EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

butanamide, N,N'-[dithiobis[2,1-ethanediylimino(3-oxo-3,1-propanediyl)]]bis[2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-, (2R,2'R)-

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CAS Number: 16816-67-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):303-05-9
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:240-842-8
Nikkaji Web:J9.893K
Molecular Weight:554.72834000
Formula:C22 H42 N4 O8 S2
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:nutrient supplements
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Appearance:white powder or liquid (est)
Assay: 55.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
 water, 5.664e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: hair conditioning
skin conditioning - emollient
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Pantethine 95%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Pantethine, also called as Lipodel, the disulphate form of pantetheine, has shown significant hypocholesterolemic properties in man, and positive effects on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels have been described.
Glentham Life Sciences
D-Pantethine hydrate
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
D-Pantethine ≥98%
For experimental / research use only.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 > 10000 mg/kg
"Modern Pharmaceuticals of Japan, IV," Tokyo, Japan Pharmaceutical, Medical and Dental Supply Exporters' Assoc., 1972Vol. -, Pg. 98, 1972.

intravenous-rat LD50 3410 mg/kg
"Modern Pharmaceuticals of Japan, IV," Tokyo, Japan Pharmaceutical, Medical and Dental Supply Exporters' Assoc., 1972Vol. -, Pg. 98, 1972.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 4810 mg/kg
"Modern Pharmaceuticals of Japan, IV," Tokyo, Japan Pharmaceutical, Medical and Dental Supply Exporters' Assoc., 1972Vol. -, Pg. 98, 1972.

oral-mouse LD50 > 10000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 598, 1982.

intravenous-mouse LD50 3400 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 598, 1982.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 4800 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 598, 1982.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-rat LD50 > 4870 mg/kg
"Modern Pharmaceuticals of Japan, IV," Tokyo, Japan Pharmaceutical, Medical and Dental Supply Exporters' Assoc., 1972Vol. -, Pg. 98, 1972.

subcutaneous-mouse LD50 4870 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 598, 1982.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
nutrient supplements
Recommendation for pantethine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for pantethine flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Pantethine as source for pantothenic acid added as a nutritional substance in food supplements - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :452306
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
RTECS:ES4392700 for cas# 16816-67-4
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):452306
Pubchem (sid):134993304
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
KEGG (GenomeNet):C12661
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB03828
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 butanamide, N,N'-[dithiobis[2,1-ethanediylimino(3-oxo-3,1-propanediyl)]]bis[2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-, (2R,2'R)-
 butyramide, N,N'-(dithiobis(ethyleneiminocarbonylethylene))bis(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-, D-(+)-
 butyramide, N,N'-(dithiobis(ethyleneiminocarbonylethylene))bis(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-,D-(+)-
(R-(R*,R*))-N,N'-(dithiobis(ethyleneimino(3-oxopropane-3,1-diyl))) bis(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl butyramide)
bis(pantothenamidoethyl) disulfide
D-bis(N-pantothenyl-beta-aminoethyl) disulfide
bis(N-pantothenylamidoethyl) disulfide


PubMed:Pantethine prevents murine systemic sclerosis in the mouse through the inhibition of microparticle shedding.
PubMed:Pantethine Alters Lipid Composition and Cholesterol Content of Membrane Rafts, With Down-Regulation of CXCL12-Induced T Cell Migration.
PubMed:Targeting Microparticle Biogenesis: A Novel Approach to the Circumvention of Cancer Multidrug Resistance.
PubMed:[Deceleration of cataract development in rats under the action of N-acetylcarnosine and D-pantethine mixture].
PubMed:The STM4195 Gene Product (PanS) Transports Coenzyme A Precursors in Salmonella enterica.
PubMed:Specific antioxidant compounds differentially modulate cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin and cisplatin: in vitro and in vivo study.
PubMed:Development and validation of a stability-indicating LC-UV method for the determination of pantethine and its degradation product based on a forced degradation study.
PubMed:Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation.
PubMed:The synthesis of minds and molecules leads to potential therapy for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
PubMed:Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model.
PubMed:Integrated electroosmotic perfusion of tissue with online microfluidic analysis to track the metabolism of cystamine, pantethine, and coenzyme A.
PubMed:D-pantethine has vitamin activity equivalent to d-pantothenic acids for recovering from a deficiency of D-pantothenic acid in rats.
PubMed:Metabolic perturbation of an essential pathway: evaluation of a glycine precursor of coenzyme A.
PubMed:Self-assembly of protein aggregates in ageing disorders: the lens and cataract model.
PubMed:Nutraceutical strategies for ameliorating the toxic effects of alcohol.
PubMed:Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
PubMed:The role of nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of dyslipidemia.
PubMed:Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration.
PubMed:Comparison of the effects of pantethine and fursultiamine on plasma gastrointestinal peptide levels in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B(5) used as a nutritional supplement, favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in low- to moderate-cardiovascular risk North American subjects: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation.
PubMed:Pantethine rescues phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase and phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase deficiency in Escherichia coli but not in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Orally active multi-functional antioxidants delay cataract formation in streptozotocin (type 1) diabetic and gamma-irradiated rats.
PubMed:Synthesis of 4'-aminopantetheine and derivatives to probe aminoglycoside N-6'-acetyltransferase.
PubMed:Pantethine. Monograph.
PubMed:New concept in nutrition for the maintenance of the aging eye redox regulation and therapeutic treatment of cataract disease; synergism of natural antioxidant imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds, chaperone, and glutathione boosting agents: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans.
PubMed:Enhancement of L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and circulating ketone body levels by pantethine. Relevance to dopaminergic injury.
PubMed:Pantethine rescues a Drosophila model for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
PubMed:Cysteamine, the natural metabolite of pantetheinase, shows specific activity against Plasmodium.
PubMed:Pharmaceutical interventions facilitate premedication and prevent opioid-induced constipation and emesis in cancer patients.
PubMed:Current medical aspects of pantethine.
PubMed:Topical apolipoprotein A-1 may have a beneficial effect on the corneal epithelium in a mouse model of dry eye: a pilot study.
PubMed:Protection against cerebral malaria by the low-molecular-weight thiol pantethine.
PubMed:Combined pantethine and probucol therapy for Japanese patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
PubMed:Cysteamine-related agents could be potential antidepressants through increasing central BDNF levels.
PubMed:Dietary and nutraceutical options for managing the hypertriglyceridemic patient.
PubMed:An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment.
PubMed:Hypolipidemic effect of pantothenic acid derivatives in mice with hypothalamic obesity induced by aurothioglucose.
PubMed:Hepatothermic therapy of obesity: rationale and an inventory of resources.
PubMed:Can drugs or micronutrients prevent cataract?
PubMed:The effects of pantethine on fatty liver and fat distribution.
PubMed:Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cystamine may mediate the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine.
PubMed:Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma.
PubMed:The effect of pantethine and ultraviolet-B radiation on the development of lenticular opacity in the emory mouse.
PubMed:Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress.
PubMed:Pantethine stimulates lipolysis in adipose tissue and inhibits cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in liver and intestinal mucosa in the normolipidemic rat.
PubMed:Physiological and performance responses to supplementation with thiamin and pantothenic acid derivatives.
PubMed:Coenzyme A disulfide reductase, the primary low molecular weight disulfide reductase from Staphylococcus aureus. Purification and characterization of the native enzyme.
PubMed:Loss of cytoskeletal proteins and lens cell opacification in the selenite cataract model.
PubMed:Reduction of pantethine in rabbit ocular lens homogenate.
PubMed:Modulation of the chaperone-like activity of bovine alpha-crystallin.
PubMed:Pantethine inhibits the formation of high-Tc protein aggregates in gamma B crystallin solutions.
PubMed:Effects of antihyperlipidemic drugs and diet plus exercise therapy in the treatment of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia.
PubMed:Protective effect of pantothenic acid and related compounds against permeabilization of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells by digitonin.
PubMed:Delay or inhibition of rat lens opacification using pantethine and WR-77913.
PubMed:Effect of selected anti-cataract agents on opacification in the selenite cataract model.
PubMed:Pantothenic acid and its derivatives protect Ehrlich ascites tumor cells against lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Inhibition of lens opacification during the early stages of cataract formation.
PubMed:A kinetic study on pantetheinase inhibition by disulfides.
PubMed:[Possible ways of regulating detoxifying processes in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction with pantothenic acid derivatives].
PubMed:Effects of pantethine on lipogenesis and CO2 production in the isolated hepatocytes of the chick (Gallus domesticus).
PubMed:[Study of pantothenic acid derivatives as cardiac protectors in a model of experimental ischemia and reperfusion of the isolated heart].
PubMed:[Comparison of the efficacy of pantethine, acipimox, and bezafibrate on plasma lipids and index of cardiovascular risk in diabetics with dyslipidemia].
PubMed:[Regulation of superoxide dismutase activity during deep hypothermia by simultaneous administration of water and lipid soluble antioxidants].
PubMed:[Effects of pantethine on metabolism in myocardial mitochondria under the conditions of deep hypothermia].
PubMed:Effects of dietary pantethine levels on contents of fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver of rats orally administered varying amounts of autoxidized linoleate.
PubMed:[Effect of pantethine on post-heparin lipolytic activity and lipid peroxidation in the myocardium].
PubMed:Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance.
PubMed:Pharmacologic and surgical treatment of dyslipidemic children and adolescents.
PubMed:[Purification and various properties of pantothenate kinase from the rat liver].
PubMed:[Evaluation of the cholesterol-lowering effectiveness of pantethine in women in perimenopausal age].
PubMed:Comparative studies of intracerebroventricularly administered cysteamine and pantethine in different behavioral tests and on brain catecholamines in rats.
PubMed:The depletion of plasma prolactin by pantethine in oestrogen-primed hyperprolactinaemic rats.
PubMed:Protection by pantethine, pantothenic acid and cystamine against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat.
PubMed:Changes in oxytocin and vasopressin content in posterior pituitary and hypothalamus following pantethine treatment.
PubMed:Preclinical and clinical studies with cysteamine and pantethine related to the central nervous system.
PubMed:Dose- and time-response effects of pantethine on open-field behavior, and on central neurotransmission in rats.
PubMed:[A double-blind clinical trial--the effects of pantethine on serum lipids in patients with hyperlipidemia].
PubMed:Effects of dietary pantethine levels on drug-metabolizing system in the liver of rats orally administered varying amounts of autoxidized linoleate.
PubMed:Effects of pantethine, cysteamine and pantothenic acid on open-field behavior and brain catecholamines in rats.
PubMed:Pantethine, a somatostatin depleting agent, increases food intake in rats.
PubMed:Investigation of the roles of the substances in serum lipids and their constitutive fatty acids in chronic urticaria.
PubMed:Cysteamine and pantethine effects on passive avoidance behavior, shuttle box learning, open-field activity, striatal catecholamines and somatostatin.
PubMed:[Pantethine, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Clinical study of 1045 patients].
PubMed:Effects of cysteamine and pantethine on open-field behavior, hypothalamic catecholamine concentrations, and somatostatin-induced barrel rotation in rats.
PubMed:Modulation of HMG-CoA reductase activity by pantetheine/pantethine.
PubMed:[The protective effect of pantothenic acid derivatives and changes in the system of acetyl CoA metabolism in acute ethanol poisoning].
PubMed:Pantethine lipomodulation: evidence for cysteamine mediation in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:[Coa biosynthesis and the structure of its reserve in the liver in mice with diabetes (db/db) after administration of pantothenic acid derivatives].
PubMed:[Metabolism of pantothenic acid and its derivatives in animals deficient in this enzyme].
PubMed:[Thrombocytopenic purpura during treatment with pantethine].
PubMed:[Therapeutic efficacy of pantothenic acid preparations in ischemic heart disease patients].
PubMed:Effect of oral treatment with pantethine on platelet and plasma phospholipids in IIa hyperlipoproteinemia.
PubMed:[Various hormonal parameters (ACTH, cortisol, somatotropic hormone and prolactin) following administration of a single high dose of pantethine in healthy subjects].
PubMed:Effects of pantethine supplementation to diets with different energy cereals on hepatic lipogenesis of laying hens.
PubMed:Pantethine inhibits cholesterol and fatty acid syntheses and stimulates carbon dioxide formation in isolated rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:[Atherosclerosis and prostaglandins: new biochemical frontiers of a more rational therapy].
PubMed:[Clinical use of pantethine by parenteral route in the treatment of hyperlipidemia].
PubMed:Lowering effect of pantethine on plasma beta-thromboglobulin and lipids in diabetes mellitus.
PubMed:Lipoprotein changes induced by pantethine in hyperlipoproteinemic patients: adults and children.
PubMed:[Cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions during intensified biosynthesis of coenzyme A in hepatocytes].
PubMed:[Studies on percutaneous absorption of pantethine in guinea pigs].
PubMed:Effect of probucol, pantethine and their combinations on serum lipoprotein metabolism and on the incidence of atheromatous lesions in the rabbit.
PubMed:Effects of pantethine on cholesterol synthesis from mevalonate in isolated rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:[Effects of pantethine on blood lipids].
PubMed:Pantethine improves the lipid abnormalities of chronic hemodialysis patients: results of a multicenter clinical trial.
PubMed:Enzymatic hydrolysis of pantetheine.
PubMed:Activation and inhibition of yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by pantethine and its metabolites.
PubMed:Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia.
PubMed:[Clinico-therapeutic importance of pantethine against seborrheic states of the scalp].
PubMed:[Use of pantethine in dyslipidemia of chronic uremic patients under dialysis treatment].
PubMed:[Therapeutic use of a combination containing calcium, vitamins, pantethine and carnitine in convalescence states in childhood].
PubMed:Effects of pantethine on in-vitro peroxidation of low density lipoproteins.
PubMed:Metabolism of pantethine in cystinosis.
PubMed:Pantethine, a cysteamine precursor, depletes immunoreactive somatostatin and prolactin in the rat.
PubMed:[Adrenal cortex functional activity in pantothenate deficiency and the administration of the vitamin or its derivatives].
PubMed:[Effects of D(+)-bis-(N-pantothenyl-amidoethyl)-disulphur on the blood lipid profile and apoproteins A and B levels].
PubMed:[Effect of pantethine therapy in chronic uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia].
PubMed:Lowering of blood acetaldehyde but not ethanol concentrations by pantethine following alcohol ingestion: different effects in flushing and nonflushing subjects.
PubMed:Effects of pantethine on action potential of canine papillary muscle during hypoxic perfusion.
PubMed:Pantetheine and pantethine esters with hypolipidemic nicotinic acid derivatives.
PubMed:Macrophage activation with pantethine and pantetheine-4'-phosphate.
PubMed:Therapy of cystinosis.
PubMed:Changes in fatty acid composition of the single platelet phospholipids induced by pantethine treatment.
PubMed:The effects of pantethine on lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in survivors of cerebral infarction.
PubMed:Pantethine versus fenofibrate in the treatment of type II hyperlipoproteinemia.
PubMed:Pharmacological study of a new hypolipidemic drug of prolonged activity, the tetraester of pantethine with 3-(3-pyridinemethoxycarbonyl)propionic acid.
PubMed:[Effect of oral pantethine administration on blood acetaldehyde levels following alcohol ingestion].
PubMed:Pantethine reduces plasma cholesterol and the severity of arterial lesions in experimental hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
PubMed:[Treatment of chronic hepatopathies with phosphorylcholine and pantethine].
PubMed:Pantethine and cystamine deplete cystine from cystinotic fibroblasts via efflux of cysteamine-cysteine mixed disulfide.
PubMed:[Changes in the content of the thiol form of the acetylation coenzyme in the liver during administration of vitamin B3-active compounds to intact and locally irradiated animals].
PubMed:Effect of pantethine on post-heparin plasma lipolytic activities and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase in rats.
PubMed:Renal cell culture using autopsy material from children with cystinosis.
PubMed:Pantethine and pantothenate effect on the CoA content of rat liver.
PubMed:Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia.
PubMed:[Hyperlipidemia, diabetes and atherosclerosis: efficacy of treatment with pantethine].
PubMed:Positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effect of pantethine on isolated cardiac muscle of guinea-pigs.
PubMed:Effect of pantethine on fatty acid oxidation in microvessels of rat brain.
PubMed:Effects of pantethine and its metabolites on fatty acid oxidation in rat liver mitochondria.
PubMed:Coenzyme A in dog kidneys during hypothermic perfusion.
PubMed:Pantethine depletes cystinotic fibroblasts of cystine.
PubMed:[Clinical study of the lipotropic activity of the preparation Fosfolip].
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a Bacillus megaterium disulfide reductase specific for disulfides containing pantethine 4',4"-diphosphate.
PubMed:Effect of pantethine on the biosynthesis of cholesterol in human skin fibroblasts.
PubMed:Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity by protein thiol-disulfide exchange.
PubMed:Reduction of beta-oxidation capacity of rat liver mitochondria by feeding orotic acid.
PubMed:Effects of pantethine on different models of experimental hyperlipidemia in rodents: a comparison with clofibrate.
PubMed:Effect of pantethine on myocardial pH reduced by partial occlusion of the coronary artery in dogs with special reference to the myocardial levels of adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate, and lactate.
PubMed:Effect of pantethine on lipoprotein profiles and HDL subfractions in experimentally hypercholesterolemic rabbits.
PubMed:Evidence that the coenzyme A requirement for avian fatty acid synthase is not for the termination reaction.
PubMed:Studies in search of modifiers of the toxicity of mercurials and speculations on its biochemical mechanism.
PubMed:[Relationship between ADCC effector cells and the combination therapy of pantethine and lecithin--a proposal for management of patients with HBsAg carrier state (author's transl)].
PubMed:Effects of some hypolipidemic drugs on biochemical values and on hepatic peroxisomal enzymes of normolipemic rat.
PubMed:[Effects of soysterol, pantethine and dl-alpha-tocopheryl nicotinate on hyperlipemia in rats (author's transl)].
PubMed:The effect of pantethine, a precursor of coenzyme A, on bile acids and lipids in rats fed with a cholesterol diet.
PubMed:Reversible inactivation of guanylate cyclase by mixed disulfide formation.
PubMed:Influence of pantethine on platelet volume, microviscosity, lipid composition and functions in diabetes mellitus with hyperlipidemia.
PubMed:[Participation of cyclic nucleotides in the mechanism of regulation of the tissue pool of coenzyme A and the acetylizing capacity of rats].
PubMed:[Effect of pantethine on the lipoprotein abnormalities in survivors of cerebral infarction (author's transl)].
PubMed:Effect of pantethine on cholesterol ester metabolism in rat arterial wall.
PubMed:[Study of enhancement of LCAT activity (author's transl)].
PubMed:[Effect of pyridoxal phosphate and pantothenate derivatives on gamma-aminobutyric shunt in the brain of mice].
PubMed:Identification of an NADH-linked disulfide reductase from Bacillus megaterium specific for disulfides containing pantethine 4',4''-diphosphate moieties.
PubMed:[Studies on the prevention of side-effects by antituberculous drugs with special reference to effectiveness of pantethine (author's transl)].
PubMed:[Effects of caerulein on intestinal motility (author's transl)].
PubMed:Biosynthesis of sphingomyelin in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.
PubMed:Protective effect of pantethine on experimental thrombocytopenia in the rat.
PubMed:[Medical treatment of male infertility. IV. Effect of pantethine on the seminal fluid in infertile patients].
PubMed:[Male adnexal organ secretion and enzymes. VI. Effects of pantethine on the enzyme level of seminal fluid in infertile patients].
PubMed:13C NMR or coenzyme A and its constituent moieties.
PubMed:Nutritional features of the intestinal anaerobe Ruminococcus bromii.
PubMed:[Action of pantethine on the adrenal cortex of hypophysectomized rats].
PubMed:Studies on the metabolites in urine and feces of rat after oral administration of radioactive pantethine.
PubMed:[Biological studies of pantethine. 10. Effects of anesthetics on gastrointestinal-motility promoting effect of pantethine].
PubMed:[Effects of pantethine on proliferation of intestinal bifidus bacteria in bottle-fed infants].
PubMed:The enzymatic breakdown of pantethine to pantothenic acid and cystamine.
PubMed:[Effect of pantethine on the function of the adrenal cortex. 2. Clinical experience using pantethine in cases under steroid hormone treatment].
PubMed:[Biological studies of pantethine. 8. Effects of pantethine on estrous cycle and pregnancy in mice].
PubMed:[The influence of pantethine (PTSS), a derivative of pantothenic acid on experimentally injured liver in rabbits].
PubMed:[Effect of pantethine on the adrenocortical function. 1. Experimental results using rabbits].
PubMed:[Effects of pantethine on the reserve function of the adrenal cortex in nephrosis syndrome].
PubMed:Studies on the microbiological determination of pantethine. II. An improved basal medium for microbiological assay with Lactobacillus bulgaricus B-1 strain.
PubMed:Studies on the microbiological determination of pantethine. I. Nutritional requirements of Lactobacillus bulgaricus B-1 strain.
PubMed:A new method for the determination of enzymatic pantethine--splitting activity.
PubMed:[Metabolism of drugs. LXVI. Studies on the metabolic fate of pantethine].
PubMed:Kipid metabolism in the rats with fatty liver caused by low protein diet and effects of the oral administration of L-methionine, L-cysteine, pantethine and calcium pantothenate upon it.
PubMed:[Biological studies of pantethine. 7. Influence on the reproductive efficiency of mice].
PubMed:Investigations on pantothenic acid and its related compounds. XIV. Biochemical studies. (8). Effect of pantethine analogs on Lactobacillus bulgaricus B1.
PubMed:Investigations on pantothenic acid and its related compounds. 13. Chemical studies. (6). Syntheses of homopantethine and some other pantethine analogs.
PubMed:Action of SH-containing compounds and of plasma from pantethine treated rabbits on platelet counts in irradiated rats.
PubMed:Urinary excretion of pantothenic acid and pantethine in human subjects.
PubMed:Action of plasma from pantethine treated donors on platelet counts and hemorragic diathesis in thrombocytopenia.
PubMed:Experimental studies on liver coenzyme A. 3. Effects of coenzyme A and pantethine upon liver coenzyme A and pantothenic acid contents of rats fed a pantothenic acid-deficient diet, or treated with carbon tetrachloride.
PubMed:Investigations on pantothenic acid and its related compounds. II. Biochemical studies. (1). Biosynthesis of coenzyme A from pantothenate, pantethine and from S-benzoylpantetheine in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Investigations on pantothenic acid and its related compounds. I. Chemical studies. (1). A novel synthesis of pantethine.
PubMed:[Enzymatic hydrolysis of pantethine].
PubMed:The reduction of pantethine by an extract of camel intestine.
PubMed:[Histochemical aspects of the rat lung after treatment with prednisone and prednisone-pantethine].
PubMed:[Inhibition by pantethine of pulmonary hemorrhagic manifestations caused by prednisone. Experimental research in the rat].
PubMed:[In vitro effect of pantethine on the secretion of 21-C-corticosteroids by the ox adrenal].
PubMed:[Determination of pantethine in the presence of pantothenic acid].
PubMed:Propionic acid metabolism. II. Enzymatic synthesis of lactyl pantethine.
PubMed:[The action of pantethine on the take of the homoplastic bone grafts].
PubMed:[Lipotropic & liver protective effect of pantethine in experimental liver diseases induced by Handler diet & carbon tetrachloride].
PubMed:[Effect of pantethine on Co60 distribution].
PubMed:[Effect of pantethine, vitamin B12 and ATP as growth factors on heart fibroblasts of chick embryo].
PubMed:[Initial clinical experiments with pantethine].
PubMed:Phosphorylation of pantothenic acid and pantethine by an enzyme from Proteus morganii.
PubMed:Pantethine and casein hydrolyzate in the growth of certain lactobacilli.
PubMed:[Effect of pantothenic acid, pantethine and phosphorylated pantethine on carotene formation in Mucor hiemalis].
PubMed:Pantethine and related forms of the Lactobacillus bulgaricus factor (LBF).
PubMed:The relationship of pantethine to naturally occurring forms of the Lactobacillus bulgaricus factor.
PubMed:PANTETHINE, pantothenic acid and the Lactobacillus bulgaricus factor.
PubMed:I. Activity of LBF (pantethine) in acetylation of sulfanilamide by pigeon liver extract.
PubMed:The comparative activities of pantethine, pantothenic acid, and coenzyme A for various microorganisms.
Pantethine (Bis-pantethine) or "Co-enzyme pantethine" is a dimeric form of vitamin B5, composed of two molecules of pantothenic acid linked by cysteamine bridging groups. The monomer of this compound is known as pantetheine and is an intermediate in the production of Coenzyme A by the body. Pantethine is considered the more biologically active form of vitamin B5, but is less stable than pantothenic acid and tends to decompose over time if it is not kept refrigerated, so most vitamin B5 supplements are in the form of calcium pantothenate. [HMDB]
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