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sodium polystyrene sulfonate
poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium salt

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 9080-79-9
Other(deleted CASRN):1217314-99-2
FDA UNII: 1699G8679Z
Formula:(C8 H8 O3 S)x-.x-Na
Category:cosmetic agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: emulsion stabilisers
film formers
gel forming agents
viscosity controlling agents
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 > 6750 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 793, 1982.

oral-mouse LD50 > 10125 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 793, 1982.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 > 6000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 793, 1982.

oral-rat LD50 > 8000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 793, 1982.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 > 15000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 793, 1982.

subcutaneous-rat LD50 > 15000 mg/kg
Drugs in Japan Vol. 6, Pg. 793, 1982.

Inhalation Toxicity:
inhalation-rat LC50 2600 mg/m3/4H
United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Vol. 8EHQ-0485-0549S

Safety in Use Information:
cosmetic agents
Recommendation for sodium polystyrene sulfonate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for sodium polystyrene sulfonate flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
Daily Med:search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9080-79-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
Canada Domestic Sub. List:9080-79-9
Pubchem (sid):135039523
Other Information:
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 emulsion stabilisers
 film formers
 viscosity controlling agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 AEP 1
 benzenesulfonic acid, ethenyl-, homopolymer, sodium salt
 benzenesulfonic acid, ethenyl-, sodium salt, homopolymer
 ethenylbenzenesulfonic acid, sodium salt, homopolymer
 flexan 500
 oligo Z
 poly(styrenesulfonate) sodium salt
 sodium carbonate stabilized sulfonated polystyrene sodium salt
 sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate mixt. with polyethylene glycol nonylphenyl ether
 sodium polystyrenesulfonate
 versa TL 400
 versa TL 500
 versa TL 71


PubMed:Potassium Disorders: Hypokalemia and Hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Effectiveness of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate for Short-Term Treatment of Hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Giant intragastric sodium polystyrene sulfonate bezoar.
PubMed:Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) for the treatment of hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Renal formulas pretreated with medications alters the nutrient profile.
PubMed:Polymer-surfactant complexes for microencapsulation of vitamin E and its release.
PubMed:Subtherapeutic serum quetiapine concentrations after absorption inhibition by binding resins: a case report.
PubMed:[Colonic ulcers associated with taking Kayexalate(®) (sodium polystyrene sulfonate): about two cases].
PubMed:Carvedilol-induced hyperkalemia in a patient with chronic kidney disease.
PubMed:Hyperkalemia and potential pitfalls of sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Characterization of the cation-binding capacity of a potassium-adsorption filter used in red blood cell transfusion.
PubMed:Characterization of structure and function of ZS-9, a K+ selective ion trap.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate – is it truly effective treatment for hyperkalemia?
PubMed:Daptomycin-induced hyperkalemia in a patient with normal renal function.
PubMed:Asymptomatic Cecal Perforation in a Renal Transplant Recipient After Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Administration.
PubMed:Refractory hypoxemia due to sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate) aspiration.
PubMed:Is sodium polystyrene sulfonate truly guilty without sorbitol?
PubMed:Swelling enhancement of polyelectrolyte brushes induced by external ions.
PubMed:Acute and chronic cardiovascular effects of hyperkalemia: new insights into prevention and clinical management.
PubMed:Kayexalate-induced colonic ulcer.
PubMed:Facile synthesis of soluble graphene quantum dots and its improved property in detecting heavy metal ions.
PubMed:Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods.
PubMed:Cost-utility analysis of sodium polystyrene sulfonate vs. potential alternatives for chronic hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Acute intestinal obstruction due to Kalimate, a potassium-lowering agent: a case report and literature review.
PubMed:Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and doxepin adsorption onto sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis for trace analysis of sulfonamide compounds.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate use revisited.
PubMed:Inflammatory Pseudotumor Containing Kayexalate Crystals: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
PubMed:A kidney transplant patient with ileocecal inflammation. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate-associated intestinal ulcer and foreign-body reaction.
PubMed:Sevelamer crystals in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): a new entity associated with mucosal injury.
PubMed:Incidence of sodium polystyrene sulfonate-associated colonic necrosis.
PubMed:Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate) not suspended in sorbitol.
PubMed:Apparent lisinopril overdose requiring hemodialysis.
PubMed:A paper-based microbial fuel cell: instant battery for disposable diagnostic devices.
PubMed:Pretreatment of formula or expressed breast milk with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate(®)) as a treatment for hyperkalemia in infants with acute or chronic renal insufficiency.
PubMed:Ileum and colon perforation following peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and high-dose calcium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:[Hypokalemic myopathy with severe constipation in a patient routinely administered sodium polystyrene sulfonate and the spherical carbon adsorbent].
PubMed:[Spectral characteristics of refractive index based on nanocoated optical fiber F-P sensor].
PubMed:A novel pulsed drug-delivery system: polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer coating of chitosan-alginate microgels.
PubMed:Pretreatment of infant formula with sodium polystyrene sulfonate : focus on optimal amount and contact time.
PubMed:Gastrointestinal adverse events with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) use: a systematic review.
PubMed:Fludrocortisone therapy in renal transplant recipients with persistent hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Management of hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients.
PubMed:Small intestinal transplant mucosal necrosis associated with enteral sodium polystyrene sulfonate administration.
PubMed:Association of prescription of oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate with sorbitol in an inpatient setting with colonic necrosis: a retrospective cohort study.
PubMed:Dynamic exchange of counterions of polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:To bind or to let loose: effectiveness of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in decreasing serum potassium.
PubMed:Secondary prevention of hyperkalemia with sodium polystyrene sulfonate in cardiac and kidney patients on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition therapy.
PubMed:Hofmeister effect on the interfacial dynamics of single polymer molecules.
PubMed:Optical tweezers based active microrheology of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS).
PubMed:[The excimer of thioflavin T induced by polyelectrolyte and its fluorescence ratiometric sensing for temperature].
PubMed:Colonic necrosis in a young patient receiving oral kayexalate in sorbitol: case report and literature review.
PubMed:The use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in the inpatient management of hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Intestinal Necrosis Associated with Orally Administered Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate Without Sorbitol.
PubMed:Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective?
PubMed:Small angle neutron scattering study of polyelectrolyte brushes grafted to well-defined gold nanoparticle interfaces.
PubMed:Formulation design of ranitidine hydrochloride to reduce its moisture absorption characteristics.
PubMed:Hypernatremia in a patient treated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Biofouling control using microparticles carrying a biocide.
PubMed:Total mass difference statistics algorithm: a new approach to identification of high-mass building blocks in electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry data of natural organic matter.
PubMed:Successful treatment of lithium toxicity with sodium polystyrene sulfonate: a retrospective cohort study.
PubMed:Ileocolic perforation secondary to sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol use: a case report.
PubMed:Interaction of a cationic gemini surfactant with DNA and with sodium poly(styrene sulphonate) at the air/water interface: a neutron reflectometry study.
PubMed:Intestinal necrosis due to sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) in sorbitol.
PubMed:Colonic necrosis due to oral kayexalate in a critically-ill patient.
PubMed:Management of yellow oleander poisoning.
PubMed:[Digestive adverse effects due to sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) in dialysis patients].
PubMed:Structural study of coacervation in protein-polyelectrolyte complexes.
PubMed:[The in vitro effect of the addition of ion exchange resins on the bioavailability of electrolytes in artificial enteral feeding formulas].
PubMed:Theory of competitive counterion adsorption on flexible polyelectrolytes: divalent salts.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) aspiration.
PubMed:[In-vitro study of the drug interactions between Miglitol, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, and adsorbents].
PubMed:Rectal stenosis caused by foreign body reaction to sodium polystyrene sulfonate crystals (Kayexalate).
PubMed:Necrotizing enterocolitis in a 850 gram infant receiving sorbitol-free sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate): clinical and histopathologic findings.
PubMed:Multilayered films fabricated from an oligoarginine-conjugated protein promote efficient surface-mediated protein transduction.
PubMed:Kayexalate Intake (in Sorbitol) and Jejunal Diverticulitis, a Causative Role or an Innocent Bystander?
PubMed:Characterization limits of a polymer adsorbed under a monolayer by GIXD measurements.
PubMed:The management of tumor lysis syndrome.
PubMed:Reported medication use in the neonatal intensive care unit: data from a large national data set.
PubMed:Role of nonadsorbing polymers in bacterial aggregation.
PubMed:Management issues in toxicology.
PubMed:Flocculation of microgel particles with sodium chloride and sodium polystyrene sulfonate as a function of temperature.
PubMed:Development and characterization of bioadhesive vaginal films of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), a novel contraceptive antimicrobial agent.
PubMed:Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) aspiration.
PubMed:Synthesis and nanostructure of strong polyelectrolyte brushes in amphiphilic diblock copolymer monolayers on a water surface.
PubMed:[Colonic ulcer after prolongated administration of Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate)].
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate used to reduce the potassium content of a high-protein enteral formula: a quantitative analysis.
PubMed:Amperometric method for determining the degree of complexation of polyelectrolytes with cationic surfactants.
PubMed:Monte Carlo simulations of star-branched polyelectrolyte micelles.
PubMed:A physico-chemical approach of polyanion-polycation interactions aimed at better understanding the in vivo behaviour of polyelectrolyte-based drug delivery and gene transfection.
PubMed:[Spectral analysis on self-assembly ultrathin film of polyaminobenzonitrile].
PubMed:Successful treatment of Sodium PolyStyrene Sulfonate bezoars with serial water-soluble contrast enemas.
PubMed:Coating and selective deposition of nanofilm on silicone rubber for cell adhesion and growth.
PubMed:Mix-up between potassium chloride and sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Colonic necrosis and perforation following oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Resonium A/Kayexalate in a burn patient.
PubMed:Potassium repletion fails to interfere with reduction of serum lithium by sodium polystyrene sulfonate in mice.
PubMed:Acute colonic necrosis associated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) enemas in a critically ill patient: case report and review of the literature.
PubMed:Upper gastrointestinal tract injury in patients receiving kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) in sorbitol: clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic findings.
PubMed:Potassium-adsorption filter for RBC transfusion: a phase III clinical trial.
PubMed:Evaluation of poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) as a preventive agent for conception and sexually transmitted diseases.
PubMed:Efficacy of the cation exchange resin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, to decrease iron absorption.
PubMed:Acute abdomen with colonic necrosis induced by Kayexalate-sorbitol.
PubMed:Mineral content of infant formula after treatment with sodium polystyrene sulfonate or calcium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Comparative efficacy of thallium adsorption by activated charcoal, prussian blue, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Hyperkalemia risks in hemodialysed patients consuming fluoride-rich water.
PubMed:Effect of single dose resin-cathartic therapy on serum potassium concentration in patients with end-stage renal disease.
PubMed:Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate for reduction of plasma lithium concentrations after chronic lithium dosing in mice.
PubMed:Microparticle resins as a potential nasal drug delivery system for insulin.
PubMed:Enhancement of immune response to intranasal influenza HA vaccine by microparticle resin.
PubMed:[Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Resonium A) as possible cause of rectal blood loss].
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate damage.
PubMed:[Thrombocytopenia associated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate].
PubMed:Effect of Nonadsorbing Polyelectrolytes on Colloidal Interactions in Aqueous Mixtures
PubMed:Hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia after ibuprofen overdose.
PubMed:Enhancement of lithium elimination by multiple-dose sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Methods used to decrease lithium absorption or enhance elimination.
PubMed:Necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract in uremic patients as a result of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) in sorbitol: an underrecognized condition.
PubMed:In vitro binding of iron with the cation-exchange resin sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate) aspiration: histologic appearance and infrared microspectrophotometric analysis of two cases.
PubMed:Effects of sodium polystyrene sulfonate on gingival plaque: microbiological investigation and clinical follow-up.
PubMed:Severe pseudohypoaldosteronism in a pair of twins not associated with hydramnios.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate treatment for lithium toxicity: effects on serum potassium concentrations.
PubMed:Multiple delayed peak lithium concentrations following acute intoxication with an extended-release product.
PubMed:Cecal perforation associated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate-sorbitol enemas in a 650 gram infant with hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Light Scattering Study of Magnetic Latex Particles and Their Interaction with Polyelectrolytes.
PubMed:In-vivo binding of lithium using the cation exchange resin sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Rectally administered sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:In vitro binding of lithium using the cation exchange resin sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Effect of delayed treatment with sodium polystyrene sulfonate on serum lithium concentrations in mice.
PubMed:In vitro binding of lithium using the cation exchange resin sodium polystyrene sulfonate.
PubMed:Hematochezia associated with the use of hypertonic sodium polystyrene sulfonate enemas in premature infants.
PubMed:Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in a lithium overdose.
PubMed:Colonic necrosis following sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)-sorbitol enema in a renal transplant patient. Report of a case and review of the literature.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate).
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate: a cation exchange resin used in treating hyperkalemia.
PubMed:Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia and hypercalcemia after ileal conduit diversion.
PubMed:Effect of sodium polystyrene sulfonate on lithium bioavailability.
PubMed:Lithium absorption prevented by sodium polystyrene sulfonate in volunteers.
PubMed:Intestinal necrosis associated with postoperative orally administered sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol.
PubMed:Multiple-dose sodium polystyrene sulfonate in lithium intoxication: an animal model.
PubMed:In vitro binding characteristics for cesium of two qualities of prussian blue, activated charcoal and Resonium-A.
PubMed:Use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol in the United States, 1985-1989.
PubMed:Acute toxic effects of sustained-release verapamil in chronic renal failure.
PubMed:Pretreatment of formula with sodium polystyrene sulfonate to reduce dietary potassium intake.
PubMed:Cleansing enemas after sodium polystyrene sulfonate enemas.
PubMed:Administration of activated charcoal or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) as gastric decontamination for lithium intoxication: an animal model.
PubMed:Nephrotoxicity and hyperkalemia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with pentamidine.
PubMed:Reversible hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism in a patient with tetraplegia.
PubMed:Complications following oral administration of exchange resins in extremely low-birth-weight infants.
PubMed:[Successful peritoneal dialysis in a premature infant with a birth weight of 850 grams--a case report].
PubMed:[Magnesium hydroxide treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic hemodialysis patients with an aluminum overload].
PubMed:Mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias induced by epinephrine in dogs with hypokalemia.
PubMed:Mechanisms by which nephrectomy stimulates adrenal renin.
PubMed:Metabolic alkalosis due to absorption of "nonabsorbable" antacids.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate pneumonitis.
PubMed:Kayexalate: a new cause of neonatal bowel opacification.
PubMed:Dissociation of the diurnal variation of aldosterone and cortisol in anephric subjects.
PubMed:[2 types of soluble complexes of bovine serum albumin with polyelectrolytes].
PubMed:Acute digoxin poisonings: review of therapy.
PubMed:Sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin candy for control of potassium in chronic dialysis patients.
PubMed:Alkalosis and seizure due to a cation-exchange resin and magnesium hydroxide.
PubMed:[Treatment of hyperkalemia associated with renal insufficiency--clinical effects and side reactions of positive-ion-exchange resins, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)].
PubMed:[Treatment of hyperkalemia in renal insufficiency with cation exchange resin. Experience with use of sodium polystyrene sulfonate].
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