2-butoxyethanol
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      Product(s):
      02-46500 2-BUTOXYETHANOL, Kosher
       
 
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2-butoxyethanol (Click)
CAS Number: 111-76-2
ECHA EC Number: 203-905-0
FDA UNII: I0P9XEZ9WV
Beilstein Number: 1732511
MDL: MFCD00002884
CoE Number: 10182
XlogP3: 0.80 (est)
Molecular Weight: 118.17598000
Formula: C6 H14 O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict
Category: sanitizing agents for food processing equipment
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Flavis Number: 02.242 (Old)
EU SANCO Food Flavourings: 02.242  2-butoxyethan-1-ol

FDA Mainterm: ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 173 -- SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 173.315 Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.


FDA PART 175 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.


FDA PART 176 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS
Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard
Sec. 176.210 Defoaming agents used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard.


FDA PART 177 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS
Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.


FDA PART 178 -- INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS
Subpart B--Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms
Sec. 178.1010 Sanitizing solutions.
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity: 0.89900 to 0.90500 @  25.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 7.481 to  7.531
Refractive Index: 1.41600 to 1.42200 @  20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -74.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 168.40 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.880000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density: 4.1 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 140.00 °F. TCC ( 60.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.830
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Organoleptic Properties:
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: masking agents
solvents
viscosity controlling agents
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Suppliers:
Dow Chemical
DOWANOL™ PnB
Eastman Chemical
EB Solvent (Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether), Stabilized 2
Graham Chemical
Glycol Ether EB
Penta International
2-BUTOXYETHANOL, Kosher
Pfaltz & Bauer
2-Butoxyethanol 99%
For experimental / research use only.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
Ethylene glycol butyl ether
For experimental / research use only.
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
Ethylene glycol butyl ether ≥99.0%
For experimental / research use only.
TCI AMERICA
Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether >99.0%(GC)
For experimental / research use only.
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Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xn - Harmful.
  R 20/21/22 - Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R 36/38 - Irritating to skin and eyes.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 20/21 - When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S 23 - Do not breath vapour.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36/37/39 - Wear suitable clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
  gavage-rat LD50  [sex: M] 1480 mg/kg
(Smyth et al., 1941)

oral-rat LD50  1174 mg/kg
(BASF, 1956)

oral-rat LD50  620 mg/kg
(Rowe & Wolf, 1982)

oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] 2800 mg/kg
(Carpenter et al., 1956)

gavage-rat LD50  [sex: M] 2680 mg/kg
(Myers & Homan, 1980)

oral-rat LD50  470 mg/kg
(Wolf, 1959)

gavage-rat LD50  [sex: M] 2800. mg/kg
(Weil & Wright, 1967)

gavage-rat LD50  [sex: M] 1590 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1976l)

gavage-rat LD50  [sex: M] 7500 mg/kg
(Moreno, 1976l)

oral-rat LD50  1746 mg/kg
(Eastman Kodak Co., 1989

gavage-rat LD50  [sex: M] 7292 mg/kg
(Eastman Kodak Co., 1984)

oral-mouse LD50  1230 mg/kg
(Carpenter et al., 1956)

oral-mouse LD50  1700 mg/kg
(Dow Chemical Company, 1982a

oral-mouse LD50  1519 mg/kg
(Eastman Kodak Co., 1989)

gavage-mouse LD50  [sex: M] 2406 mg/kg
(Eastman Kodak Co., 1984)

oral-rabbit LD50  [sex: M] 370 mg/kg
(Carpenter et al., 1956)

oral-guinea pig LD50  [sex: M,F] 1200 mg/kg
(Carpenter et al., 1956)

gavage-guinea pig LD50  [sex: M,F] 1200 mg/kg
(Smyth et al., 1941)

oral-guinea pig LD50  1200 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: GENERAL ANESTHETIC KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

unreported-mammal (species unspecified) LD50  1500 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 51(5), Pg. 61, 1986.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  536 mg/kg
Shell Chemical Company. Unpublished Report. Vol. -, Pg. 2, 1961.

intravenous-mouse LD50  1130 mg/kg
AMA Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 14, Pg. 114, 1956.

oral-mouse LD50  1230 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) SKIN AND APPENDAGES (SKIN): HAIR: OTHER BEHAVIORAL: ALTERED SLEEP TIME (INCLUDING CHANGE IN RIGHTING REFLEX)
AMA Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 14, Pg. 114, 1956.

unreported-mouse LD50  1050 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(11), Pg. 7, 1976.

intraperitoneal-rabbit LD50  220 mg/kg
"Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 67, 1982.

intravenous-rabbit LD50  252 mg/kg
AMA Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 14, Pg. 114, 1956.

oral-rabbit LD50  300 mg/kg
Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. Vol. 32, Pg. 1241, 1981.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50  220 mg/kg
"Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982Vol. -, Pg. 67, 1982.

intravenous-rat LD50  307 mg/kg
AMA Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 14, Pg. 114, 1956.

oral-rat LD50  470 mg/kg
Dow Chemical Company Reports. Vol. MSD-46

unreported-rat LD50  917 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT BEHAVIORAL: SOMNOLENCE (GENERAL DEPRESSED ACTIVITY) LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 41(11), Pg. 7, 1976.

Dermal Toxicity:
  skin-guinea pig LD50 230 ul/kg
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7, Pg. 559, 1965.

skin-rabbit LD50 220 mg/kg
Dow Chemical Company Reports. Vol. MSD-46

subcutaneous-mouse LDLo 500 mg/kg
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 42, Pg. 355, 1931.

Inhalation Toxicity:
  inhalation-rat LC50 450 ppm/4H
BEHAVIORAL: ATAXIA
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 68, Pg. 405, 1983.

inhalation-mouse LC50 700 ppm/7H
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BEHAVIORAL: ANALGESIA KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: HEMATURIA
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, Pg. 157, 1943.

inhalation-guinea pig LC > 633 ppm/1H
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0572613

inhalation-human TCLo 100 ppm
SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER CHANGES: OLFACTION LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: OTHER CHANGES SENSE ORGANS AND SPECIAL SENSES: OTHER: EYE
Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 50, 1974.

inhalation-human TCLo 195 ppm/8H
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING
AMA Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 14, Pg. 114, 1956.

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Safety in Use Information:
Category: sanitizing agents for food processing equipment
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.0012 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 3900 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:540 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: II
Recommendation for 2-butoxyethanol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for 2-butoxyethanol flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 7.0000035.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 5.0000025.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 10.0000050.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 7.0000035.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 10.0000050.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 10.0000050.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 2.0000010.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 2.0000010.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 5.0000025.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 10.0000050.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 5.0000025.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 10.0000050.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 20.00000100.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 5.0000025.00000
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
page or pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
page or pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
page or pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 92 (FGE.92): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (2009)
page or pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
page or pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
page or pdf
EPI System: View
Chemicalize.org: Calculate predicted properties
ECHA Data Sheet: View
ECHA (ESR): View
EPA-Iris: IRIS
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NIOSH Pocket Guide: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
National Toxicology Program: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 111-76-2
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
SCCNFP: opinion
WISER: UN 2810
WGK Germany: 1
 2-butoxyethanol
DTP/NCI: 60759
Chemidplus: 0000111762
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: 111-76-2
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References:
 2-butoxyethanol
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 111-76-2
Pubchem (cid): 8133
Pubchem (sid): 134975348
Pherobase Floral: View
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Export Tariff Code: 2909.43.0000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Formulations/Preparations:
grade: technical
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 solvents 
 viscosity controlling agents 
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Natural Occurrence in: note
 cheese mozzarella cheese - 0.02 mg/kg
GRIN Trop Picture
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Synonyms:
2-butoxy ethanol
2-butoxy-1-ethanol
2-N-butoxy-1-ethanol
2-butoxyethan-1-ol
 butoxyethanol
2-N-butoxyethanol
N-butoxyethanol
N-butoxyethanol sodium salt
 butyl cellosolve
N-butyl cellosolve
monobutyl ether of ethylene glycol
monobutyl ethylene glycol ether
 butyl glycol
monobutyl glycol ether
 butyl oxitol
 butylcellosolve
 dowanol EB
 EGBE
 ek tasolve EB solvent
 ektasolve EB
 ethanol, 2-butoxy-
 ethylene glycol butyl ether
 ethylene glycol mono butyl ether
 ethylene glycol mono-N-butyl ether
 ethylene glycol monobutyl ether
 ethylene glycol N-butyl ether
 ethyleneglycol monobutyl ether
 glycol ether EB
 glycol monobutyl ether
2-hydroxyethyl N-butyl ether
 jeffersol EB
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Articles:
PubMed: Observation of Unusual Molecular Diffusion Behaviour below the Lower Critical Solution Temperature of Water/2-Butoxyethanol Mixtures by using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.
PubMed: Novel unbreakable solid-phase microextraction fibers on stainless steel wire and application for the determination of oxadiargyl in environmental and agricultural samples in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].
PubMed: Chemical composition and aroma evaluation of essential oils from Evolvulus alsinoides L.
PubMed: Photochemical fate of solvent constituents of Corexit oil dispersants.
PubMed: Potential neurotoxic effect of ethylene glycol ethers mixtures.
PubMed: A new experimental model of hemolytic anemia after butoxyethanol and the study of its immunology.
PubMed: Critical anomalies of alkaline fading of phenolphthalein in the critical solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water.
PubMed: Response to letter to the editor by Jeff Kelsey, Chemsage Ltd, on 2-butoxyethanol health effects.
PubMed: Acute toxicity classification for ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether under the Globally Harmonized System.
PubMed: Concerning statements made in "Determinants of exposure to 2-butoxyethanol from cleaning tasks: a quasi-experimental study" by Bello, A. et al., Ann. Occup. Hyg., Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 125-135, 2013.
PubMed: Additive-free size-controlled synthesis of gold square nanoplates using photochemical reaction in dynamic phase-separating media.
PubMed: Case study illustrating the WHO IPCS guidance on characterization and application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in risk assessment.
PubMed: High sensitivity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric methods for the analysis of dioctyl sulfosuccinate in different stages of an oil spill response monitoring effort.
PubMed: Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios.
PubMed: Kinetics of the reaction of crystal violet with hydroxide ion in the critical solution of 2-butoxyethanol + water.
PubMed: Fertility and developmental toxicity studies of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE) in rats.
PubMed: Dipole moments of isomeric alkoxyalcohols in cyclohexane. Comparison of Hedestrand and Fröhlich procedures with a new formula.
PubMed: Determinants of exposure to 2-butoxyethanol from cleaning tasks: a quasi-experimental study.
PubMed: Provenance of Corexit-related chemical constituents found in nearshore and inland Gulf Coast waters.
PubMed: 2-Butoxyethanol from cleaning products responsible for complaints in workplaces: a case study.
PubMed: Predicting the absorption of chemical vapours.
PubMed: Explaining skin permeation of 2-butoxyethanol from neat and aqueous solutions.
PubMed: Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: challenges, opportunities, and research needs.
PubMed: Association and microheterogeneity in aqueous 2-butoxyethanol solutions.
PubMed: Comparison of experimentally determined and mathematically predicted percutaneous penetration rates of chemicals.
PubMed: A generic, cross-chemical predictive PBTK model with multiple entry routes running as application in MS Excel; design of the model and comparison of predictions with experimental results.
PubMed: Volatile organic compounds in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings in California.
PubMed: Acute respiratory distress associated with inhaled hydrocarbon.
PubMed: In vivo monitoring of epidermal absorption of hazardous substances by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy.
PubMed: Acceleration of the effect of solute on the entropy-volume cross fluctuation density in aqueous 2-butoxyethanol, 1-propanol, and glycerol: the fourth derivative of Gibbs energy.
PubMed: Is a methyl group always hydrophobic? Hydrophilicity of trimethylamine-N-oxide, tetramethyl urea and tetramethylammonium ion.
PubMed: Biological monitoring of low-level 2-butoxyethanol exposure in decal transfer workers in bicycle manufacturing factories.
PubMed: Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on cell viability in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.
PubMed: Percutaneous absorption of vapors in human skin.
PubMed: Elution behavior of polyethylene and polypropylene standards on carbon sorbents.
PubMed: Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System.
PubMed: Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models.
PubMed: Validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry isotope dilution method for the determination of 2-butoxyethanol and other common glycol ethers in consumer products.
PubMed: Fomepizole fails to prevent progression of acidosis in 2-butoxyethanol and ethanol coingestion.
PubMed: Cancer effects of formaldehyde: a proposal for an indoor air guideline value.
PubMed: A field study on clinical signs and symptoms in cleaners at floor polish removal and application in a Swedish hospital.
PubMed: Assessing near-field and downwind impacts of reactivity-based substitutions.
PubMed: Kupffer cells participate in 2-butoxyethanol-induced liver hemangiosarcomas.
PubMed: Photo-controlled phase separation and mixing of a mixture of water and 2-butoxyethanol caused by photochromic isomerisation of spiropyran.
PubMed: 2-Butoxyethanol model of haemolysis and disseminated thrombosis in female rats: a preliminary study of the vascular mechanism of osteoarthritis in the temporomandibular joint.
PubMed: The role of hypoxia in 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemangiosarcoma.
PubMed: Determination of butoxyacetic acid (biomarker of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether exposure) in human urine candidate reference material.
PubMed: Testicular gene expression profiling following 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol exposure in male rats reveals abnormal expression of the actin binding protein cortactin in degenerating spermatocytes.
PubMed: Enhancement of optical transmission capacity of isolated structures in the brain of mature mice.
PubMed: Ocular injury with high-pressure paint: a case report.
PubMed: High temperature end of the so-called "Koga line": anomalies in temperature derivatives of heat capacities.
PubMed: Characterization of occupational exposures to cleaning products used for common cleaning tasks--a pilot study of hospital cleaners.
PubMed: Surface-catalysed reactions on pollutant-removing building products for indoor use.
PubMed: Self-association of short-chain nonionic amphiphiles in binary and ternary systems: comparison between the cleavable ethylene glycol monobutyrate and its ether counterparts.
PubMed: Experimental determination of the third derivative of G. I. enthalpic interaction.
PubMed: Studies on the nature of hemolytic effect induced by ethylene glycol alkyl ethers.
PubMed: Biological treatment of a contaminated gaseous emission from a leather industry in a suspended-growth bioreactor.
PubMed: Headspace solvent microextraction A new method applied to the preconcentration of 2-butoxyethanol from aqueous solutions into a single microdrop.
PubMed: Biomonitoring as a tool in the human health risk characterization of dermal exposure.
PubMed: [Ethylene glycol alkyl ethers--the substances noxious to health].
PubMed: The rat red blood cell proteome is altered by priming with 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Isentropic expansion and related thermodynamic properties of non-ionic amphiphile-water mixtures.
PubMed: Metabolism and disposition of n-butyl glycidyl ether in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.
PubMed: Hematological effects of four ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers in short-term repeated exposure in rats.
PubMed: Priming dose of phenylhydrazine protects against hemolytic and lethal effects of 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Use of glycol ethers for selective release of periplasmic proteins from Gram-negative bacteria.
PubMed: Development of a gas chromatographic test for the quantitation of the biomarker 2-butoxyacetic acid in urine samples.
PubMed: Polymer grafting onto starch nanocrystals.
PubMed: Pyrazole and methylpyrazole for the treatment of 2-butoxyethanol poisoning.
PubMed: Discrepancies between different rat models for the assessment of percutaneous penetration of hazardous substances.
PubMed: Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of 2-butoxyethanol in human volunteers: a microdialysis study.
PubMed: Formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol and 1-tert-butoxypropan-2-ol.
PubMed: Age and dose sensitivities in the 2-butoxyethanol F344 rat model of hemolytic anemia and disseminated thrombosis.
PubMed: Origin of the blue shift of the CH stretching band for 2-butoxyethanol in water.
PubMed: Reaction kinetics and critical phenomena: rates of some first order gas evolution reactions in binary solvents with a consolute point.
PubMed: Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids.
PubMed: Mechanisms of 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemangiosarcomas.
PubMed: Experimentally determined growth exponents during the late stage of spinodal demixing in binary liquid mixtures.
PubMed: Hemostatic activation in a chemically induced rat model of severe hemolysis and thrombosis.
PubMed: Prediction of initial emission rates of 2-butoxyethanol from consumer products using equilibrium headspace concentrations: an application of the vapor pressure and boundary layer (VB) model.
PubMed: Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic models in cancer risk assessment.
PubMed: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling of human exposure to 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: RNA extraction from plant tissues: the use of calcium to precipitate contaminating pectic sugars.
PubMed: Observation of a sequence of wetting transitions in the binary water+ethylene glycol monobutyl ether mixture.
PubMed: Meeting report: summary of IARC monographs on formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol.
PubMed: Changes in two-phase emulsion morphology in temperature-amphiphile concentration or fish diagram for ternary amphiphile/oil/water systems.
PubMed: Chemical-induced atrial thrombosis in NTP rodent studies.
PubMed: [Anaerobic biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in solid-liquid phase of contaminated sediment slurry].
PubMed: Film formation from monodisperse acrylic latices 5. Drying and ageing in coalescing agent containing latex films.
PubMed: 2-Butoxyethanol female-rat model of hemolysis and disseminated thrombosis: X-ray characterization of osteonecrosis and growth-plate suppression.
PubMed: Disseminated thrombosis-induced growth plate necrosis in rat: a unique model for growth plate arrest.
PubMed: U.S. EPA's IRIS assessment of 2-butoxyethanol: the relationship of noncancer to cancer effects.
PubMed: Determination of age and gender differences in biochemical processes affecting the disposition of 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolites in mice and rats to improve PBPK modeling.
PubMed: Mode of action of butoxyethanol-induced mouse liver hemangiosarcomas and hepatocellular carcinomas.
PubMed: Butoxyacetic acid-induced hemolysis of rat red blood cells: effect of external osmolarity and cations.
PubMed: Free and total urinary 2-butoxyacetic acid following dermal and inhalation exposure to 2-butoxyethanol in human volunteers.
PubMed: Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DGBE): two- and thirteen-week oral toxicity studies in Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed: In vivo metabolism and kinetics of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and its metabolites, 2-butoxyacetaldehyde and 2-butoxyacetic acid, as measured in blood, liver and forestomach of mice.
PubMed: Is the permeability coefficient Kp a reliable tool in percutaneous absorption studies?
PubMed: Relevance of Frank's solvent classification as typically aqueous and typically non-aqueous to activities of firefly luciferase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alpha-chymotrypsin in aqueous binaries.
PubMed: Cutaneous metabolism of glycol ethers.
PubMed: Percutaneous penetration and metabolism of 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Review of studies concerning the tumorigenicity of 2-butoxyethanol in B6C3F1 mice and its relevance for human risk assessment.
PubMed: Confinement effect on the adsorption from a binary liquid system near liquid/liquid phase separation.
PubMed: Histopathologic changes in dental and oral soft tissues in 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemolysis and thrombosis in rats*.
PubMed: Association of liver hemangiosarcoma and secondary iron overload in B6C3F1 mice--the National Toxicology Program experience.
PubMed: Sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to commercially available alkaline cleaners and subsequent resistance to heat and sanitizers.
PubMed: Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles.
PubMed: Ocular expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) in 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemolysis and thrombosis in female rats.
PubMed: A human exposure study to investigate biological monitoring methods for 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Identification of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether as a source of contamination in an ion trap mass spectrometer.
PubMed: Ultrafast laser-induced molecular and morphological changes during spinodal demixing of water/2-butoxyethanol/KCl.
PubMed: Osteonecrosis in a chemically induced rat model of human hemolytic disorders associated with thrombosis--a new model for avascular necrosis of bone.
PubMed: Contaminants and levels of occurrence in washed and shredded poly(ethylene terephthalate) from curbside collection. Part 1: Extraction conditions.
PubMed: Sensitive determination of alkoxyethanols by pre-column derivatization with 1-anthroylnitrile and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Percutaneous absorption of neat and aqueous solutions of 2-butoxyethanol in volunteers.
PubMed: Synthesis, characterization, and use of 2-[(2H(9))butoxy]acetic acid and 2-(3-methylbutoxy)acetic acid as an internal standard and an instrument performance surrogate, respectively, for the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of 2-butoxyacetic acid, a human metabolite of 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: 2-Butoxyethanol enhances the adherence of red blood cells.
PubMed: A chemically induced rat model of hemolysis with disseminated thrombosis.
PubMed: Elution behavior of polyethylene in polar mobile phases on a non-polar sorbent.
PubMed: Repeated ingestion of 2-butoxyethanol: case report and literature review.
PubMed: Factors affecting the extent of dermal absorption of solvent vapours: a human volunteer study.
PubMed: NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies 2-Butoxyethanol (CAS NO. 111-76-2) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).
PubMed: Mode of action and pharmacokinetic studies of 2-butoxyethanol in the mouse with an emphasis on forestomach dosimetry.
PubMed: Hepatic effects of 2-butoxyethanol in rodents.
PubMed: The development of forestomach tumours in the mouse following exposure to 2-butoxyethanol by inhalation: studies on the mode of action and relevance to humans.
PubMed: Effects of experimental conditions on absorption of glycol ethers through human skin in vitro.
PubMed: In vitro sub-hemolytic effects of butoxyacetic acid on human and rat erythrocytes.
PubMed: Mechanisms of 2-butoxyethanol carcinogenicity: studies on Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation.
PubMed: Suppression of the contact hypersensitivity response following topical exposure to 2-butoxyethanol in female BALB/c mice.
PubMed: Neutron reflectivity studies of critical adsorption: the correspondence between a critical adsorption profile and specular neutron reflection.
PubMed: Topical exposure to 2-butoxyethanol alters immune responses in female BALB/c mice.
PubMed: Ecotoxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and its acetate.
PubMed: Effects of 2-butoxyethanol on hepatic oxidative damage.
PubMed: Determination of 2-butoxyethanol emissions from selected consumer products and its application in assessment of inhalation exposure associated with cleaning tasks.
PubMed: Hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and infarction in male and female F344 rats following gavage exposure to 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Rat erythrocyte morphological changes after gavage dosing with 2-butoxyethanol: a comparison with the in vitro effects of butoxyacetic acid on rat and human erythrocytes.
PubMed: Occupational contact dermatitis from diethylene glycol monobutyl ether in a podiatrist.
PubMed: Comparison of the acute hematotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanol in male and female F344 rats.
PubMed: New methods for determination of 2-butoxyethanol, butoxyacetaldehyde and butoxyacetic acid in aqueous systems, with special reference to cell culture conditions.
PubMed: Dental pulp infarction in female rats following inhalation exposure to 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Sex-dependent induction of alcohol dehydrogenase activity in rats.
PubMed: [Acute poisoning with industrial products].
PubMed: Ocular thrombosis and retinal degeneration induced in female F344 rats by 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Disseminated thrombosis and bone infarction in female rats following inhalation exposure to 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Uptake of 10 polar organic solvents during short-term respiration.
PubMed: Cytotoxic effects of 2-butoxyethanol in vitro are related to butoxyacetaldehyde, an intermediate oxidation product.
PubMed: A simple, rapid method of nucleic acid extraction without tissue homogenization for detecting viroids by hybridization and RT-PCR.
PubMed: Toxicokinetics of inhaled 2-butoxyethanol and its major metabolite, 2-butoxyacetic acid, in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.
PubMed: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for chronic inhalation of 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Eruptive cherry angiomas and irritant symptoms after one acute exposure to the glycol ether solvent 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Acute toxicity of ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether in the guinea pig.
PubMed: Urinary NAG and GAG as biomarkers of renal effects in exposure to 2-alkoxyalcohols and their acetates.
PubMed: The role of liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the oxidation of glycolethers in male and female rats.
PubMed: Correspondence between occupational exposure limit and biological action level values for alkoxyethanols and their acetates.
PubMed: Alteration in methyl-methanesulfonate-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by 2-butoxyethanol in Syrian hamster embryo cells.
PubMed: Review of the genotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Physiologically based pharmacokinetics and the dermal absorption of 2-butoxyethanol vapor by humans.
PubMed: Stability of Dilute Colloidal Silica Suspensions in the Vicinity of the Binodal Curve of the System 2-Butoxyethanol/Water
PubMed: Acute lung injury induced by a commercial leather conditioner.
PubMed: Reproductive toxicology. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.
PubMed: Glycol ethers induce death and necrosis in human leukemia cells.
PubMed: Biological monitoring of workers exposed to low levels of 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Nonoxidative metabolism of 2-butoxyethanol via fatty acid conjugation in Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed: Re-examination of the mutagenicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether to Salmonella tester strain TA97a.
PubMed: Interactive effect of combined exposure to glycol ethers and alcohols on toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic parameters.
PubMed: Toxicodynamics of low level toxicant interactions of biological significance: inhibition of tissue repair.
PubMed: Bacterial degradation of glycol ethers.
PubMed: Human repeated insult patch test of 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: The determination of palladium in fosinopril sodium (monopril) by ICP-MS.
PubMed: Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolite, 2-butoxyacetaldehyde, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-AS52) cells.
PubMed: Determination of 2-butoxyethanol and butoxyacetic acid in rat and human blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Two rapid microscale procedures for isolation of total RNA from leaves rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides: application for sensitive detection of grapevine viroids.
PubMed: Species differences in testicular and hepatic biotransformation of 2-methoxyethanol.
PubMed: Experimental study of cutaneous tolerance to glycol ethers.
PubMed: 2-Butoxyethanol autoprotection is due to resiliance of newly formed erythrocytes to hemolysis.
PubMed: Physiologically based pharmacokinetics of 2-butoxyethanol and its major metabolite, 2-butoxyacetic acid, in rats and humans.
PubMed: Comparison of the testicular effects of 2-methoxyethanol (ME) in rats and guinea pigs.
PubMed: Hemolysis and deformability of erythrocytes exposed to butoxyacetic acid, a metabolite of 2-butoxyethanol: II. Resistance in red blood cells from humans with potential susceptibility.
PubMed: Hemolysis and deformability of erythrocytes exposed to butoxyacetic acid, a metabolite of 2-butoxyethanol: I. Sensitivity in rats and resistance in normal humans.
PubMed: Gaschromatographic determination of butoxyacetic acid after hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites in urine from workers exposed to 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Physiologically based modeling of 2-butoxyethanol disposition in rats following different routes of exposure.
PubMed: NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Ethylene Glycol Ethers: 2-Methoxyethanol, 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-Butoxyethanol (CAS Nos. 109-86-4, 110-80-5, 111-76-2) Administered in Drinking Water to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.
PubMed: Assessment of the haemolytic activity of 2-butoxyethanol and its major metabolite, butoxyacetic acid, in various mammals including humans.
PubMed: Solvent effect on testosterone-antitestosterone interaction.
PubMed: Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents. XIV. Examinations concerning the evaluation of a limit value for 2-ethoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate and the genotoxic effects of these glycol ethers.
PubMed: Determination of butoxyacetic acid and N-butoxyacetyl-glutamine in urine of lacquerers exposed to 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: An improved 32P-postlabelling assay for detection and quantitation of styrene 7,8-oxide-DNA adducts.
PubMed: Comparative immunosuppression of various glycol ethers orally administered to Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed: Ethylene glycol ethers as hemopoietic toxins--in vitro studies of acute exposure.
PubMed: Toxicity potential of compounds found in parenteral solutions with rubber stoppers.
PubMed: Development of tolerance to 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemolytic anemia and studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
PubMed: Clinical evaluation of pediatric ethylene glycol monobutyl ether poisonings.
PubMed: Percutaneous absorption of 2-butoxyethanol vapour in human subjects.
PubMed: Molecular aggregations in water-2-butoxyethanol mixtures by ultrasonic and Brillouin light-scattering measurements.
PubMed: Diethylene glycol mono butyl ether concentrations in room air from application of cleaner formulations to hard surfaces.
PubMed: Isolation of nucleic acids from plants by differential solvent precipitation.
PubMed: Effects of subchronic exposure of rats to 2-methoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol: thymic atrophy and immunotoxicity.
PubMed: Availability of NIOSH criteria document on ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate.
PubMed: Gas chromatographic determination of butoxyacetic acid in human blood after exposure to 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Comparison of the hematologic effects of 2-butoxyethanol using two types of hematology analyzers.
PubMed: Assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl and monophenyl ether reproductive toxicity using a continuous breeding protocol in Swiss CD-1 mice.
PubMed: A numerical procedure for choosing effective, low toxicity plasticizers for glycol methacrylate embedding.
PubMed: Effects of dose, age, inhibition of metabolism and elimination on the toxicokinetics of 2-butoxyethanol and its metabolites.
PubMed: Disposition of three glycol ethers administered in drinking water to male F344/N rats.
PubMed: The chemotherapeutic potential of glycol alkyl ethers: structure-activity studies of nine compounds in a Fischer-rat leukemia transplant model.
PubMed: Metabolic studies with diethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate (DGBA) in the rat.
PubMed: Metabolic and cellular basis of 2-butoxyethanol-induced hemolytic anemia in rats and assessment of human risk in vitro.
PubMed: Aspects of biological monitoring of exposure to glycol ethers.
PubMed: Liquid/air partition coefficients of six commonly used glycol ethers.
PubMed: Spreadsheet programming--a new approach in physiologically based modeling of solvent toxicokinetics.
PubMed: Influence of water on the percutaneous absorption of 2-butoxyethanol in guinea pigs.
PubMed: Percutaneous absorption of 2-butoxyethanol in man.
PubMed: Immunohistochemical antigen demonstration in plastic-embedded lymphoid tissue.
PubMed: Effect of age on the toxicity and metabolism of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) in rats.
PubMed: Survey of ethylene glycol ether exposures in Belgian industries and workshops.
PubMed: Metabolic basis of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) toxicity: role of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases.
PubMed: Metabolism and disposition of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) in rats.
PubMed: A comparison of developmental toxicity evident at term to postnatal growth and survival using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and ethanol.
PubMed: Toxicokinetics of inhaled 2-butoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) in man.
PubMed: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of inhaled 2-butoxyethanol in man.
PubMed: Percutaneous uptake rate of 2-butoxyethanol in the guinea pig.
PubMed: Elimination kinetics of 2-butoxyethanol in the perfused rat liver--dose dependence and effect of ethanol.
PubMed: Subchronic oral toxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether in male rats.
PubMed: Fertility and teratogenic studies of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether in rats and rabbits.
PubMed: Acute toxicity and recovery in the hemopoietic system of rats after treatment with ethylene glycol monomethyl and monobutyl ethers.
PubMed: Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.
PubMed: Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats.
PubMed: Teratologic evaluation of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether in Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand white rabbits following inhalation exposure.
PubMed: Comparative inhalation teratogenicity of four glycol ether solvents and an amino derivative in rats.
PubMed: Analyses of ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers and their proposed metabolites in blood and urine.
PubMed: Further studies on the toxicology of the glycol ethers with emphasis on rapid screening and hazard assessment.
PubMed: Absorption of some glycol ethers through human skin in vitro.
PubMed: Acute and subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.
PubMed: Interruption of cell-cell communication in Chinese hamster V79 cells by various alkyl glycol ethers: implications for teratogenicity.
PubMed: Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.
PubMed: Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether: acute, 9-day, and 90-day vapor inhalation studies in Fischer 344 rats.
PubMed: Effect of alcohols and selected solvents on serum osmolality measurements.
PubMed: Modification of calcium fluxes by dimethyl sulfoxide and 2-butoxyethanol in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles: a possible mechanism for skeletal muscle relaxation induced by dimethyl sulfoxide.
PubMed: Staining and histochemistry of undecalcified bone embedded in a water-miscible plastic.
PubMed: Direct continuous measurements of thermal expansion coefficients of liquids and solids using flow microcalorimetry.
PubMed: Toxic effects of some alcohol and ethylene glycol derivatives on Cladosporium resinae.
PubMed: Biocidal properties of anti-icing additives for aircraft fuels.
PubMed: Embedding media for 1-2 micron sectioning. 2. Hydroxyethyl methacrylate combined with 2-butoxyethanol.
PubMed: Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribosomal ribonucleic acid from bacteria.
PubMed: Isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid from mammalian tissues.
PubMed: ETHYLENE glycol mono-n-butyl ether (2-butoxyethanol).
PubMed: The toxicity of butyl cellosolve solvent.
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