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laevo-lysine hydrochloride
L-(+)-lysine monohydrochloride

Sponsors

Name:(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid hydrochloride
CAS Number: 657-27-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:211-519-9
FDA UNII:JNJ23Q2COM
Beilstein Number:3563889
MDL:MFCD00064564
Molecular Weight:182.64995000
Formula:C6 H15 N2 O2 Cl
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
Register name to be changed to L-(+)-lysine monohydrochloride (EFSA, 2006b)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 414 L-lysine monohydrochloride View-notice PDF
FLAVIS Number:17.031 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.031 L-(+)-lysine monohydrochloride
FDA Mainterm: L-Lysine Monohydrochloride
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white powder (est)
Assay: 98.50 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 261.00 to 263.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 311.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:0.000123 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 288.00 °F. TCC ( 142.22 °C. )
logP (o/w): -1.036 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data2
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
reducing agents
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
A.M.G.L.T.
L-Lysine Hydrochloride
Aceto
L-Lysine HCl USP
ADM
L-LYSINE MONOHYDROCHLORIDE 98.5% FEED GRADE
Flavor: characteristic
ADM L-Lysine monohydrochloride is a high quality, granular product specifically designed for the feed industry. Produced from advanced technology, this product is composed of 100% isomerically pure L-lysine, which translates into 100% bioavailability for ruminants, swine, poultry, and other animals.
AIDP
L-Lysine HCl 98.5-101.5%
Ajinomoto USA
AjiPure™ Lysine HCL
Flavor: characteristic
Manufactured under cGMP conditions using no materials of animal origin.
Ajinomoto USA
L-Lysine HCl
Flavor: characteristic
L-lysine is classified as an essential amino acid for humans and must be supplied in the diet. The male adult’s daily requirement is 12 mg per kg of body weight. It is extremely rare for a diet to contain insufficient quantities of lysine. Vegetarians who follow a macrobiotic diet and athletes who exercise vigorously on a frequent basis must take care to obtain sufficient L-lysine. Beans, peas and lentils are the best source of lysine.
Anhui Haibei
L-Lysine Hydrochloride
BBFY Industrial
L-Lysine Hydrochloride
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
H-Lys-OH.HCl
Charkit Chemical
LYSINE HYDROCHLORIDE, L-
ECSA Chemicals
L-Lysine HCl
Company Profile
ExtraSynthese
For experimental / research use only.
L-Lysine Hydrochloride
Foodchem International
L-Lysine Monohydrochloride
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Lysine monohydrochloride
OQEMA
L-Lysine HCL
Penta International
L-LYSINE HYDROCHLORIDE (HCL) NATURAL, Kosher
Penta International
L-LYSINE HYDROCHLORIDE USP & FCC, Kosher
Prinova
L-Lysine Monohydrochloride
Sigma-Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
L-Lysine monohydrochloride reagent grade, ≥98% (TLC)
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-(+)-Lysine Hydrochloride >98.0%(T)
 
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-rat LD50 4019 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 58, Pg. 253, 1955.

oral-rat LD50 10000 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Vol. 62, Pg. 49, 1973.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-lysine hydrochloride usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 30.00 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 23000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): --
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): --
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): --
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): --
Bakery wares (07.0): --
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): --
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): --
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): --
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 70.00000-
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): --
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): --
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of concentrated liquid L-lysine (base), concentrated liquid L-lysine monohydrochloride and L-lysine monohydrochloride produced by Escherichia coli (FERM BP-10941) for all animal species, based on three dossiers submitted by Ajinomoto Eurolysine SAS
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-lysine monohydrochloride produced by fermentation with Escherichia coli for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG on behalf of Meihua Holdings Group Co. Ltd
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-lysine monohydrochloride, technically pure, produced with Escherichia coli CGMCC 3705 and L-lysine sulphate produced with Corynebacterium glutamicum CGMCC 3704 for all animal species, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG
View page or View pdf

Safety and efficacy of concentrated liquid L-lysine (base), L-lysine monohydrochloride and L-lysine sulphate produced using different strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by AMAC/EEIG
View page or View pdf

Safety of l-lysine monohydrochloride produced by fermentation with Escherichia coli CGMCC 7.57 for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Feedway Europe NV
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):657-27-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :69568
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid hydrochloride
Chemidplus:0000657272
RTECS:OL5650000 for cas# 657-27-2
 
References:
 (2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid hydrochloride
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:657-27-2
Pubchem (cid):69568
Pubchem (sid):135027777
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D02279
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:2922.41.0090
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•as dl- and l-lysine monohydrochloride. •usp and fcc grades lysine hydrochloride
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antioxidants
 reducing agents
 skin conditioning
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
 
Synonyms:
 darvyl
(2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid hydrochloride
(S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid monohydrochloride
 enisyl
 lyamine
L-lysine chlorhydrate
L-lysine HCl
 lysine hydrochloride
L-monolysine hydrochloride
laevo-lysine hydrochloride
L-lysine hydrochloride (1:1)
L-lysine mono hydrochloride
L-lysine monohydrochloride
L-(+)-lysine monohydrochloride
laevo-lysine monohydrochloride
L-lysine, hydrochloride
L-lysine, hydrochloride (1:1)
L-lysine, monohydrochloride
 lysine, monohydrochloride, L-
L-lysinehydrochloride
 lysion
 

Articles:

PubMed:Studies on the effect of polymer coating on solution grown hygroscopic non-linear optical single crystal of L-lysine monohydrochloride.
PubMed:Effects of L-lysine monohydrochloride on insulin and blood glucose levels in spinal cord injured rats.
PubMed:Probes on L-lysine monohydrochloride dihydrate: a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal.
PubMed:Hemolysate-filled polyethyleneimine and polyurea microcapsules as potential red blood cell substitutes: effect of aqueous monomer type on properties of the prepared microcapsules.
PubMed:Plasticity and slip system of plate-shaped crystals of L-lysine monohydrochloride dihydrate.
PubMed:Influence of elastic deformation of particles on Heckel analysis.
PubMed:Adverse effects of excess lysine in calves.
PubMed:Influence of crystal shape on the tableting performance of L-lysine monohydrochloride dihydrate.
PubMed:Effects of initial particle size on the tableting properties of L-lysine monohydrochloride dihydrate powder.
PubMed:Methionine imbalance and toxicity in calves.
PubMed:Influence of crystal habit on the surface free energy and interparticulate bonding of L-lysine monohydrochloride dihydrate.
PubMed:Adverse effects of excess DL-methionine in calves with different body weights.
PubMed:Neuroprotective effect of L-lysine monohydrochloride on acute iterative anoxia in rats with quantitative analysis of electrocorticogram.
PubMed:Absence of limiting amino acids in calves fed a corn and soybean meal diet past three months of age.
PubMed:Superior preservation of the staphylococcal glycocalyx with aldehyde-ruthenium red and select lysine salts using extended fixation times.
PubMed:Limiting amino acids for a corn and soybean meal diet in weaned calves less than three months of age.
PubMed:Lysine deficiency in postweaned calves fed corn and corn gluten meal diets.
PubMed:The metabolic roles, pharmacology, and toxicology of lysine.
PubMed:Lysine supplementation of cereal foods: a retrospective.
PubMed:Effect of Na and Cl infusion on loop function and plasma renin activity in rats.
PubMed:Effect of L-lysine monohydrochloride on cutaneous herpes simplex virus in the guinea pig.
PubMed:[The efficiency of and requirements for selected amino acids in growing female pigs. 3. Threonine].
PubMed:Success of L-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of intravenous lysine infusion on urea cycle metabolism.
PubMed:The bioavailability of supplementary lysine and its effect on the energy and nitrogen excretion of adult cockerels fed diets diluted with cellulose.
PubMed:Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex infections with L-lysine monohydrochloride.
PubMed:Lysine prophylaxis in recurrent herpes simplex labialis: a double-blind, controlled crossover study.
PubMed:Bicarbonaturic effect of lysine in the dog.
PubMed:[Utilization of LIN (lysine-indole-motility) medium for the preliminary identification of enteropathogenic bacteria].
PubMed:Utility of fasting essential amino acid plasma levels in formulation of nutritionally adequate diets IV: lowering of human plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels by lysine and tryptophan supplementation.
PubMed:[On the effect of L-lysine-monohydrochloride on the survival time of bilaterally nephrectomized rats].
PubMed:EFFECT OF L-LYSINE MONOHYDROCHLORIDE UPON UREA FORMATION IN TWO PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE.
PubMed:Resistant edema treated with L-lysine monohydrochloride.
PubMed:L-lysine monohydrochloride. A clinical study of its action as a chloruretic acidifying adjuvant to mercurial diuretics.
PubMed:The effects of the ingestion of amino acid on gastric secretion, with particular reference to L-lysine monohydrochloride.
 
Notes:
None found
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