laevo-aspartic acid
L-aspartic acid
 
Notes:
one of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the l-form. it is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. it may be a neurotransmitter. Found in sugar cane and sugar beet molasses and proteins/peptides. Dietary supplement, nutrient Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D; Asx or B represent either aspartic acid or asparagine) is an alpha-amino acid with the chemical formula HOOCCH(NH2)CH2COOH. The carboxylate anion, salt, or ester of aspartic acid is known as aspartate. The L-isomer of aspartate is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins. Its codons are GAU and GAC. (Wikipedia)
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve and our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Personal care ingredients now include a substantial array of luxury and exotic components. Substantial inroads have been made in the nutraceutical and resins markets, with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. And we continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions.
      Email: Sales
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      Fax: 203-299-1355
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      Product(s):
      ASPARTIC ACID, L-
       
  • CTC Organics
    • CTC Organics
      For More Than 40 Year
      Your source for rare aroma chemicals for the flavor and fragrance industy.
      “The world is run by middle men.” The number of times I have heard Dr. Liu utter those words are innumerable. He loved reciting and recording famous quotes and had many of his own. Among his many talents, Dr. Liu had a unique genius in the area of chemistry. He had an uncanny understanding of the pulse of the chemical industry and was a superb salesman.
      US Email: Customer Service
      US Voice: (404) 524-6744
      US Fax: (404) 577-1651
      Resources
      History
      Product(s):
      W01315 L-aspartic acid
       
  • Jiangyin Healthway
    • Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co.
      Independent Ingredients Supplier
      We provide custom synthesis and contract manufacturing from milligrams to metric tonnes.
      Jiangyin Healthway International Trade Co., Ltd is a professional company, main engaged in manufacturing and exporting aroma chemicals ,food additives , cosmetic ingredient ,pharmaceutical intermediates & other fine chemicals; especially on aroma chemicals , as the major manufacturer of heterocyclic and sulphur aroma compounds , we are the leading independent ingredients supplier to the flavour and fragrance industries in China, can offer hundreds of different high quality aroma chemicals.
      Email: Info
      Email: Sales
      Voice: 86-510-86023169
      Fax: 86-510-86023170
      Mobile0086-13093133011
      Services
      Biochemical
      Natural Food Colour
      New functional food ingredients
      Product(s):
      103729 L-Aspartic Acid
       
  • Lansdowne Chemicals
    • Lansdowne Chemicals
      With a focus on providing the highest level of service
      Lansdowne Chemicals has established itself at the forefront of the global chemical industry.
      Headquarters are in Carterton, Oxfordshire encompassing all of Lansdowne's Business Units. Our Regulatory Team and Quality Control Departments are based out of Carterton. Lansdowne Aromatic's state of the art warehouse facilities are located in Cricklade, covering 12,000 square ft. We are able to offer just-in-time deliveries for our full range of products, in a variety of pack sizes. Bonded facilities are available for goods going outside of the EU.
      Email: Contact Us:
      US Email: Dean Matienzo - Sales Manager
      Voice: +44 1993 843081
      Fax: +44 1993 841261
      US Voice: +1 973 886 3778
      US Fax: +1 973 346 1106
      Whats New
      Global Distribution
      Product(s):
      L-Aspartic Acid natural
       
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      01-42300 L-ASPARTIC ACID FCC, Kosher
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
      Email: Information
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: 800-244-1173
      US Fax: 800-368-4661
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      Certified Food Grade Products
      Product(s):
      W365601 L-Aspartic acid, ≥98%, FG
      SDS
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
(2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 56-84-8Picture of molecule
Other: 181119-33-5
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 200-291-6
FDA UNII: 30KYC7MIAI
Nikkaji Web: J9.169C
Beilstein Number: 1723530
MDL: MFCD00002616
CoE Number: 10078
XlogP3: -2.80 (est)
Molecular Weight: 133.10359000
Formula: C4 H7 N O4
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
IBM Patents: Obtain
Obtain
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1429  L-aspartic acid
Flavis Number: 17.005 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 17.005  L-aspartic acid
FEMA Number: 3656  L-aspartic acid
FDA Mainterm: L-ASPARTIC ACID
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 270.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 263.00 to  264.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
PH Number: 2.80
Vapor Pressure: 0.003000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 236.00 °F. TCC ( 113.33 °C. )
logP (o/w): -3.890
Soluble in:
 propylene glycol
 water, 5390 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength: none
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
Luebke, William tgsc, (2007)
 acidic  
Taste Description:
acid
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
masking agents
skin conditioning
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
A.M.G.L.T.
L-Aspartic
Aceto
L-Aspartic Acid FCC
Ajinomoto USA
L-Aspartic Acid
Flavor: characteristic
L-aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid. It is found in abundance in plant proteins but can be manufactured in the body from oxaloacedic acids. It is one of two acidic amino acids.
Anhui Haibei
L-Aspartic Acid
Charkit Chemical
ASPARTIC ACID, L-
CTC Organics
L-aspartic acid
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
L-Aspartic Acid
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Aspartic Acid
Jiangyin Healthway
L-Aspartic Acid
New functional food ingredients
Lansdowne Chemicals
L-Aspartic Acid natural
Penta International
L-ASPARTIC ACID FCC, Kosher
Prinova
L-Aspartic Acid
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Aspartic acid, ≥98%, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-Aspartic Acid >99.0%(T)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 22 - Do not breath dust.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50  6000 mg/kg
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal Vol. 25, Pg. 569, 1991.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-aspartic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 68.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 13
Click here to view publication 13
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -250.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -150.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -250.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -250.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: -250.00000
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
Daily Med: search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 56-84-8
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 5960
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 (2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
Chemidplus: 0000056848
RTECS: 56-84-8
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References:
 (2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 56-84-8
Pubchem (cid): 5960
Pubchem (sid): 134972922
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
Metabolomics Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C00049
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB00191
FooDB: FDB012567
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database): YMDB00896
Export Tariff Code: 2922.49.4015
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status: View
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
Formulations/Preparations:
•(vet) commercially available as mixt of potassium & magnesium aspartates= spartase. aspartic acid •available commercially as d(-)-, l(+)-, & dl-aspartic acid. aspartic acid •150 g aspartic acid was polymerized in presence of h3po4 to give 150 g poly(dehydroaspartic acid) which was treated with morpholine. polymer was incorporated into an anionic shampoo with 4% concn. •usp and fcc grades; 99% min grade
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
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 bean black bean seed
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 bean field bean seed
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 bean mung bean sprout
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 bean winged bean leaf
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 beet root
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 borage leaf
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 brazil nut
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 breadfruit seed
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 broccoli asparagus broccoli leaf
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 buckwheat seed
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 burdock root
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 butternut seed
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 cabbage leaf
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 caraway seed
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 carob bean seed
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 carrot root
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 cashew nut
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 cassava root
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 celery plant
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 celery shoot
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 chayote fruit
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 cherry sour cherry fruit
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 chestnut sweet chestnut nut
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 chickpea seed
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 chive leaf
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 coconut endosperm
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 coconut leaf
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 coconut seed
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 coffee bean
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 coffee fruit
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 coriander fruit
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 coriander seed
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 corn seed
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 cucumber fruit
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 currant black currant fruit juice
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 dandelion leaf
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 date palm fruit
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 eggplant fruit
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 endive leaf
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 evening-primrose seed
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 fennel seed
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 fenugreek seed
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 fig fruit
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 flax seed
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 garlic bulb
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 garlic leaf
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 ginger root
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 ginger shoot
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 ginger tuber
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 ginkgo biloba seed
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 goosefoot plant
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 grape fruit
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 guava fruit
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 lupine white lupine seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 mandarin fruit
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 mango fruit
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 marango shoot
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 melon bitter melon seed
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 mushroom shiitake mushroom fruit
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 mustard white mustard seed
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 oat seed
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 okra fruit
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 onion bulb
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea fruit
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 pea seed
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 pea shoot
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 peach fruit
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 peanut seed
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 pear fruit
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 purslane plant
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 radish root
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 rice hay
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 roselle plant
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 sesame seed
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 star fruit fruit
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 sugar beet
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 sugar cane
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 sunflower seed
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 taro root
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 tarragon leaf
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 tarragon root
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 tea plant
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 watercress herb
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 watermelon fruit
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 watermelon seed
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 wheat seed
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 yam mountain yam root
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Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 acide L-aspartique
(S)-amino-butanedioic acid
(S)-aminobutane dioic acid
2-aminobutane doic acid
(2S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
(S)-aminobutanedioic acid
(S)-2-aminobutanedioic acid
L-2-aminobutanedioic acid
(2S)-2-aminosuccinic acid
(S)-2-aminosuccinic acid
L-aminosuccinic acid
 aspara K
 asparagic acid
L-asparagic acid
(S)-asparaginic acid
L-asparaginic acid
(+)-aspartic acid
(2S)-aspartic acid
(L)-aspartic acid
(S)-aspartic acid
(S)-(+)-aspartic acid
L-aspartic acid
L-(+)-aspartic acid
S-aspartic acid
L-aspartic acid FCC
 aspartic acid L-
 aspartic acid, L-
L-asparticacid
 aspatofort
 butanedioic acid, amino-, (S)-
 calciretard
 K-flebo
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Articles:
PubMed: Umami evaluation in taste epithelium on microelectrode array by extracellular electrophysiological recording.
PubMed: Aspartame--a sweet surprise.
PubMed: A 'conovenomic' analysis of the milked venom from the mollusk-hunting cone snail Conus textile--the pharmacological importance of post-translational modifications.
PubMed: Umami evaluation in taste epithelium on microelectrode array by extracellular electrophysiological recording.
PubMed: Canthaxanthin production with modified Mucor circinelloides strains.
PubMed: Leishmania donovani argininosuccinate synthase is an active enzyme associated with parasite pathogenesis.
PubMed: Fast determination of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids (NPA) in cocoa samples from different origins by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed: Catalytic mechanisms and biocatalytic applications of aspartate and methylaspartate ammonia lyases.
PubMed: Demetalation of Fe, Mn, and Cu chelates and complexes: application to the NMR analysis of micronutrient fertilizers.
PubMed: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat, dog, and man.
PubMed: Two-generation reproductive and developmental toxicity assessment of dietary N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid in rats.
PubMed: Subchronic oral toxicity assessment of N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid in rats.
PubMed: Effect of media, additives, and incubation conditions on the recovery of high pressure and heat-injured Clostridium botulinum spores.
PubMed: Comparison of genotypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 30 and 9c strains isolated during three outbreaks associated with raw almonds.
PubMed: Acute oral toxicity of N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid (NAA) in rats.
PubMed: Control of impurities in L-aspartic acid and L-alanine by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a corona charged aerosol detector.
PubMed: Identification of genetic and phenotypic differences associated with prevalent and non-prevalent Salmonella Enteritidis phage types: analysis of variation in amino acid transport.
PubMed: Mutagenicity studies with N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid.
PubMed: Absorption of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids in healthy humans by oral administration of cocoa (Theobroma cacao).
PubMed: Toxic effects of l-aspartic acid at high dose levels on kidneys and salivary glands in Fischer 344 rats detected in a 90-day feeding study.
PubMed: Acute and repeated dose oral toxicity of N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed: Formation of diacetyl and acetoin by Lactococcus lactis via aspartate catabolism.
PubMed: Aspartate biosynthesis is essential for the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus in milk, and aspartate availability modulates the level of urease activity.
PubMed: Luteimonas composti sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from food waste.
PubMed: Potential use of biodegradable chelate N-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-D,L-aspartic acid/Fe3+ as an Fe fertilizer.
PubMed: Quantitative analysis of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids in roasted coffee and cocoa powder by means of a stable isotope dilution assay.
PubMed: Quantitative studies, taste reconstitution, and omission experiments on the key taste compounds in morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed: A new method of age estimation based on the changes in human non-collagenous proteins from dentin.
PubMed: Anticholesterolemic effect of 3,4-di(OH)-phenylpropionic amides in high-cholesterol fed rats.
PubMed: Isolation, structure determination, synthesis, and sensory activity of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids from cocoa (Theobroma cacao).
PubMed: Sensory-guided decomposition of roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao) and structure determination of taste-active polyphenols.
PubMed: Activity-guided identification of (S)-malic acid 1-O-D-glucopyranoside (morelid) and gamma-aminobutyric acid as contributors to umami taste and mouth-drying oral sensation of morel mushrooms (Morchella deliciosa Fr.).
PubMed: Application of stepwise discriminant analysis to classify commercial orange juices using chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography-laser induced fluorescence data of amino acids.
PubMed: Monohydroxamates of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibit antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activities.
PubMed: Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.
PubMed: A novel inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase: L-aspartic acid.
PubMed: Formation of Pentylpyridines in an Oil Medium.
PubMed: Aspartate dehydrogenase in vitamin B12-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae IFO 13541.
PubMed: Effects of estradiol and exogenous insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on the IGF-I axis during growth hormone inhibition and antagonism.
PubMed: Evaluation of D-amino acid levels in rat by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry: no evidence for subacute toxicity of orally fed D-proline and D-aspartic acid.
PubMed: Fasting-induced suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the adult rhesus monkey: evidence for involvement of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters.
PubMed: Kinetic analysis of glutamate transport by the miniswine choroid plexus in vitro.
PubMed: Long-term continuous synthesis of aspartame precursor in a column reactor with an immobilized thermolysin.
PubMed: Aspartame intolerance.
PubMed: The inhibition by morphine and D-aspartic acid of antibody production against Salmonella typhimurium antigen in rats: its antagonism by L-aspartic acid.
PubMed: Mutagenicity studies on N-nitrosated products of the Maillard browning reaction: N-nitroso-fructose-amino acids.
PubMed: Feeding, drinking, urine osmolality in DI Brattleboro rats: changes by morphine, naloxone, D-amino acids, prolyl-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG).
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