:Application of response surface methodology to optimise supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile compounds from Crocus sativus.
PubMed:Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity evaluation of Crocus sativus stigmas in neonates of nursing mice.
PubMed:Saffron improves epididymal sperm parameters in rats exposed to cadmium.
PubMed:Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L.) Aqueous extract in rat.
PubMed:Safranal, a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in C2C12 myotubes and improves glucose tolerance in diabetic KK-Ay mice.
PubMed:FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.
PubMed:Flavonoid Determination in the Quality Control of Floral Bioresidues from Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:Crocetin, a carotenoid from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, protects against hypertension and cerebral thrombogenesis in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.
PubMed:Effect of split foliar fertilisation on the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Bioactivity assessment and toxicity of crocin: a comprehensive review.
PubMed:Cytotoxic effect against 3T3 fibroblasts cells of saffron floral bio-residues extracts.
PubMed:Evaluation of teratogenic effects of crocin and safranal, active ingredients of saffron, in mice.
PubMed:An overview on saffron, phytochemicals, and medicinal properties.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) powder as an ingredient of rye bread: an anti-diabetic evaluation.
PubMed:Assessment of cytotoxic properties of safranal and nanoliposomal safranal in various cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of crocin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed:Investigation of the neuroprotective action of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in aluminum-exposed adult mice through behavioral and neurobiochemical assessment.
PubMed:Increasing the applications of Crocus sativus flowers as natural antioxidants.
PubMed:Quality control of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): development of SCAR markers for the detection of plant adulterants used as bulking agents.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) increases glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in muscle cells via multipathway mechanisms.
PubMed:In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse.
PubMed:Radical scavenging activity and LC-MS metabolic profiling of petals, stamens, and flowers of Crocus sativus L.
PubMed:The effect of Crocus sativus extract on human lymphocytes' cytokines and T helper 2/T helper 1 balance.
PubMed:Crocin promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice.
PubMed:Geographical origin differentiation of saffron spice (Crocus sativus L. stigmas) - Preliminary investigation using chemical and multi-element (H, C, N) stable isotope analysis.
PubMed:Saffron (Crocus sativus) aqueous extract and its constituent crocin reduces stress-induced anorexia in mice.
PubMed:Crocetin: an agent derived from saffron for prevention and therapy for cancer.
PubMed:Picrocrocin kinetics in aqueous saffron spice extracts (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment.
PubMed:Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in human lung cancer cell line.
PubMed:Microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four different spices.
PubMed:Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. stigma phenolic and flavonoid compounds and its antioxidant activity.
PubMed:New applications and mechanisms of action of saffron and its important ingredients.
PubMed:Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study of mildly overweight, healthy women.
PubMed:Quantification of crocetin esters in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.
PubMed:Picrocrocin content and quality categories in different (345) worldwide samples of saffron ( Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Preventive effect of crocin in inflamed animals and in LPS-challenged RAW 264.7 cells.
PubMed:Role of caspases and Bax protein in saffron-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
PubMed:Further examination of antiradical properties of Crocus sativus stigmas extract rich in crocins.
PubMed:Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants.
PubMed:Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines.
PubMed:Effect of centrifugal ultrafiltration on the composition of aqueous extracts of saffron spice (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Rapid determination of crocetin esters and picrocrocin from saffron spice (Crocus sativus L.) using UV-visible spectrophotometry for quality control.
PubMed:LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.
PubMed:Kinetics of individual crocetin ester degradation in aqueous extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) upon thermal treatment in the dark.
PubMed:Cloning, structural characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of flower MADS-box genes from crocus (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Effect of ionic detergents, nonionic detergents, and chaotropic agents on polyphenol oxidase activity from dormant saffron (Crocus sativus L.) corms.
PubMed:Crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties.
PubMed:Protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial.
PubMed:Inhibitory activity on amyloid-beta aggregation and antioxidant properties of Crocus sativus stigmas extract and its crocin constituents.
PubMed:Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats.
PubMed:Crocetin esters, picrocrocin and its related compounds present in Crocus sativus stigmas and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Tentative identification of seven new compounds by LC-ESI-MS.
PubMed:Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents.
PubMed:Influence of different drying and aging conditions on saffron constituents.
PubMed:Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial.
PubMed:Crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice.
PubMed:Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antigenotoxic and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Inhibition of genotoxicity by saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in mice.
PubMed:Analytical method for Buddleja colorants in foods.
PubMed:Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of crocin from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and study of the reactions of crocin with linoleic acid and crocin with oxygen.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a mannan-binding lectin specifically expressed in corms of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:Flavonols from saffron flower: tyrosinase inhibitory activity and inhibition mechanism.
PubMed:Method to determine the authenticity of aroma of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).
PubMed:In vitro formation of crocetin glucosyl esters by Crocus sativus callus extract.
PubMed:Inhibition of colony formation of Hela cells by naturally occurring and synthetic agents.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of Nigella sativa and saffron (Crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice.
None found
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