EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

malic acid
DL-malic acid

Supplier Sponsors

Name:2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
CAS Number: 6915-15-7Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:617-48-1
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:230-022-8
FDA UNII:817L1N4CKP
Nikkaji Web:J3.091K
Beilstein Number:1723539
MDL:MFCD00064212
CoE Number:17
XlogP3:-1.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:134.08782000
Formula:C4 H6 O5
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
184.1069 Malic acid (DL-malic acid) View - review
EU SANCO Malic acid View - review
JECFA Food Additive: DL-Malic Acid
GSFA Codex: Malic acid, DL- (296)
FLAVIS Number:08.017 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:08.017 DL-malic acid
DG SANTE Food Additives:DL-malic acid
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:DL-malic acid
FDA Mainterm (SATF):617-48-1 ; MALIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1069 Malic acid.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 99.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 131.00 to 135.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 306.00 to 307.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.000071 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Vapor Density:4.6 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 308.00 °F. TCC ( 153.33 °C. )
logP (o/w): -1.370 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1000000 mg/L @ 20 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Flavor Type: acidic
acidic
Taste Description: strong acidic
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
A.M.G.L.T.
DL-Malic Acid
American International Chemical, LLC.
MALIC ACID FCC
Anhui Haibei
DL-Malic Acid
Atlantic Chemicals
Malic Acid
Augustus Oils
Malic Acid
Services
Bartek Ingredients
MALIC ACID
Flavor: sour
The pleasant, refreshing experience of biting into a juicy apple or cherry is partly caused by Malic acid. Discover Malic acid's mellow, smooth, persistent sourness which allows it to be blended with multiple food acids, sugars, high intensity sweeteners, flavours, and seasonings to create unique taste experiences in foods, beverages and confections.
BBFY Industrial
DL-Malic Acid
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Malic Acid
Covalent Chemical
DL-Malic Acid
ECSA Chemicals
Malic Acid
Company Profile
Farbest-Tallman Foods
Malic Acid Solution
Foodchem International
DL-Malic Acid
Graham Chemical
Malic Acid
Indenta Group
Malic Acid
Kraft Chemical
Malic Acid
Mission flavors & fragrances
Malic Acid Solution
Northwestern Extract
Malic Acid FCC
Penta International
DL-MALIC ACID FCC
Penta International
DL-MALIC ACID NF GRADE
Penta International
DL-MALIC ACID
Penta International
L-MALIC ACID NF NATURAL IN ETOH DILUTION
Prinova
Malic Acid
Qingdao Dacon Trading
DL-Malic Acid
Rung International
Malic Acid
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Malic acid, ≥99%
Certified Food Grade Products
Silver Fern Chemical
Malic Acid
Odor: characteristic
Use: Malic acid is commonly used as a food additive, particularly for flavoring. It is also used in the manufacture of esters and salts, wine, paints, textiles, and in water treatments.
Tate & Lyle
Malic Acid
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
DL-Malic Acid >99.0%(T)
United International
DL-Malic acid
Wedor Corporation
MALIC ACID
Zhong Ya Chemical
Malic Acid
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
R 22 - Harmful if swallowed.
R 37/38 - Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R 41 - Risk of serious damage to eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 3500 mg/kg
(Morgareidge, 1973a)

oral-mouse LD50 2660 mg/kg
(Morgareidge, 1973b)

oral-rabbit LD50 3000 mg/kg
(Morgareidge, 1973c)

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 50 mg/kg
"Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology," 3rd rev. ed., Clayton, G.D., and F.E. Clayton, eds., New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978-82. Vol. 3 originally pub. in 1979; pub. as 2n rev. ed. in 1985.Vol. 2C, Pg. 4937, 1982.

oral-mouse LD50 1600 mg/kg
Kodak Company Reports. Vol. #82-0458

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 100 mg/kg
"Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology," 3rd rev. ed., Clayton, G.D., and F.E. Clayton, eds., New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978-82. Vol. 3 originally pub. in 1979; pub. as 2n rev. ed. in 1985.Vol. 2C, Pg. 4937, 1982.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: flavoring agents and adjuvants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers
Recommendation for malic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 13000.00 (μg/capita/day)
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

22nd list of substances for food contact materials
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 92 (FGE.92): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc Malate added for nutritional purposes to food supplements as sources for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc and to Calcium Malate added for nutritional purposes to foods for particular nutritional uses and foods intended for the general population as source for Calcium
View page or View pdf

Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):6915-15-7
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :525
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
Chemidplus:0006915157
RTECS:ON7175000 for cas# 6915-15-7
 
References:
 2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:6915-15-7
Pubchem (cid):525
Pubchem (sid):134987363
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00711
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00744
FooDB:FDB012047
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Haz-Map:View
Household Products:Search
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
FAO:DL-MALIC ACID
Formulations/Preparations:
•uva ursi, this is volatile oil containing a glucoside, arbutin, tannin, & gallic & malic acids. •grades: technical, active and inactive; fcc. the natural material is levorotatory, but the synthetic material is optically inactive •food grade: powder, fine granular, and granular •granules and powder grades
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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 apricot fruit
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 banana fruit
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 bean fava bean fruit
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 bilberry leaf
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 borage leaf
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli plant
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 brussel sprout leaf
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 buckthorn sea buckthorn fruit
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 buckwheat leaf
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 cabbage leaf
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 carrot root
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 celery root
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 celery shoot
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 chamomile sweet false chamomile plant
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 cherry sour cherry fruit juice
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 chicory plant
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 chive leaf
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 coconut seed
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 corn silk
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 cranberry fruit
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 currant red currant fruit
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 elder black elder fruit
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 fennel seed
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 fig fruit
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 fig fruit juice
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 fig leaf
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 flax seed
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 ginkgo biloba pollen
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 gooseberry fruit
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 grape fruit
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 grape plant
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 kohlrabi stem
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 lettuce leaf
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 lime fruit
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 loquat leaf
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 oat hull husk
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 onion bulb
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 onion leaf
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 papaya latex
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 parsley root
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 passion fruit fruit
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 pea seed
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 pear fruit
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 pineapple fruit
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 plum fruit
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 pomegranate fruit
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 pomegranate fruit juice
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 poppy opium poppy latex
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 potato tuber
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 purslane plant
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 quince seed
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 raspberry red raspberry fruit
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 rhubarb plant
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 rose hips fruit
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 roselle flower
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 roselle leaf
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 roselle stem
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 rue leaf
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 sage plant
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 soursop plant
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 soybean seed
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 spinach leaf
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 star fruit fruit
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 sunflower leaf
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 tamarind fruit
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 tamarind leaf
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 tea leaf
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 tomatillo fruit
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 tomato fruit
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 walnut english walnut fruit
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Synonyms:
 butanedioic acid, 2-hydroxy-
 deoxytetraric acid
(±)-1-hydroxy-1,2-ethane dicarboxylic acid
(±)-1-hydroxy-1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid
2-hydroxy-succinic acid
monohydroxybernsteinsaeure
 hydroxybutandisaeure
 hydroxybutane dioic acid
2-hydroxybutanedioic acid
DL-hydroxybutanedioic acid
2-hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid
 hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-hydroxysuccinic acid
2-hydroxysuccinic acid
alpha-hydroxysuccinic acid
(±)-malic acid
dextro,laevo-malic acid
DL-malic acid
R,S-malic acid
R,S(±)-malic acid
 malic acid DL
 malic acid FCC
 malic acid FCC fine granular
 malic acid FCC powder
 malic acid solution
 malic acid, (DL)
 musashi-no-ringosan
 pomalus acid
 

Articles:

PubMed:A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.
J-Stage:Properties of a High Malic Acid-Producing Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Sake Mash
PubMed:The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.
PubMed:Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of several peach cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in Spain.
PubMed:Metabolome of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) and related species under Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) infection.
PubMed:A natural mutation-led truncation in one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter-like genes at the Ma locus is associated with low fruit acidity in apple.
PubMed:Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).
PubMed:A comparative study of an intensive malolactic transformation of cider using Lactobacillus brevis and Oenococcus oeni in a membrane bioreactor.
PubMed:The effect of bacterial strain and aging on the secondary volatile metabolites produced during malolactic fermentation of tannat red wine.
PubMed:Interaction of volatiles, sugars, and acids on perception of tomato aroma and flavor descriptors.
PubMed:The sensory interactions of organic acids and various flavors in ramen soup systems.
PubMed:Enological characterization of natural hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii.
PubMed:Impact of suppression of ethylene action or biosynthesis on flavor metabolites in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruits.
PubMed:Changes in physicochemical characteristics and volatile constituents of strawberry (Cv. Cigaline) during maturation.
PubMed:Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). 1. Compositional characteristics.
PubMed:The effect of SO2 on the production of ethanol, acetaldehyde, organic acids, and flavor volatiles during industrial cider fermentation.
PubMed:Effect of beta-glycosidase activity of Oenococcus oeni on the glycosylated flavor precursors of Tannat wine during malolactic fermentation.
PubMed:Consumer acceptance of raw apples treated with an antibacterial solution designed for home use.
PubMed:Physicochemical Characteristics of Selected Sweet Cherry Cultivars.
PubMed:Acetaldehyde metabolism by wine lactic acid bacteria.
PubMed:Control of flavor development in wine during and after malolactic fermentation by Oenococcus oeni.
PubMed:Preference of Old World monkeys for amino acids and other gustatory stimuli: the influence of monosodium glutamate.
 
Notes:
Mainly used as an acidifier in a wide range of food, such as fruit drinks, jams, sweet and sour sauces, boiled sweets, chewing gum. Occasionally used as a metal ion chelator in wine or in hard water. Flavour enhancer Malic acid is the active ingredient in many sour or tart foods. Malic acid is found mostly in unripe fruits. Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. (Wikipedia) Acidulant, antioxidant, flavouring agent, flavour enhancer. Not for use in baby foods (GRAS)
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