EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

hyaluronic acid

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 9004-61-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):165324-65-2
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:232-678-0
XlogP3-AA:-7.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:776.65428000
Formula:C28 H44 N2 O23
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:nutrient adjuncts, dietary supplements, nutrient agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point:1274.00 to 1275.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point:1336.00 °F. TCC ( 724.50 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -6.623 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 8.271e+005 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
moisturising agents
skin conditioning
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Hyaluronic acid
George Uhe Company
Hyaluronic Acid
Cristalhyal® range
Odor: characteristic
Use: Cristalhyal® range is a grade of high molecular weight Hyaluronic Acid powder (MW: 1-1,4 MDa) obtained by fermentation, using renewable resources.
Hyalusphere® PF or XP
Odor: characteristic
Use: Hyalusphere® is a high molecular weight Hyaluronic Acid (HA) encapsulated into our exclusive patented technology, Spherulite™.
NovHyal™ Biotech G
Odor: characteristic
Use: The lastest generation of Hyaluronic Acid: the « needle-free » HA, acting as a pro-filler to replump the skin. More efficient than retinol.
PrimalHyal 3K
Odor: characteristic
Use: PrimalHyal 3K is a rich biocompatible Hyaluronic Acid blend able to penetrate into the skin to rejuvenate it from within.
PrimalHyal™ 300
Odor: characteristic
Use: Medium molecular weight of hyaluronic acid powder (MW: 100-300 KDa) obtained by biotechnology manufacturing process.
PrimalHyal™ 50
Odor: characteristic
Use: PrimalHyal™ is a patented grade of low molecular weight Hyaluronic Acid (MW: 20-50 KDa), obtained by fermentation.
PrimalHyal™ Gold
Odor: characteristic
Use: This new generation of Hyaluronic Acid breaks the previous limits of formulation by allowing its use in oily and anhydrous formulas.
PrimalHyal™ Ultrafiller
Odor: characteristic
Use: PrimalHyal™ Ultrafiller is a unique and patent-pending hyaluronic acid (HA) derivative designed to offer a cosmetic alternative to the injectable fillers. It penetrates twice deeper into the skin than standard HA and is resistant to hyaluronidases thanks to its full acetylation, for a longer lifetime in the skin.
Odor: characteristic
Use: ResistHyal™ is a new generation of hair care active ingredient containing an optimised ratio of low and high molecular weight hyaluronic acids.
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Hyaluronic Acid
Jiangyin Healthway
Hyaluronic Acid Oligosaccharide
New functional food ingredients
Jiangyin Healthway
Hyaluronic Acid
Lipo Chemicals
Biopolymer BHA-10
Odor: characteristic
Use: Biopolymer BHA-10 is an association complex between Polyquaternium-10 and Hyaluronic Acid. The Polyquaternum-10 is derived from cellulose, and adheres well to proteinacious surfaces such as the skin and the hair. The hyaluronic acid found in Biopolymer BHA-10 is manufactured via a microbial fermentation process for a green and naturally derived product.
Lipo Chemicals
Biopolymer HA-24
Odor: characteristic
Use: Biopolymer HA-24 is an association complex of Polyquaternium-24 and Hyaluronic Acid (Animal derived). This opalescent viscous liquid combines the moisturization properties of hyaluronic acid with the substantivity of a lauryl-substituted quaternized hydroxyethylcellulose, creating a substantive hyaluronic acid that can be utilized in a myriad of skin care applications.
Lipo Chemicals
Biopolymer SA-N
Odor: characteristic
Use: Biopolymer SA-N is a unique three-part polymer complex that physically lifts wrinkles to smooth the skin, give a soft focus effect to optically reduce the appearance of wrinkles, while moisturizing the skin. Biopolymer SA-N is comprised of hyaluronic acid, serum albumen and dextran sulfate.
Maypro Industries
Hyaluronic Acid
For experimental / research use only.
Cation hyaluronic acid 90%
Pangaea Sciences
Hyaluronic Acid USP
Penta International
Hyaluronic Acid
Shaanxi Y-Herb Biotechnology
Skin Injection/Food/Cosmetic Grade Sodium Hyaluronate 99% Hyaluronic Acid Powder
WILD Flavors
Hyaluronic Acid
Flavor: taste
Hyaluronic Acid (HA) occurs naturally in the body. The highest concentration is found in the soft connective tissue. It is present in cartilage, synovial joint fluid and skin tissue. It is essential for preservation of synovial fluid, which maintains bones and joints. HA also works to hydrate the skin from the inside out.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
nutrient adjuncts, dietary supplements, nutrient agents
Recommendation for hyaluronic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for hyaluronic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to hyaluronic acid and protection of the skin against dehydration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9004-61-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :24759
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:9004-61-9
Pubchem (cid):24759
Pubchem (sid):134989201
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00518
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB10366
Export Tariff Code:3912.90.0090
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
10 mg per ml (single-dose 2-ml vial or 2-ml prefilled syringe) (hyalgan), (sodium chloride, monobasic sodium phosphate, dibasic sodium phosphate). hyaluronate sodium
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
 biopolymer BHA-10
 biopolymer HA-24
 biopolymer SA-N
 hyaluronic acid USP


PubMed:Synthesis and optimization of a novel polymeric micelle based on hyaluronic acid and phospholipids for delivery of paclitaxel, in vitro and in-vivo evaluation.
PubMed:Silymarin Inhibits the Progression of Fibrosis in the Early Stages of Liver Injury in CCl4-Treated Rats.
PubMed:Beneficial effects of hyaluronic Acid.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of hyaluronic Acid from marine organisms.
PubMed:cis-Dichlorodiamminoplatinum (II) glyconanoparticles by drug-induced ionic gelation technique targeted to prostate cancer: Preparation, optimization and in vitro characterization.
PubMed:Staphylococcus aureus Hyaluronidase Is a CodY-Regulated Virulence Factor.
PubMed:Blood cells transcriptomics as source of potential biomarkers of articular health improvement: effects of oral intake of a rooster combs extract rich in hyaluronic acid.
PubMed:High-yield novel leech hyaluronidase to expedite the preparation of specific hyaluronan oligomers.
PubMed:A combination of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu extracts for short-term symptomatic relief of joint discomfort associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.
PubMed:Midface and perioral volume restoration: a conversation between the US and Italy.
PubMed:Recent development of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes with natural polysaccharides for drug delivery.
PubMed:Facial volume augmentation in 2014: overview of different filler options.
PubMed:Autologous bone marrow concentrate: review and application of a novel intra-articular orthobiologic for cartilage disease.
PubMed:Current status of surgery in dermatology.
PubMed:Volumizing hyaluronic acid filler for midface volume deficit: 2-year results from a pivotal single-blind randomized controlled study.
PubMed:Biophysical characteristics of hyaluronic acid soft-tissue fillers and their relevance to aesthetic applications.
PubMed:Study of the mechanism of formation of hyaluronan putty at pH 2.5: part II--theoretical analysis.
PubMed:Study of the mechanism of formation of hyaluronan putty at pH 2.5: part I. Experimental measurements.
PubMed:Optimization of flask culture medium and conditions for hyaluronic acid production by a Streptococcus equisimilis mutant nc2168.
PubMed:Influence of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Shott) growth conditions on the phenolic composition and biological properties.
PubMed:Cytotoxicity testing of scaffolds potentially suitable for the preparation of three-dimensional skin substitutes.
PubMed:Collagen hydrolysate intake improves the loss of epidermal barrier function and skin elasticity induced by UVB irradiation in hairless mice.
PubMed:On-line separation and characterization of hyaluronan oligosaccharides derived from radical depolymerization.
PubMed:Immunostimulatory and antiangiogenic activities of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid.
PubMed:Embryo development and sex ratio of in vitro-produced porcine embryos are affected by the energy substrate and hyaluronic acid added to the culture medium.
PubMed:Proteolytic activity from chicken intestine and pancreas: extraction, partial characterization and application for hyaluronic acid separation from chicken comb.
PubMed:A 12-month, prospective, evaluator-blinded study of small gel particle hyaluronic acid filler in the correction of temporal fossa volume loss.
PubMed:Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric patients.
PubMed:Influence of water content and drying on the physical structure of native hyaluronan.
PubMed:4-methylumbelliferone inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Comparative stability of the bioresorbable ferric crosslinked hyaluronic acid adhesion prevention solutions.
PubMed:Papilla regeneration by injectable stem cell therapy with regenerative medicine: long-term clinical prognosis.
PubMed:What tissue is formed after graft of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells?
PubMed:Malar augmentation with a polymethylmethacrylate-enhanced filler: assessment of a 12-month open-label pilot study.
PubMed:[Evaluation of postsurgical adhesion prevention using different formulated sodium hyaluronate membranes].
PubMed:Chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid and chitin/chitosan production using marine waste sources: characteristics, applications and eco-friendly processes: a review.
PubMed:A nanoporous membrane-based impedimetric immunosensor for label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria in whole milk.
PubMed:Hyaluronidase expression and biofilm involvement in Staphylococcus aureus UAMS-1 and its sarA, agr and sarA agr regulatory mutants.
PubMed:An intra-articular salmon calcitonin-based nanocomplex reduces experimental inflammatory arthritis.
PubMed:The effects of hylan g-f 20 surface modification on gliding of extrasynovial canine tendon grafts in vitro.
PubMed:Oral administration of hyaluronan reduces bone turnover in ovariectomized rats.
PubMed:Phlorotannin extracts from fucales characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn: approaches to hyaluronidase inhibitory capacity and antioxidant properties.
PubMed:Quantitative analysis of locomotive behavior of human sperm head and tail.
PubMed:Contemporary review of injectable facial fillers.
PubMed:Autologous fat grafting and injectable dermal fillers for human immunodeficiency virus-associated facial lipodystrophy: a comparison of safety, efficacy, and long-term treatment outcomes.
PubMed:Six steps to the "perfect" lip.
PubMed:The optimal filler: immediate and long-term results with emulsified silicone (1,000 centistokes) with cross-linked hyaluronic acid.
PubMed:Culture medium optimization of a new bacterial extracellular polysaccharide with excellent moisture retention activity.
PubMed:[Ideas about registration for sodium hyaluronate facial derma fillers].
PubMed:Michelia alba extract attenuates UVB-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases via MAP kinase pathway in human dermal fibroblasts.
PubMed:Cell-Based Microscale Isolation of Glycoaminoglycans for Glycomics Study.
PubMed:Biological activities of glucosamine and its related substances.
PubMed:[Therapeutic options for primary vesicoureteral reflux: endoscopic vs open surgical approach].
PubMed:Autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce persistent bone-like tissue in osteonecrotic femoral heads.
PubMed:Effects of soybean peptide and collagen peptide on collagen synthesis in normal human dermal fibroblasts.
PubMed:Venous leg ulcers.
PubMed:Genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity studies in rats of a rooster comb extract rich in sodium hyaluronate.
PubMed:Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives.
PubMed:Wild blueberry (V. angustifolium)-enriched diets alter aortic glycosaminoglycan profile in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.
PubMed:Antioxidant acitivity of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid.
PubMed:[Macrolane(®), a too premature indication in breast augmentation. Focusing on current knowledge of the product].
PubMed:The impact of vesicoureteral reflux treatment on the incidence of urinary tract infection.
PubMed:Hyaluronic acid production by recombinant Streptococcus thermophilus.
PubMed:Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis with intrathoracic mass.
PubMed:Ionically cross-linked hyaluronic acid: wetting, lubrication, and viscoelasticity of a modified adhesion barrier gel.
PubMed:Demonstration of efficacy in the treatment of dry eye disease with 0.18% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution (vismed, rejena).
PubMed:Effects of Pro-Hyp, a collagen hydrolysate-derived peptide, on hyaluronic acid synthesis using in vitro cultured synovium cells and oral ingestion of collagen hydrolysates in a guinea pig model of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:What's New in Fillers in 2010?
PubMed:Inhibitors of hyaluronan export from hops prevent osteoarthritic reactions.
PubMed:Biomaterials for the decorporation of (85)Sr in the rat.
PubMed:Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts.
PubMed:pH effect on the synthesis, shear properties, and homogeneity of iron-crosslinked hyaluronic acid-based gel/adhesion barrier.
PubMed:Endoscopic treatment of primary grade V vesicoureteral reflux using hyaluronic acid copolymer (DX/HA).
PubMed:Exobiopolymer production of Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073: optimization, production in bioreactor and characterization.
PubMed:Soft tissue augmentation in dermatology - 2009 update.
PubMed:Collagen-derived dipeptide, proline-hydroxyproline, stimulates cell proliferation and hyaluronic acid synthesis in cultured human dermal fibroblasts.
PubMed:Efficacy and safety of hylan G-F 20 for symptomatic glenohumeral osteoarthritis: a prospective, pilot study.
PubMed:High-fat diet reduces levels of type I tropocollagen and hyaluronan in rat skin.
PubMed:Genotypic and Phenotypic Assessment of Hyaluronidase among Type Strains of a Select Group of Staphylococcal Species.
PubMed:Comparison of Puerariae Radix and its hydrolysate on stimulation of hyaluronic acid production in NHEK cells.
PubMed:Protective effect of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extracts on cultured human corneal limbal epithelial cells (HCLEC).
PubMed:The filler revolution: a six-year retrospective.
PubMed:Minimally invasive treatment for papillae deficiencies in the esthetic zone: a pilot study.
PubMed:ArteFill permanent injectable for soft tissue augmentation: II. Indications and applications.
PubMed:Stimulating effects of Bacillus subtilis natto-fermented Radix astragali on hyaluronic acid production in human skin cells.
PubMed:Injectable fillers: an American perspective.
PubMed:Hyaluronic acid as a treatment for ankle osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Collagen-based dermal fillers: past, present, future.
PubMed:The history of injectable facial fillers.
PubMed:High-molar-mass hyaluronan behavior during testing its radical scavenging capacity in organic and aqueous media: effects of the presence of manganese(II) ions.
PubMed:Streptococcus thermophilus produces exopolysaccharides including hyaluronic acid.
PubMed:Juvéderm injectable gel: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study of safety and effectiveness.
PubMed:Absorption, uptake and tissue affinity of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan after oral administration in rats and dogs.
PubMed:Quantification and characterization of enzymatically produced hyaluronan with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.
PubMed:Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.
PubMed:Variation in osteoarthritis biomarkers from activity not food consumption.
PubMed:Evaluation of the poly-L-lactic acid implant for treatment of the nasolabial fold: 3-year follow-up evaluation.
PubMed:Hyaluronic acid gel fillers in the management of facial aging.
PubMed:The science of hyaluronic acid dermal fillers.
PubMed:Effect of gamma irradiated hyaluronic acid on acetaminophen induced acute hepatotoxicity.
PubMed:Venous leg ulcers.
PubMed:Hyaluronic acid delays boar sperm capacitation after 3 days of storage at 15 degrees C.
PubMed:Hyaluronic acid fillers and botulinum toxin type a: rationale for their individual and combined use for injectable facial rejuvenation.
PubMed:Non-animal-based hyaluronic acid fillers: scientific and technical considerations.
PubMed:Hylan versus hyaluronic acid for osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PubMed:Boar spermatozoa and prostaglandin F2alpha. Quality of boar sperm after the addition of prostaglandin F2alpha to the short-term extender over cooling time.
PubMed:Persistent delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to injectable non-animal-stabilized hyaluronic acid.
PubMed:Recombinant synthesis of hyaluronan by Agrobacterium sp.
PubMed:A randomized, evaluator-blinded comparison of efficacy of hyaluronic acid gel and avian-sourced hylan B plus gel for correction of nasolabial folds.
PubMed:Review of non-FDA-approved fillers.
PubMed:Carboxymethylated (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan protects liposomes against ultraviolet light-induced lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:Nonheme iron absorption in young women is not influenced by purified sulfated and unsulfated glycosaminoglycans.
PubMed:Hyaluronic acid fillers: Hylaform and Captique.
PubMed:Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Adjunct devices for managing challenging cases in cataract surgery: capsular staining and ophthalmic viscosurgical devices.
PubMed:Ethics, legal issues, and consent for fillers.
PubMed:Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats of a hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage preparation.
PubMed:Patient safety considerations regarding dermal filler injections.
PubMed:Injectable soft-tissue fillers: clinical overview.
PubMed:Trehalose and hyaluronic acid coordinately stabilized freeze-dried pancreatic kininogenase.
PubMed:The evolution of vesicoureteral reflux management in the era of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer: a pediatric health information system database study.
PubMed:Dermal filler agents: a practical review.
PubMed:Anticoagulation and inhibition of nitric oxide synthase influence hepatic hypoxia after monocrotaline exposure.
PubMed:Hyaluronic acid fillers.
PubMed:Soft tissue augmentation 2006: filler fantasy.
PubMed:Hypersensitivity reaction to nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid.
PubMed:Simple aspiration technique to address voiding dysfunction associated with transurethral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer.
PubMed:Hepatoprotective effects of whey protein on D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and liver fibrosis in rats.
PubMed:The number and variety of filling agents for soft tissue augmentation are continually increasing.
PubMed:Single center experience with endoscopic management of vesicoureteral reflux in children.
PubMed:Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
PubMed:Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid for vesicoureteral reflux: success rates after initial treatment failure.
PubMed:Mechanisms by which food intake elevates circulating levels of hyaluronan in humans.
PubMed:Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a meta-analysis of the recent studies.
PubMed:Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.
PubMed:Native hyaluronan produces less hypersensitivity than cross-linked hyaluronan.
PubMed:Does deflux alter the paradigm for the management of children with vesicoureteral reflux?
PubMed:Mechanisms of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
PubMed:Soft tissue augmentation using Restylane.
PubMed:Role of hepatic fibrin in idiosyncrasy-like liver injury from lipopolysaccharide-ranitidine coexposure in rats.
PubMed:Vesicoureteral reflux: surgical approaches.
PubMed:Science meets beauty: using medicine to improve appearances.
PubMed:Chemical composition of the infrapatellar fat pad of swine.
PubMed:Intra-articular hyaluronic acid in treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis.
PubMed:Endothelial cell injury and coagulation system activation during synergistic hepatotoxicity from monocrotaline and bacterial lipopolysaccharide coexposure.
PubMed:[Regenerative medicine for skin].
PubMed:Intra-articular hyaluronans: a review of product-specific safety profiles.
PubMed:Augmentation of aflatoxin B1 hepatotoxicity by endotoxin: involvement of endothelium and the coagulation system.
PubMed:The influence of environmental pollution on the amount of glycosoaminoglycans in the tissue of palatine tonsils.
PubMed:TNFalpha and IL-8 regulate the expression and function of CD44 variant proteins in human colon carcinoma cells.
PubMed:Galactosaminoglycan composition in chicken eggshell.
PubMed:Rheology of hyaluronan solutions under extensional flow.
PubMed:An introduction to biodegradable materials for tissue engineering applications.
PubMed:Extraction of glycosaminoglycans from chicken eggshell.
PubMed:Current bladder tumor tests: does their projected utility fulfill clinical necessity?
PubMed:Rheological evidence of the gelation behavior of hyaluronan-gellan mixtures.
PubMed:Extraction of Glycosaminoglycan Peptide from Bovine Nasal Cartilage with 0.1 M Sodium Acetate.
PubMed:Injectable agents in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: where are we now?
PubMed:Overview: soft tissue augmentation.
PubMed:Viscosupplementation: therapeutic mechanisms and clinical potential in osteoarthritis of the knee.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans from growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus).
PubMed:Effects of eating on plasma hyaluronan in patients with cirrhosis: its mechanism and influence on clinical interpretation.
PubMed:Involution of keloid implants in athymic mice treated with pirfenidone or with triamcinolone.
PubMed:Plasma hyaluronan concentration: no circadian rhythm but large effect of food intake in humans.
PubMed:Isolation, characterization and localization of glycosaminoglycans in growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus).
PubMed:Post-prandial serum hyaluronan concentration in patients with chronic liver disease.
PubMed:Molecular weight of hyaluronate in the serum of patients with chronic liver disease.
PubMed:Intra-articular hyaluronan injections for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee.
PubMed:Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans from different zones of the porcine knee meniscus.
PubMed:Increased levels of hyaluronan and albumin after intestinal challenge in adult patients with cow's milk intolerance.
PubMed:Bacterial polysaccharides in sickness and in health. The 1995 Fleming Lecture.
PubMed:Intestinal reactivity in allergic and nonallergic patients: an approach to determine the complexity of the mucosal reaction.
PubMed:Effect of intrajejunal elemental diet perfusion on jejunal secretion of immunoglobulins, albumin, and hyaluronan in man.
PubMed:[Antioxidative activity studies on the meaning of same original of herbal drug and food].
PubMed:Manganese rickets. A biochemical and stereologic study with special reference to the effect of phosphate.
PubMed:[Toxicologic-hygienic characteristics of the preparation nerosin, an agent for protecting plants and soils subject to wind erosion].
PubMed:Studies on the alimentary canal of amphipods: histochemistry of cephalic mucous glands in Talorchestia martensii (Weber) (Crustacea: Amphipoda).
PubMed:Effects of pre- and peri-natal restricted food intake on sulphated glycosaminoglycan concentrations in rat brain.
PubMed:Studies on the Indian sand lobster Thenus orientalis (Lund): mucopolysaccharides of the tegumental glands.
a natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. it is found in the umbilical cord, in vitreous body and in synovial fluid. a high urinary level is found in progeria. Hyaluronic acid (HA), is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in mammalian tissue. It is present in high concentrations in connective tissue, such as skin, vitreous humor, cartilage, and umbilical cord, but the largest single reservoir is the synovial fluid (SF) of the diarthrodial joints, where concentrations of 0.5-4 mg/mL are achieved. Hyaluronic acid, is the major hydrodynamic nonprotein component of joint SF. Its unique viscoelastic properties confer remarkable shock absorbing and lubricating abilities to SF, while its enormous macromolecular size and hydrophilicity serve to retain fluid in the joint cavity during articulation. HA restricts the entry of large plasma proteins and cells into SF but facilitates solute exchange between the synovial capillaries and cartilage and other joint tissues. In addition, HA can form a pericellular coat around cells, interact with proinflammatory mediators, and bind to cell receptors, such as cluster determinant (CD)44 and receptor for hyaluronate-mediated motility (RHAMM), where it modulates cell proliferation, migration, and gene expression. All these physicochemical and biologic properties of HA have been shown to be molecular weight (MW) dependent. The diverse physicochemical properties of HA arise from its unique macromolecular structure. The HA is an exceptionally long (3-30 μm) and unbranched nonsulfated GAG composed of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetylglucosamine, and glucuronic acid glycosidically linked through their respective 1-4 ring positions. Hydroxyl group oxygens at the glucuronyl-1 and glucosamine 3-positions are used for further polymerization of the HA disaccharide units to form chains that, when released from the cell plasma membrane, are of variable length and thus polydispersity. Despite the simplicity of the HA primary structure, this linear polyelectrolyte adopts complex conformations in solution, which engender it with diverse biologic properties. Within the joint cavity, HA molecules are predominately synthesized by the type B synovial cells. (PMID 12219318) [HMDB]
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