erythritol
tetritol
 
Notes:
Bulk sweetener with good taste props. Not metabolised, excreted unchanged in urine. Less sweet than sucrose. Use not yet permitted in most countries (1997). GRAS status for use as a sweetener, thickener, stabiliser, humectant, etc. in food Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetraol) is a natural sugar alcohol (a type of sugar substitute) which has been approved for use in the United States and throughout much of the world. It occurs naturally in fruits and fermented foods. At industrial level, it is produced from glucose by fermentation with a yeast, Moniliella pollinis. It is 60?70% as sweet as table sugar yet it is almost non-caloric, does not affect blood sugar, does not cause tooth decay, and is absorbed by the body, therefore unlikely to cause gastric side effects unlike other sugar alcohols. Under U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling requirements, it has a caloric value of 0.2 calories per gram (95% less than sugar and other carbohydrates), though nutritional labelling varies from country to country?some countries like Japan label it as zero-calorie, while European Union regulations currently label it and all other sugar alcohols at 2.4 kcal/g.; Erythritol occurs widely in nature and has been found to occur naturally in several foods including wine, sake, beer, water melon, pear, grape and soy sauce. Evidence indicates that erythritol also exists endogenously in the tissues and body fluids of humans and animals. Erythritol is absorbed from the proximal intestine by passive diffusion in a manner similar to that of many low molecular weight organic molecules which do not have associated active transport systems, the rate of absorption being related to their molecular size; In the body, erythritol is absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine, and then for the most part excreted unchanged in the urine. Because erythritol is normally absorbed before it enters the large intestine, it does not normally cause laxative effects as are often experienced after over-consumption of other sugar alcohols (such as xylitol and maltitol) and most people will consume erythritol with no side effects. This is a unique characteristic, as other sugar alcohols are not absorbed directly by the body in this manner, and consequently are more prone to causing gastric distress.; erythritol, a 4-carbon molecule, passes through the intestinal membranes at a faster rate than larger molecules such as mannitol or glucose. In diabetics, erythritol also has been shown to be rapidly absorbed and excreted unchanged in the urine. Following absorption, ingested erythritol is rapidly distributed throughout the body and has been reported to occur in hepatocytes, pancreatic cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Erythritol also has been reported to cross the human placenta and to pass slowly from the plasma into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. (PMID: 9862657, Food and Chemical Toxicology (1998), 36(12), 1139-1174.)
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butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol (Click)
CAS Number: 7541-59-5Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 231-418-3
Nikkaji Web: J307.870A
XlogP3: -2.30 (est)
Molecular Weight: 122.12050000
Formula: C4 H10 O4
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: humectants
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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DG SANTE Food Additives: erythritol
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: humectants
moisturising agents
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Suppliers:
 None found
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Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: humectants
Recommendation for erythritol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for erythritol flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Sugar-free hard confectionery with at least 90% erythritol and reduction of dental plaque which reduces the risk of dental caries: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
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Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 8998
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol
Chemidplus: 0007541595
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References:
 butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid): 8998
Pubchem (sid): 135068383
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 humectants 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 found in food but not in nature
 caraway
Search Trop  Picture
 solanum lycopersicum
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Synonyms:
 butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol
 tetritol
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Articles:
PubMed: A two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production by yeast Y. lipolytica from molasses and glycerol.
PubMed: Redirection of metabolite biosynthesis from hydroxybenzoates to volatile terpenoids in green hairy roots of Daucus carota.
PubMed: Concomitant osmotic and chaotropicity-induced stresses in Aspergillus wentii: compatible solutes determine the biotic window.
PubMed: Dietary intake of sugar substitutes aggravates cerebral ischemic injury and impairs endothelial progenitor cells in mice.
PubMed: Role of FODMAPs in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
PubMed: Natural variation in monoterpene synthesis in kiwifruit: transcriptional regulation of terpene synthases by NAC and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3-like transcription factors.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of ╬▓-carotene in engineered E. coli using the MEP and MVA pathways.
PubMed: Cloning of the transketolase gene from erythritol-producing yeast Candida magnoliae.
PubMed: Optimization of medium composition for erythritol production from glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica using response surface methodology.
PubMed: Does Plasmodium falciparum have an Achilles' heel?
PubMed: [Simultaneous determination of sugar alcohols and sugars in functional foods by precolumn ultraviolet derivatization--high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed: Sweetness and other sensory properties of model fruit drinks: Does viscosity have an impact?
PubMed: Bacillus invictae sp. nov., isolated from a health product.
PubMed: Evaluation of coriander spice as a functional food by using in vitro bioassays.
PubMed: Two transaldolase isogenes from Moniliella megachiliensis behave in a different way depending on the stress class.
PubMed: A comparative study on glycerol metabolism to erythritol and citric acid in Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells.
PubMed: Erythritol, a non-nutritive sugar alcohol sweetener and the main component of truvia®, is a palatable ingested insecticide.
PubMed: Alditols and monosaccharides from sorghum vinegar can attenuate platelet aggregation by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and thromboxane-A2 synthase.
PubMed: Engineering the lactococcal mevalonate pathway for increased sesquiterpene production.
PubMed: Hypocholesterolemic activity of monascus fermented product in the absence of monacolins with partial purification for functional food applications.
PubMed: Use of just-about-right scales and penalty analysis to determine appropriate concentrations of stevia sweeteners for vanilla yogurt.
PubMed: Recognition of riboflavin and the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b by antibodies generated to the haptenic epitope D-ribitol.
PubMed: Methylerythritol and mevalonate pathway contributions to biosynthesis of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenes in glandular trichomes and leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.
PubMed: [Determination of alditols in foods by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry].
PubMed: [Case of 5 year-old boy with anaphylaxis due to erythritol with negative prick test and positive intradermal test].
PubMed: Mineral supplementation increases erythrose reductase activity in erythritol biosynthesis from glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica.
PubMed: Detection of sugar alcohol-specific IgE.
PubMed: [Simultaneous determination of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols in foods by high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection].
PubMed: [Determination of alditols in wine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after acetate derivatization].
PubMed: Enhanced production of erythritol by Yarrowia lipolytica on glycerol in repeated batch cultures.
PubMed: Selective production of two diastereomers of disaccharide sugar alcohol, mannosylerythritol by Pseudozyma yeasts.
PubMed: Microbiological Characteristics of Wild Yeast Strain Pichia anomala Y197-13 for Brewing Makgeolli.
PubMed: [Method of quantitative analysis by HPLC and confirmation by LC-MS of sugar alcohols in foods].
PubMed: Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.
PubMed: Investigation of protein expression profiles of erythritol-producing Candida magnoliae in response to glucose perturbation.
PubMed: Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic media effects on polyols.
PubMed: Beneficial effect of tagatose consumption on postprandial hyperglycemia in Koreans: a double-blind crossover designed study.
PubMed: Fructose malabsorption syndrome.
PubMed: "Bitter sweet": a child case of erythritol-induced anaphylaxis.
PubMed: Pectinatus sottacetonis sp. nov., isolated from a commercial pickle spoilage tank.
PubMed: Biotechnological and in situ food production of polyols by lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed: Inulin and erythritol as sucrose replacers in short-dough cookies: sensory, fracture, and acoustic properties.
PubMed: Overexpressing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) in the lactococcal mevalonate pathway for heterologous plant sesquiterpene production.
PubMed: Isoprenoid biosynthesis inhibition disrupts Rab5 localization and food vacuolar integrity in Plasmodium falciparum.
PubMed: Sensory characteristics and relative sweetness of tagatose and other sweeteners.
PubMed: Novel multi-sugar assay for site-specific gastrointestinal permeability analysis: a randomized controlled crossover trial.
PubMed: Production of erythritol and mannitol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast in media containing glycerol.
PubMed: Functional expression of an orchid fragrance gene in Lactococcus lactis.
PubMed: Dietary D-psicose reduced visceral fat mass in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.
PubMed: Novel analytical approach to a multi-sugar whole gut permeability assay.
PubMed: Sugar alcohol sweeteners as alternatives to sugar with special consideration of xylitol.
PubMed: Comparison of citric acid production from glycerol and glucose by different strains of Yarrowia lipolytica.
PubMed: Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.
PubMed: Biotechnological production of erythritol and its applications.
PubMed: Perspectives of engineering lactic acid bacteria for biotechnological polyol production.
PubMed: Characterization of galactosyl derivatives obtained by transgalactosylation of lactose and different polyols using immobilized beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae.
PubMed: High-yield production of erythritol from raw glycerol in fed-batch cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica.
PubMed: Analysis of erythritol in foods by polyclonal antibody-based indirect competitive ELISA.
PubMed: [Gene regulation to lactic acid bacteria for increasing production of flavor metabolite].
PubMed: Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice.
PubMed: Population dynamics and metabolite target analysis of lactic acid bacteria during laboratory fermentations of wheat and spelt sourdoughs.
PubMed: Use of the arginine-specific butanedione/phenylboronic acid tag for analysis of peptides and protein digests using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Cryptococcus anemochoreius sp. nov., a novel anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast isolated from the atmosphere in central South Africa.
PubMed: Generation of an antibody specific to erythritol, a non-immunogenic food additive.
PubMed: Variations in the energy metabolism of biotechnologically relevant heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during growth on sugars and organic acids.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in strawberry fruits and foliage: 2H labeling studies.
PubMed: Bacteriostatic activities of monoacyl sugar alcohols against thermophilic sporeformers.
PubMed: Combination of analyte protectants to overcome matrix effects in routine GC analysis of pesticide residues in food matrixes.
PubMed: Human gut microbiota does not ferment erythritol.
PubMed: Production of L-erythrose via L-erythrulose from erythritol using microbial and enzymatic reactions.
PubMed: Production of L-sorbitol from L-fructose by Aureobasidium pullulans LP23 isolated from soy sauce mash.
PubMed: Numerical and genetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading mycobacteria.
PubMed: Primary structure analysis and functional expression of erythrose reductases from erythritol-producing fungi (Trichosporonoides megachiliensis SNG-42).
PubMed: Induction of de novo volatile terpene biosynthesis via cytosolic and plastidial pathways by methyl jasmonate in foliage of Vitis vinifera L.
PubMed: Substrate utilization by Aspergillus flavus in inoculated whole corn kernels and isolated tissues.
PubMed: Proteomics and physiology of erythritol-producing strains.
PubMed: Anaphylaxis to excipient mannitol: evidence for an immunoglobulin E-mediated mechanism.
PubMed: Physical stability and moisture sorption of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols.
PubMed: Solid-state and mechanical properties of aqueous chitosan-amylose starch films plasticized with polyols.
PubMed: Polyol accumulation by Aspergillus oryzae at low water activity in solid-state fermentation.
PubMed: Antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics against selected bacteria of the Enterobaceriacae family in the presence of polyols and their galactosyl derivatives.
PubMed: Alpha-mercaptoketone formation during the maillard reaction of cysteine and [1-(13)C]ribose.
PubMed: Biogenetic studies in Syringa vulgaris L.: bioconversion of (18)O(2H)-labeled precursors into lilac aldehydes and lilac alcohols.
PubMed: Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties.
PubMed: Use of DSC to detect the heterogeneity of hydrothermal stability in the polyphenol-treated collagen matrix.
PubMed: Odorants in breast milk.
PubMed: The methylerythritol phosphate pathway and its significance as a novel drug target.
PubMed: Biosynthesis of anthecotuloide, an irregular sesquiterpene lactone from Anthemis cotula L. (Asteraceae) via a non-farnesyl diphosphate route.
PubMed: Maltosyl-erythritol, a major transglycosylation product of erythritol by Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase.
PubMed: Biogenetic studies in Syringa vulgaris L.: synthesis and bioconversion of deuterium-labeled precursors into lilac aldehydes and lilac alcohols.
PubMed: Erythritol attenuates the diabetic oxidative stress through modulating glucose metabolism and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
PubMed: Time course study of substrate utilization by Aspergillus flavus in medium simulating corn (Zea mays) kernels.
PubMed: Allergic reactions after ingestion of erythritol-containing foods and beverages.
PubMed: [New food substitute (sweetener)--erythritol].
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed: Determination of sugar alcohols in confectioneries by high-performance liquid chromatography after nitrobenzoylation.
PubMed: Influence of lipids with and without other cottonseed reserve materials on aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus.
PubMed: A case of allergic urticaria caused by erythritol.
PubMed: What clients need to know about sugar replacers.
PubMed: Erythritol: a novel noncaloric sweetener ingredient.
PubMed: Liquid chromatographic determination of sugar alcohols in beverages and foods after nitrobenzoylation.
PubMed: Enzymatic synthesis of edible surfactants from food ingredients.
PubMed: Erythritol: an interpretive summary of biochemical, metabolic, toxicological and clinical data.
PubMed: Biochemical characteristics of osmophilic yeasts isolated from pollens and honey.
PubMed: Effects of oral administration of erythritol on patients with diabetes.
PubMed: Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study of erythritol in rats.
PubMed: Two-generation reproduction study of erythritol in rats.
PubMed: Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity study with erythritol in rats.
PubMed: Subchronic oral toxicity studies with erythritol in mice and rats.
PubMed: Four-week oral toxicity study with erythritol in rats.
PubMed: Effect of polyols on heat inactivation of Aspergillus niger van Teighem inulinase.
PubMed: A novel type of meso-diaminopimelic acid-based peptidoglycan and novel poly(erythritol phosphate) teichoic acids in cell walls of two coryneform isolates from the surface flora of French cooked cheeses.
PubMed: Intramolecular esterification by lipase powder in microaqueous benzene: factors affecting activity of pure enzyme.
PubMed: Carbohydrate Storage in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana.
PubMed: [Increasing the effectiveness of the method of Staphylococcus phage-typing].
PubMed: The effect of feeding on the bile salt-independent canalicular secretion in dogs.
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