Isol. from leaves of the curryleaf (Murraya koenigii) and from star anise oil (Illicium religiosum) It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide and the recreational drug MDMA ("Ecstacy."); Safrole is a natural plant constituent, found in oil of sassafras and certain other essential oils. It is a member of the methylenedioxybenzene group of compounds, many of which (e.g. piperonyl butoxide) are extensively used as insecticide synergists. A major source of human exposure to safrole is through consumption of spices, such as nutmeg, cinnamon and black pepper, in which safrole is a constituent. Safrole is also present in root beer, and has been used as an additive in chewing gum, toothpaste, soaps and certain pharmaceutical preparations. Safrole is a weak hepatocarcinogen and it is a matter of considerable interest whether the ally1 moiety or the methylenedioxy group, or both, are involved in the mechanism of its carcinogenesis. Safrole is extensively metabolized, giving rise to a large number of metabolites. Metabolism involves essentially two major routes, oxidation of the ally1 side chain, and oxidation of the methylenedioxy group with subsequent cleavage to form the catechol. Safrole undergoes oxidation of the allylic group to yield the 2, 3-epoxide (safrole epoxide). The dihydrodiol is one of the metabolites of safrole, and presumably arises from the hydration of the 2, 3-epoxide. The principal route of metabolism of safrole is through cleavage of the methylenedioxy group, the major metabolites being allylcatechol and its isomer, propenylcatechol. Eugenol and its isomer I-methoxy- 2-hydroxy-4-allylbenzene have been detected as minor metabolites in the rat, mouse and man. (PMID: 6719936); Safrole, also known as shikimol, is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid. It is typically extracted from the root-bark or the fruit of sassafras plants in the form of sassafras oil, or synthesized from other related methylenedioxy compounds. It is the principal component of brown camphor oil, and is found in small amounts in a wide variety of plants, where it functions as a natural pesticide. The Ocotea cymbarum[verification needed] oil made of the Ocotea pretiosa[verification needed], a plant growing in Brazil, and sassafras oil made of Sassafras albidum, a tree growing in eastern North America, are the main natural sources for safrole. It has a characteristic "candy-shop" aroma.
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      09-63000 ISOSAFROLE
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5-prop-1-enyl-1,3-benzodioxole (Click)
CAS Number: 120-58-1Picture of molecule
Other: 191281-03-5
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 204-410-2
Beilstein Number: 0082640
MDL: MFCD00005838
XlogP3: 3.10 (est)
Molecular Weight: 162.18810000
Formula: C10 H10 O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: natural substances and extractives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 6.75 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 127.00 to  128.00 °C. @ 15.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 254.00 to  255.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.025000 mm/Hg (est)
Flash Point: 230.00 °F. TCC ( 110.10 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 3.344 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 88.68 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
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Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: spicy
Odor Strength: medium ,
recommend smelling in a 10.00 % solution or less
 sweet  sassafrass  spicy  
Odor Description:
at 10.00 % in dipropylene glycol. 
sweet sassafrass spicy
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
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Cosmetic Information:
None found
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BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Isosafrole 95%
Penta International
Reincke & Fichtner
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
isoSafrole mixture of cis and trans
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Human Experience:
8 % solution: no irritation or sensitization.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  324 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 104, Pg. 793, 1984.

oral-mouse LD50  2470 mg/kg
Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 2, Pg. 327, 1964.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  300 mg/kg
Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 35, Pg. 342, 1895.

oral-rat LD50  1340 mg/kg
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7, Pg. 18, 1965.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 1030 mg/kg
Sapporo Igaku Zasshi. Sapporo Medical Journal. Vol. 3, Pg. 73, 1952.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: natural substances and extractives
IFRA fragrance material specification:
 Safrole as such should not be used as a fragrance ingredient; essential oils containing safrole should not be used at a level such that the total concentration of safrole exceeds 0.01% in consumer products. Examples of essential oils with a high safrole content are Sassafras oil (Sassafras officinale Nees& Eberm.), Ocotea Cymbarum oil (Ocotea pretiosa Metz) and certain qualities of Camphor oils. The total concentration of safrole, isosafrole and dihydrosafrole should not exceed 0.01% in consumer products. These recommendations are based on the conclusions of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetology of the EEC on safrole and on the similarity of the biological activity of these substances (Scientific Committee of Cosmetology of the EEC, opinion reached on September 2, 1980; Communication to the EEC Commission ENV/521/79 and IARC Monograph Vol. 10, 1976, 231-244).
IFRA: View Standard
limits in the finished product for - "leave on the skin contact":
  0.0100 % Restriction.
limits in the finished product for - "wash off the skin contact":
  0.0100 % Restriction.
limits in the finished product for - "no skin contact":
  0.0100 % Restriction.
Recommendation for isosafrole usage levels up to:
 PROHIBITED: Should not be used as a fragrance ingredient.
Recommendation for isosafrole flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
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Safety References:
EPI System: View
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
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Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 120-58-1
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 8439
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 3
Chemidplus: 0000120581
EPA/NOAA CAMEO: hazardous materials
RTECS: DA5950000 for cas# 120-58-1
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NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 120-58-1
Pubchem (cid): 8439
Pubchem (sid): 134975200
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB02333
FooDB: FDB012296
Export Tariff Code: 2932.91.0000
Haz-Map: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
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Potential Uses:
 root beerFR
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 curry leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 illicium religiosum oil
Search Trop  Picture
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1-allyl,3,4-methylenedioxy benzene
 benzene, 1,2-(methylenedioxy)-4-propenyl-
1,3-benzodioxole, 5-(1-propen-1-yl)-
1,3-benzodioxole, 5-(1-propenyl)-
3,4-methylenedioxy-1-propenyl benzene
4-propenylcatechol methylene ether
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