laevo-cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous
L-cystein hydrochloride
 
Notes:
a thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form cystine. Dietary supplement, nutrient. Dough conditioner Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C) is an ?-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it is biosynthesized in humans. Its codons are UGU and UGC. The side chain on cysteine is thiol, which is nonpolar and thus cysteine is usually classified as a hydrophobic amino acid. The thiol side chain often participates in enzymatic reactions, serving as a nucleophile. The thiol is susceptible to oxidization to give the disulfide derivative cystine, which serves an important structural role in many proteins. Cysteine is named after cystine.; Cysteine is a very popular target for site-directed labeling experiments to investigate biomolecular structure and dynamics. Maleimides will selectively attach to cysteine using a covalent Michael addition. Site-directed spin labeling for EPR or paramagnetic relaxation enhanced NMR also uses cysteine extensively.; Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron-sulfur clusters and in nitrogenase is extracted from cysteine, which is converted to alanine in the process.; Cysteine is required by sheep in order to produce wool: it is an essential amino acid which must be taken in as food from grass. As a consequence, during drought conditions, sheep stop producing wool; however, transgenic sheep which can make their own cysteine have been developed.[citation needed]; Cysteine, mainly the L-enantiomer, is a precursor in the food, pharmaceutical, and personal care industries. One of the largest applications is the production of flavors. For example, the reaction of cysteine with sugars in a Maillard reaction yields meat flavors. L-cysteine is also used as a processing aid for baking. Small quantities (in the tens of ppm range) help to soften the dough and thus reduce processing time. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/foodic.html; High levels of Cysteine, due to its reducing capacity, have been shown to inactivate insulin under certain conditions. This is because insulin contains three disulfide bonds, one of which can be reduced by cysteine. If this happens, insulin looses its characteristic structure and thus looses functionality. During a hypoglycemia attack (where there is too much insulin in the blood causing an unsafe drop in blood sugar) Cysteine can be used to inactivate insulin, allowing blood sugar levels to normalize. In some cases, the use of Thiamine, vitamin C, and Cysteine have been successful in treating severe cases of hypoglycemia. Additionally, due to its interaction with insulin, diabetics should avoid supplements or medications that contain cysteine or have the potential to increase cysteine levels.; In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, cysteine is one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. Like most cigarette additives, however, its use or purpose is unknown. Its inclusion in cigarettes could offer two benefits: Acting as an expectorant, since smoking increases mucus production in the lungs; and increasing the beneficial antioxidant glutathione (which is diminished in smokers).; N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a derivative of cysteine wherein an acetyl group is attached to the nitrogen atom. This compound is sometimes considered as a dietary supplement, although it is not an ideal source since it is catabolized in the gut.[citation needed] NAC is often used as a cough medicine because it breaks up the disulfide bonds in the mucus and thus liquefies it, making it easier to cough up. It is also this action of breaking disulfide bonds that makes it useful in thinning the abnormally thick mucus in Cystic Fibrosis patients. NAC is also used as a specific antidote in cases of acetaminophen overdose.; Oxidation of cysteine produces the disulfide cystine. More aggressive oxidants convert cysteine to the corresponding sulfinic acid and sulfonic acid. Cysteine residues play a valuable role by crosslinking proteins, which increases the protein stability in the harsh extracellular environment, and also functions to confer proteolytic resistance (since protein export is a costly process, minimizing its necessity is advantageous). Inside the cell, disulfide bridges between cysteine residues within a polypeptide support the protein's secondary structure. Insulin is an example of a protein with cystine crosslinking, wherein two separate peptide chains are connected by a pair of disulfide bonds.
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(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid hydrochloride (Click)
CAS Number: 52-89-1Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-157-7
FDA UNII: A9U1687S1S
Beilstein Number: 3560277
MDL: MFCD00064553
CoE Number: 11746
Molecular Weight: 157.61916000
Formula: C3 H8 N O2 S Cl
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Flavis Number: 17.032 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 17.032  L-cystein hydrochloride
FDA Mainterm: L-CYSTEINE MONOHYDROCHLORIDE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 184 -- DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1272 L-Cysteine monohydrochloride.
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 290.00 to  293.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.000411 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 268.00 °F. TCC ( 131.11 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.235 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1.132e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Strength: none
 
Odor Description:
odorless
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
hair conditioning
hair straightening agents
hair waving agents
reducing agents
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Suppliers:
AIDP
L-Cysteine HCl Anhydrous 98% min
Ajinomoto USA
L-Cysteine Hydrochloride Anhydrous
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
L-Cysteine Hydrochloride Anhydrous 98%
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
L-Cysteine, Hydrochloride
Foodchem International
L-Cysteine Hydrochloride Anhydrous
George Uhe Company
L-Cysteine Hydrochloride
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous
Pangaea Sciences
Cysteine HCl USP
Penta International
L-CYSTEINE HCL ANHYDROUS NATURAL KOSHER AND HALAL
Penta International
L-CYSTEINE HYDROCHLORIDE, ANHYDROUS NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
L-CYSTEINE HYDROCHLORIDE, ANHYDROUS, Kosher
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Cysteine hydrochloride FG, produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, Food
Certified Food Grade Products
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate 99%, FG, produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate FG, produced by Wacker Chemie AG, Burghausen, Germany, Food, 20 mesh
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
L-Cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous, ≥98% (TLC)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  1250 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD691-490

intravenous-mouse LD50  771 mg/kg
Japanese Journal of Antibiotics. Vol. 38, Pg. 137, 1985.

unreported-mouse LD50  3000 mg/kg
British Journal of Cancer. Vol. 6, Pg. 160, 1952.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for laevo-cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 52-89-1
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 60960
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
 (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid hydrochloride
Chemidplus: 0000052891
RTECS: HA2275000 for cas# 52-89-1
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References:
 (2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid hydrochloride
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 52-89-1
Pubchem (cid): 60960
Pubchem (sid): 135017561
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): Search
FooDB: FDB012679
ChemSpider: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 antioxidants 
 hair conditioning 
 hair streightening agents 
 hair waving agents 
 reducing agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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Synonyms:
(R)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid hydrochloride
L-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid monohydrochloride
(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid hydrochloride
L-cystein hydrochloride
L-cysteine HCl Anhydrous
(R)-cysteine hydrochloride
(R)-(+)-cysteine hydrochloride
L-cysteine hydrochloride
L-(+)-cysteine hydrochloride
L-cysteine hydrochloride (1:1)
(R)-cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous
L-cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous
laevo-(+)-cysteine hydrochloride anhydrous
L-cysteine monohydrochloride anhydrous
laevo-cysteine monohydrochloride anhydrous
 cysteine, hydrochloride, L-
 cysteine, L-, hydrochloride
 cysteine, L-, monohydrochloride
L-cysteine.HCl
L-cysteinehydrochloride
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Articles:
PubMed: Synthesis of highly luminescent and biocompatible CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots using microwave irradiation: a comparative study of different ligands.
PubMed: Impaired L-arginine uptake but not arginase contributes to endothelial dysfunction in rats with chronic kidney disease.
PubMed: Culture media for differential isolation of Lactobacillus casei Shirota from oral samples.
PubMed: Arginase II inhibition prevents nitrate tolerance.
PubMed: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibition decreases arginase activity and improves corpora cavernosal relaxation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.
PubMed: Hypoxia-reduced nitric oxide synthase activity is partially explained by higher arginase-2 activity and cellular redistribution in human umbilical vein endothelium.
PubMed: Intrinsic susceptibility of Giardia duodenalis assemblage subtypes A(I), A(II), B and E(III) for nitric oxide under axenic culture conditions.
PubMed: Buccal tablets containing cysteine and chlorhexidine for the reduction of acetaldehyde levels in the oral cavity.
PubMed: Design, synthesis and biological activity of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives as novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitors.
PubMed: Screening of reducing agents for anaerobic growth of Candida albicans SC5314.
PubMed: The effect of the combination of reducing and oxidising agents on the viscoelastic properties of dough and sensory characteristics of buns.
PubMed: On-line pre-reduction of pentavalent arsenicals by thioglycolic acid for speciation analysis by selective hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic absorption spectrometry.
PubMed: Multifunctional multilayer films containing polyoxometalates and bismuth oxide nanoparticles.
PubMed: Optimization of a reconstituted skim milk based medium for enhanced CLA production by bifidobacteria.
PubMed: The vascular effects of different arginase inhibitors in rat isolated aorta and mesenteric arteries.
PubMed: Disappearance of nine monoterpenes exposed in vitro to the rumen microflora of dairy goats: effects of inoculum source, redox potential, and vancomycin.
PubMed: Arginase blockade lessens endothelial dysfunction after thrombosis.
PubMed: Optoelectronic characteristics of inorganic/organic hybrid device based on poly(N-vinylcarbazole)/ cadmium selenide thin films.
PubMed: Synthesis and optical properties of L-cysteine hydrochloride-stabilized CdSe nanocrystals in a new alkali system.
PubMed: Comparison of methods with respect to efficiencies, recoveries, and quantitation of mercury species interconversions in food demonstrated using tuna fish.
PubMed: Formulation and in-vivo evaluation of L-cysteine chewing gums for binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the saliva during smoking.
PubMed: Optimization of acetic acid production from synthesis gas by chemolithotrophic bacterium--Clostridium aceticum using statistical approach.
PubMed: Local ascorbate administration augments NO- and non-NO-dependent reflex cutaneous vasodilation in hypertensive humans.
PubMed: Expression of the mucus adhesion genes Mub and MapA, adhesion-like factor EF-Tu and bacteriocin gene plaA of Lactobacillus plantarum 423, monitored with real-time PCR.
PubMed: Study on organic nitrates, part VIII. Pharmacological activity and nitric oxide generation capacity of nitrate derivatives of piperazine.
PubMed: Self-assembly of L-cysteine-copper(II)/copper(I) multilayer thin films on gold.
PubMed: Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.
PubMed: Properties of a thermostable extracellular lipase from Bacillus megaterium AKG-1.
PubMed: Differential electrolytic potentiometric determination of some thiol compounds in their dosage forms.
PubMed: Effect of antioxidants added to boar semen extender on the semen survival time and sperm chromatin structure.
PubMed: Long-term treatment of erythropoietic protoporphyria with cysteine.
PubMed: Factors influencing bacterial attachment to the ruminal epithelium in vitro.
PubMed: Optimum production, stability, partial purification and inhibitory spectrum of antimicrobial compounds produced by Pediococcus pentosaceus DI.
PubMed: Efficient translocation and processing with Xenopus egg extracts of proteins synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte lysate.
PubMed: Chromium and zinc contamination of parenteral nutrient solution components commonly used in infants and children.
PubMed: Abiotrophia elegans sp. nov., a possible pathogen in patients with culture-negative endocarditis.
PubMed: Reducing medium for the cultivation of Porphyromonas gingivalis.
PubMed: Growth of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum on different media.
PubMed: Somatic embryogenesis from integument (perisperm) cultures of coffee.
PubMed: Chemotactic response to mucin by Serpulina hyodysenteriae and other porcine spirochetes: potential role in intestinal colonization.
PubMed: Prefilter and postfilter cysteine/cystine and copper concentrations in pediatric parenteral nutrition solutions.
PubMed: An antibiotic-free medium for the xenic cultivation of Entamoeba gingivalis.
PubMed: [Ecosystem of microbial flora in periodontal pockets, in vitro].
PubMed: Growth studies on xenic cultures of Entamoeba gingivalis using established media.
PubMed: An ESR study of radical kinetics in L-alpha-amino-n-butyric acid hydrochloride containing L-cysteine hydrochloride.
PubMed: An ESR study of the radicals in X-irradiated L-alpha-amino-n-butyric acid HCl containing 1.5% L-cysteine HCl.
PubMed: [Role of sodium pyrosulfite and L-cysteine hydrochloride in retarding discoloration of ascorbic acid injection].
PubMed: Charcoal agar, a new growth medium for the fish disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum.
PubMed: [Methods of determination of L-cysteine hydrochloride and sodium pyrosulfite in 25% ascorbic acid injection].
PubMed: Antimycotic activity of some amino acids against dermatophytes.
PubMed: Factors promoting in vitro excystation of Giardia muris cysts.
PubMed: Egg-yolk trypticase soy agar for the enumeration of heat-damaged spores of Clostridium sporogenes.
PubMed: Effect of intermittent and continuous administration of L-cysteine hydrochloride on L1210 mouse leukemia.
PubMed: A simple disc technique for the presumptive identification of Legionella pneumophila.
PubMed: Tolerance of the chick to excess dietary cadmium as influenced by dietary cysteine and by experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina.
PubMed: Cell detachment and cloning efficiency as parameters for cytotoxicity.
PubMed: Carbohydrate fermentation by Clostridium difficile.
PubMed: Quantitative procedure for enumeration of bifidobacteria.
PubMed: The effect of methionine or cysteine on cobalt toxicity in the chick.
PubMed: Effects of adding potassium iodate to milk before UHT treatment. I. Reduction in the amount of deposit on the heated surfaces.
PubMed: [Solubility of metallic mercury into the solutions containing various amino acids (author's transl)].
PubMed: Primary isolation media for Legionnaires disease bacterium.
PubMed: A study of the rates of the competitive nitrosations of pyrrolidine, p-cresol and L-cysteine hydrochloride.
PubMed: Sulfite oxidase deficiency. Biochemical and clinical investigations of a hereditary metabolic disorder in sulfur metabolism.
PubMed: The action of cysteine of PHA-stimulation of lymphocytes. II. Influence on incorporation of 3H-uridine and 14C-leucine.
PubMed: Corynebacterial kidney disease of salmonids: growth and serological studies on the causative bacterium.
PubMed: Suppression of MLC-reactivity of rat lymphocytes by L-cysteine hydrochloride.
PubMed: Heat resistance of spores of marine and terrestrial strains of Clostridium botulinum type C.
PubMed: Enrichment, isolation, and cultural characteristics of marine strains of Clostridium botulinum type C.
PubMed: Possible explanation for the metabolic radioprotective effect of cysteine on Escherichia coli B.
PubMed: [A new percentage assay for L-cysteine, L-cysteine HCl D-penicillamine, D-penicillamine HCl and N-acetyl-D-penicillamine. A critical evaluation method of a number of assay methods].
PubMed: Amino Acid and vitamin requirements of several bacteroides strains.
PubMed: Effect of sodium chloride and pH on the outgrowth of spores of type E Clostridium botulinum at optimal and suboptimal temperatures.
PubMed: PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE IN L-CYSTEINE HYDROCHLORIDE IRRADIATED AT 77K.
PubMed: The use of L-cysteine hydrochloride to protect against the lethal effects of various alkylating agents.
PubMed: A transparent solid medium for growth enhancement of Pasteurella tularensis.
PubMed: Effect of L-cysteine hydrochloride, DL-alanine, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydrosulfide on experimental polyarthritis of rats.
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