EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

laevo-phenyl alanine
L-phenylalanine

Supplier Sponsors

Name:(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
CAS Number: 63-91-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other:10549-09-4
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:200-568-1
FDA UNII:47E5O17Y3R
Nikkaji Web:J9.175H
Beilstein Number:1910408
MDL:MFCD00064227
CoE Number:10488
XlogP3:-1.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:165.19207000
Formula:C9 H11 N O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
JECFA Food Flavoring:1428 L-phenylalanine
FLAVIS Number:17.018 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:17.018 L-phenylalanine
FEMA Number:3585 L-phenylalanine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):63-91-2 ; L-PHENYLALANINE
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart D--Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives
Sec. 172.320 Amino acids.
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 282.00 to 284.00 °C. @ 18.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 270.00 to 275.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point:> 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.235 (est)
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 9357 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 2.69E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Type: odorless
Odor Strength:none
Odor Description:at 100.00 %. odorless
Flavor Type: bitter
bitter
Taste Description: slightly bitter
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: hair conditioning
masking agents
skin conditioning
 
Suppliers:
Aceto
L-Phenylalanine FCC
AIDP
L-Phenylalanine 98.5%-101.5%
Ajinomoto USA
L-Phenylalanine
Flavor: characteristic
L-phenylalanine is classified as an essential amino acid because the body requires a dietary source to meet its physiological demands. Dietary sources of L-phenylalanine are derived from animal and vegetable proteins and deficiencies are very rare.
Aromiens International
Natural L-Phenylalanine
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
L-Phenylalanine
Charkit Chemical
PHENYLALANINE, L-
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
L-Phenylalanine
Glentham Life Sciences
L-Phenylalanine
Graham Chemical
L-Phenylalanine
Penta International
L-PHENYLALANINE NATURAL
Penta International
L-PHENYLALANINE
Prinova
L-Phenylalanine
Shiva Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals
L-phenyl Alanine
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Phenylalanine, 99%, FCC
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
L-Phenylalanine >98.0%(HPLC)(T)
Zhong Ya Chemical
L-Phenyl Alanine
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 > 1322 mg/kg
Yakugaku Zasshi. Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 97, Pg. 1117, 1977.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 5287 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol. 58, Pg. 253, 1955.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for laevo-phenyl alanine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 17.00 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 11
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -110.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -10.00000
confectionery froastings: -268.00000
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -60.00000
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: -60.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -10.00000
milk products: -66.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: -268.00000
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: -220.00000
 
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-tyrosine for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank:Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center:Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):63-91-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6140
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
Chemidplus:0000063912
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:AY7535000 for cas# 63-91-2
 
References:
 (2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:63-91-2
Pubchem (cid):6140
Pubchem (sid):134971813
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00079
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00159
FooDB:FDB014705
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00304
Export Tariff Code:2922.49.1000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
Formulations/Preparations:
•grades: technical, fcc[lewis rj sr; hawley's condensed chemical dictionary 15th ed wiley (2007) •available commercially as dl-dihydroxyphenylalanine and as dl-phenylalanine.[lewis rj sr; hawley's condensed chemical dictionary 15th ed wiley (2007) •available commercially as the naturally occurring l(+)-enantiomer
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents
 hair conditioning
 skin conditioning
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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 celery leaf
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 evening-primrose seed
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 goosefoot leaf
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 guava strawberry guava fruit
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 kohlrabi stem
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 leek wild leek plant
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 lentil seed
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 lentil sprout
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 lettuce lamb's lettuce plant
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 lettuce leaf
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 lotus indian lotus rhizome
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 lotus indian lotus seed
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 macadamia nut
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 mallow jew's mallow leaf
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 mango fruit
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 marango shoot
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 melon bitter melon fruit
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 mustard white mustard seed
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 onion bulb
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 orange fruit
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 papaya fruit
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 pea black-eyed pea seed
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 pea fruit
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 pea pigeon pea seed
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 pea seed
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 peach plant
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 peanut seed
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 pepper bell pepper fruit
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 peppermint leaf
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 pigweed leaf
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 pine pinyon pine seed
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 pineapple fruit
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 pistachio nut
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 plum fruit
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 poppy opium poppy seed
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 potato sweet potato root
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 potato tuber
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 purslane herb
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 radish root
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 rosemary leaf
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 rye seed
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 saffron bulb
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 sesame seed
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 shea tree seed
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 soybean seed
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 soybean shoot
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 spearmint leaf
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 spinach indian spinach leaf
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 spinach leaf
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 spinach plant
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 spinach water spinach leaf
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 squash summer squash fruit
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 star fruit fruit
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 sunflower seed
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 taro leaf
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 taro root
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 tarragon root
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 thyme plant
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 tomato
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 tomato fruit
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 turnip indian turnip root
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 walnut black walnut nut
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 walnut english walnut nut
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 watermelon fruit
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 watermelon plant
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 watermelon seed
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 zingiber officinale root oil china @ 0.12%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
 alanine, phenyl-, L-
(2S)-2-amino-3-phenyl propanoic acid
2-amino-3-phenyl propionic acid
(2S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-propanoic acid
(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid
L-2-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid
2-amino-3-phenylpropionic acid, L-
(S)-a-amino-b-phenylpropionic acid
(S)-a-amino-benzenepropanoic acid
(S)-a-aminobenzenepropanoic acid
(S)-a-aminohydrocinnamic acid
alpha-aminohydrocinnamic acid
a-aminohydrocinnamic acid, L-
 antibiotic FN 1636
 benzenepropanoic acid, a-amino-, (S)-
L-diphenylalanine
L-fenylalanine
 phenyl alanine
(S)-phenyl alanine
(S)-(-)-phenyl alanine
beta-phenyl alanine
L-phenyl alanine
3-phenyl-2-aminopropanoic acid
3-phenyl-L-alanine
L-phenylalanin
(-)-phenylalanine
(L)-phenylalanine
(S)-phenylalanine
(S)-(-)-phenylalanine
L-phenylalanine
L-(-)-phenylalanine
laevo-phenylalanine
S-phenylalanine
L-phenylalanine FCC
L-phenylalanine USP
 phenylalanine, L-
L-phenylalinine
 

Articles:

PubMed:Irreversible inactivation of snake venom l-amino acid oxidase by covalent modification during catalysis of l-propargylglycine.
PubMed:Amino acids and peptides activate at least five members of the human bitter taste receptor family.
PubMed:Bioproduction of the aroma compound 2-phenylethanol in a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor system by Kluyveromyces marxianus.
PubMed:Construction of a Bacillus subtilis (natto) with high productivity of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) by analog resistance.
PubMed:The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in raspberry. Structure, expression, and evolution.
PubMed:Aspartame--a sweet surprise.
PubMed:Overproduction of 2-phenylethanol by industrial yeasts to improve organoleptic properties of bakers' products.
PubMed:Regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by luminal calcium content: Role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.
PubMed:ZnCl2-mediated practical protocol for the synthesis of Amadori ketoses.
PubMed:Mutational and crystallographic analysis of l-amino acid oxidase/monooxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. AIU 813: Interconversion between oxidase and monooxygenase activities.
PubMed:Construction and application of novel feedback-resistant 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthases by engineering the N-terminal domain for L-phenylalanine synthesis.
PubMed:Expression and properties of the highly alkalophilic phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of thermophilic Rubrobacter xylanophilus.
PubMed:A simple and sensitive approach for ochratoxin a detection using a label-free fluorescent aptasensor.
PubMed:Impact of addition of aromatic amino acids on non-volatile and volatile compounds in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm.
PubMed:Streptogramins - two are better than one!
PubMed:Cloning Rosa hybrid phenylacetaldehyde synthase for the production of 2-phenylethanol in a whole cell Escherichia coli system.
PubMed:A novel amperometric biosensor based on a co-crosslinked L-lysine-α-oxidase/overoxidized polypyrrole bilayer for the highly selective determination of L-lysine.
PubMed:Olfactory transduction pathways in the Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis.
PubMed:Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00, a new strain isolated from gut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) produces chymotrypsin-like proteases.
PubMed:Hydrolysis of wheat gluten by combining peptidases of Flammulina velutipes and electrodialysis.
PubMed:Obesity-related metabolomic analysis of human subjects in black soybean peptide intervention study by ultraperformance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Design and synthesis of hydroxypyridinone-L-phenylalanine conjugates as potential tyrosinase inhibitors.
PubMed:Trypsin from viscera of vermiculated sailfin catfish, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, Weber, 1991: its purification and characterization.
PubMed:Recombinant l-phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Rhodosporidium toruloides as a potential anticancer agent.
PubMed:Effect of metformin on the urinary metabolites of diet-induced-obese mice studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS).
PubMed:[Asymmetric synthesis of aromatic L-amino acids catalyzed by transaminase].
PubMed:Metabolic profiling of Chinese tobacco leaf of different geographical origins by GC-MS.
PubMed:Bioinspired molecular adhesive for water-resistant oxygen indicator films.
PubMed:Amino acids and peptides activate at least five members of the human bitter taste receptor family.
PubMed:Characterization of ergothionase from Burkholderia sp. HME13 and its application to enzymatic quantification of ergothioneine.
PubMed:Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme activity and antioxidant properties of some cyanobacteria isolates.
PubMed:Characterisation of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in etiolated leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants in the dark.
PubMed:Solvent selection and optimization of α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed synthesis of N-Ac-Phe-Tyr-NH2 using mixture design and response surface methodology.
PubMed:Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of Asn116 in the β-hairpin of the N-terminal domain of thermolysin on its activity and stability.
PubMed:Structural analysis of a new cytotoxic demethylated analogue of neo-N-methylsansalvamide with a different peptide sequence produced by Fusarium solani isolated from potato.
PubMed:Stigmasterol-based novel low molecular weight/mass organic gelators.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat, dog, and man.
PubMed:Evaluation of the teratogenic potential of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat and rabbit.
PubMed:Chronic oral toxicity of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the dog.
PubMed:Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo assessment of the mutagenic activity of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-α-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame).
PubMed:Single-walled carbon nanotubes based quenching of free FAM-aptamer for selective determination of ochratoxin A.
PubMed:Cloning of a novel L-amino acid oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 and bioactivity analysis of overexpressed L-amino acid oxidase.
PubMed:A two-generation reproductive toxicity study of the high-intensity sweetener advantame in CD rats.
PubMed:Characterization of the protease activity of detergents: laboratory practicals for studying the protease profile and activity of various commercial detergents.
PubMed:Recent advances in biotechnological production of 2-phenylethanol.
PubMed:Development of L-tryptophan production strains by defined genetic modification in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.
PubMed:A novel L-amino acid oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 associated with antagonism of Rhizoctonia solani.
PubMed:Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of the loop residue of the N-terminal domain Gly117 of thermolysin on its catalytic activity.
PubMed:Enhanced L-phenylalanine production by recombinant Escherichia coli BR-42 (pAP-B03) resistant to bacteriophage BP-1 via a two-stage feeding approach.
PubMed:Origin and Incidence of 2-Methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a Compound with a "Fungal" and "Corky" Aroma Found in Cork Stoppers and Oak Chips in Contact with Wines.
PubMed:(+)-methyl jasmonate-induced bioformation of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol in red raspberries.
PubMed:Alkaline chymotrypsin from striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus) viscera: purification and characterization.
PubMed:Ochratoxin a: general overview and actual molecular status.
PubMed:Modeling and optimization of phenylalanine ammonia lyase stabilization in recombinant Escherichia coli for the continuous synthesis of l-phenylalanine on the statistical-based experimental designs.
PubMed:Bioproperties and purification of xylanase from Bacillus sp. YJ6.
PubMed:Identification of rose phenylacetaldehyde synthase by functional complementation in yeast.
PubMed:Formation of styrene during the Maillard reaction is negligible.
PubMed:Isolation, cloning and characterization of a tyrosinase with improved activity in organic solvents from Bacillus megaterium.
PubMed:Production of 2-phenylethanol from L-phenylalanine by a stress tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.
PubMed:Bioproduction of p-hydroxystyrene from glucose by the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 in a two-phase water-decanol fermentation.
PubMed:Enzymatic flow-injection determination of l-phenylalanine using the stopped-flow and merging-zones techniques.
PubMed:Synthesis and application of dipeptides; current status and perspectives.
PubMed:Comparative study on the proteases from fish pyloric caeca and the use for production of gelatin hydrolysate with antioxidative activity.
PubMed:Effects of L-phenylalanine on energy intake in overweight and obese women: interactions with dietary restraint status.
PubMed:Dietary restraint and menstrual cycle phase modulated L-phenylalanine-induced satiety.
PubMed:Manganese (Mn2+)-dependent storage stabilization of Rhodotorula glutinis phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity.
PubMed:Myricetin down-regulates phorbol ester-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in mouse epidermal cells by blocking activation of nuclear factor kappa B.
PubMed:Improving the activity and stability of thermolysin by site-directed mutagenesis.
PubMed:Estradiol enhances cholecystokinin-dependent lipid-induced satiation and activates estrogen receptor-alpha-expressing cells in the nucleus tractus solitarius of ovariectomized rats.
PubMed:A new method for the extracellular production of recombinant thermolysin by co-expressing the mature sequence and pro-sequence in Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Effects of leucine and phenylalanine supplementation during intermittent periods of food restriction and refeeding in adult rats.
PubMed:Effects of site-directed mutagenesis of the surface residues Gln128 and Gln225 of thermolysin on its catalytic activity.
PubMed:Kinetic analysis of the activation-and-inhibition dual effects of cobalt ion on thermolysin activity.
PubMed:The influence of extrusion on loss and racemization of amino acids.
PubMed:Optimization of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of p-coumarate from glucose.
PubMed:High-level resistance to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin associated with a novel mutation in gyrB in toxin-A-negative, toxin-B-positive Clostridium difficile.
PubMed:Resolution of an intense sweetener mixture by use of a flow injection sensor with on-line solid-phase extraction. Application to saccharin and aspartame in sweets and drinks.
PubMed:Protease and esterase activity of staphylococci.
PubMed:Enantioselective synthesis of a phenylalanine library containing alkyl groups on the aromatic moiety: confirmation of stereostructure by X-ray analysis.
PubMed:Gas chromatographic determination and mechanism of formation of D-amino acids occurring in fermented and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate and cocoa shell.
PubMed:Performance of D-amino acid oxidase in presence of ionic liquids.
PubMed:Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.
PubMed:Production, properties and application to biocatalysis of a novel extracellular alkaline phenol oxidase from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum.
PubMed:Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.
PubMed:An investigation of the molecular mechanisms contributing to high-level erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter.
PubMed:Application of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/comparative taste dilution analysis for identification of a bitter inhibitor by a combinatorial approach based on Maillard reaction chemistry.
PubMed:Extracellular production of recombinant thermolysin expressed in Escherichia coli, and its purification and enzymatic characterization.
PubMed:Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-phenylalanyl-D-glucose.
PubMed:[Effect of food additive Neotame (N-[N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-L-alpha-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl) on glucose level in blood of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2].
PubMed:Effect of 3,4-di(OH)-cinnamate synthetic derivative on plasma and hepatic cholesterol level and antioxidant enzyme activities in high cholesterol-fed rats.
PubMed:Low molecular weight compounds responsible for savory taste of Indonesian soy sauce.
PubMed:Hapten and antibody production for a sensitive immunoassay determining a human urinary metabolite of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols on the production of a virulence factor of the periodontal-disease-causing anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis.
PubMed:Quantification of ochratoxin A in foods by a stable isotope dilution assay using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Differentiation of natural and synthetic phenylalanine and tyrosine through natural abundance 2H nuclear magnetic resonance.
PubMed:Design of chiral monochloro-s-triazine reagents for the liquid chromatographic separation of amino acid enantiomers.
PubMed:Enantioselective crystallization of D,L-amino acids induced by spontaneous asymmetric resolution of D,L-asparagine.
PubMed:Isolation and characterization of aminopeptidase (Jc-peptidase) from Japanese cedar pollen (Cryptomeria japonica).
PubMed:Aspartame optical biosensor with bienzyme-immobilized eggshell membrane and oxygen-sensitive optode membrane.
PubMed:Construction of a Bacillus subtilis (natto) with high productivity of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) by analog resistance.
PubMed:Lumpidin, a novel biomarker of some ochratoxin a producing penicillia.
PubMed:Aspartame prevents the karyomegaly induced by ochratoxin A in rat kidney.
PubMed:Shifting the biotransformation pathways of L-phenylalanine into benzaldehyde by Trametes suaveolens CBS 334.85 using HP20 resin.
PubMed:Production of polyclonal antibodies against ochratoxin A and its detection in chilies by ELISA.
PubMed:Formation of aroma-active strecker-aldehydes by a direct oxidative degradation of Amadori compounds.
PubMed:Protein-bound D-amino acids, and to a lesser extent lysinoalanine, decrease true ileal protein digestibility in minipigs as determined with (15)N-labeling.
PubMed:Characteristics of sperm acrosin-like activity of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula Walbaum).
PubMed:Screen-printed amperometric biosensors for the rapid measurement of L- and D-amino acids.
PubMed:Quantitative model studies on the formation of aroma-active aldehydes and acids by strecker-type reactions.
PubMed:Chemistry, nutrition, and microbiology of D-amino acids.
PubMed:Feeding behavior in dopamine-deficient mice.
PubMed:Effects of dietary mixtures of amino acids on fetal growth and maternal and fetal amino acid pools in experimental maternal phenylketonuria.
PubMed:Formation of amino acid (L-leucine, L-phenylalanine) derived volatile flavour compounds by Moraxella phenylpyruvica and Staphylococcus xylosus in cured meat model systems.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of antioxidants on formation of heterocyclic amines.
PubMed:Effects of pH, temperature, and alcohols on the remarkable activation of thermolysin by salts.
PubMed:Prevention of lipid peroxidation induced by ochratoxin A in Vero cells in culture by several agents.
PubMed:The thioesterase I of Escherichia coli has arylesterase activity and shows stereospecificity for protease substrates.
PubMed:Reduction of the ochratoxin A-induced cytotoxicity in Vero cells by aspartame.
PubMed:Type A CCK receptors mediate satiety effects of intestinal nutrients.
PubMed:Site-directed mutagenesis of a novel serine arylesterase from Vibrio mimicus identifies residues essential for catalysis.
PubMed:Effect of amino acid residues at the cleavable site of substrates on the remarkable activation of thermolysin by salts.
PubMed:Simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of aspartame and its metabolites in foods.
PubMed:Suppression of meal size by intestinal nutrients is eliminated by celiac vagal deafferentation.
PubMed:Vibrio mimicus arylesterase has thioesterase and chymotrypsin-like activity.
PubMed:Characterization, subcellular localization, and developmental regulation of a cysteine proteinase from Dictyostelium discoideum.
PubMed:In vitro adsorption of amino acids onto isolated rat erythrocyte membranes.
PubMed:Separation of amino-acid enantiomers using micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.
PubMed:The significance of apical K+ channels in mudpuppy feeding behavior.
PubMed:L-phenylalanine releases cholecystokinin (CCK) and is associated with reduced food intake in humans: evidence for a physiological role of CCK in control of eating.
PubMed:Failure of dietary amino acid supplementation at weaning to influence reproductive traits of sows.
PubMed:The effect of food chemicals on cell aging of human diploid cells in in vitro culture.
PubMed:An improved FIA biosensor for the determination of aspartame in dietary food products.
PubMed:Immobilization of aminoacylase by encapsulation in poly-L-lysine-stabilized calcium alginate beads.
PubMed:Isolation and properties of gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase in Euglena gracilis.
PubMed:A review of the clinical studies of alpha-interferon in the management of multiple myeloma.
PubMed:Studies on the mechanism of the toxic action of sodium nitrite on intestinal absorption in rats.
PubMed:Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.
PubMed:Fourth ventricular capsaicin attenuates suppression of sham feeding induced by intestinal nutrients.
PubMed:Further analysis of the short-term inhibition of food intake in humans by the dipeptide L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame).
PubMed:Vagotomy attenuates suppression of sham feeding induced by intestinal nutrients.
PubMed:Formation, nutritional value, and safety of D-amino acids.
PubMed:Ontogeny of phenylalanine (endogenous cholecystokinin) induced modulation of food intake in normal and undernourished rats.
PubMed:Heat stable proteinase from Thermomonospora fusca. Characterization as a serine proteinase.
PubMed:Long-term continuous synthesis of aspartame precursor in a column reactor with an immobilized thermolysin.
PubMed:The myocotoxin ochratoxin A is a substrate for phenylalanine hydroxylase in isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo.
PubMed:Absence of developmental effects in CF-1 mice exposed to aspartame in utero.
PubMed:Failure of aspartame to affect seizure susceptibility in kindled rats.
PubMed:Aspartame intolerance.
PubMed:Postsurgical muscle protein turnover in perfused hindquarters of the rat.
PubMed:Comparative effects of individual amino acid excesses when added to a corn-soybean meal diet: effects on growth and dietary choice in the chick.
PubMed:Reaction of chlorine dioxide with amino acids and peptides: kinetics and mutagenicity studies.
PubMed:Proteins but not amino acids, carbohydrates, or fats stimulate cholecystokinin secretion in the rat.
PubMed:Effect of mealing on plasma and brain amino acid, and brain monoamine in rats after oral aspartame.
PubMed:The nutritive value and safety of D-phenylalanine and D-tyrosine in mice.
PubMed:Mutagenicity studies on N-nitrosated products of the Maillard browning reaction: N-nitroso-fructose-amino acids.
PubMed:Pancreatic polypeptide release: role of stimulants of exocrine pancreatic secretion in dogs.
PubMed:Racemization of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in the sweetener aspartame at 100 degrees C.
PubMed:Why bluefin tuna have warm tummies: temperature effect on trypsin and chymotrypsin.
PubMed:Duodenal volume and osmoreceptors in the stimulation of human pancreatic secretion.
PubMed:Kinetics of the mediated transport and the passive net flux of phenylalanine across the rat small intestine in vivo.
PubMed:The effect of gastric loads of sugars and amino acids on milk intake of suckling pigs.
PubMed:Ontogeny of cholecystokinin satiety in rats.
PubMed:Toxicity of aspartame and its diketopiperazine for Wistar rats by dietary administration for 104 weeks.
PubMed:The control of food mobilization in seeds of Cucumis sativus L. : III. The control of protein degradation.
PubMed:Production of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus 12,907 as an animal feed supplement.
PubMed:[Significance of early detection and early treatment of the development of children with phenylketonuria].
PubMed:para-Chloro-D, L-phenylalanine induced filicidal behavior in the female rat.
PubMed:Amino acid uptake in chickens subjected to increasing levels of quantitative food restriction.
PubMed:Cholecystokinin and satiety in rats and rhesus monkeys.
PubMed:A circadian variation of melphalan (L-phenylalanine nitrogen mustard) toxicity to murine bone marrow: relevance to cancer treatment protocols.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in various food products and formulations.
PubMed:Cholecystokinin-decreased food intake in rhesus monkeys.
PubMed:Decomposition products of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester and their identification by gas-liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Taxonomic significance of phenethyl alcohol production by Achromobacter isolates from fishery sources.
 
Notes:
an essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of melanin; dopamine; noradrenalin (norepinephrine), and thyroxine. Found in many foods. Used in cocoa substitutes. Flavouring ingredient; dietary supplement L-phenylalanine can also be converted into L-tyrosine, another one of the DNA-encoded amino acids. L-tyrosine in turn is converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). The latter three are known as the catecholamines.; Phenylalanine (abbreviated as Phe or F) is an ?-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5, which is found naturally in the breast milk of mammals and manufactured for food and drink products and are also sold as nutritional supplements for their reputed analgesic and antidepressant effects. Phenylalanine is structurally closely related to dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline) and tyrosine. It is a direct precursor to the neuromodulator phenylethylamine, a commonly used dietary supplement.; Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid and the precursor for the amino acid tyrosine. Like tyrosine, it is the precursor of catecholamines in the body (tyramine, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine). The psychotropic drugs (mescaline, morphine, codeine, and papaverine) also have phenylalanine as a constituent. Phenylalanine is a precursor of the neurotransmitters called catecholamines, which are adrenalin-like substances. Phenylalanine is highly concentrated in the human brain and plasma. Normal metabolism of phenylalanine requires biopterin, iron, niacin, vitamin B6, copper and vitamin C. An average adult ingests 5 g of phenylalanine per day and may optimally need up to 8 g daily. Phenylalanine is highly concentrated in high protein foods, such as meat, cottage cheese and wheat germ. A new dietary source of phenylalanine is artificial sweeteners containing aspartame. Aspartame appears to be nutritious except in hot beverages; This essential amino acid is classified as nonpolar because of the hydrophobic nature of the benzyl side chain. The codons for L-phenylalanine are UUU and UUC. It is a white, powdery solid. L-Phenylalanine (LPA) is an electrically-neutral amino acid, one of the twenty common amino acids used to biochemically form proteins, coded for by DNA.; Used by the brain to produce Norepinephrine, a chemical that transmits signals between nerve cells and the brain; however, it should be avoided by phenylketonurics and pregnant women. Phenylketonurics, who have a genetic error of phenylalanine metabolism, have elevated serum plasma levels of phenylalanine up to 400 times normal. Mild phenylketonuria can be an unsuspected cause of hyperactivity, learning problems, and other developmental problems in children. Phenylalanine can be an effective pain reliever. Its use in premenstrual syndrome and Parkinson's may enhance the effects of acupuncture and electric transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS). Phenylalanine and tyrosine, like L-dopa, produce a catecholamine effect. Phenylalanine is better absorbed than tyrosine and may cause fewer headaches. Low phenylalanine diets have been prescribed for certain cancers with mixed results. Some tumors use more phenylalanine (particularly melatonin-producing tumors called melanoma). One strategy is to exclude this amino acid from the diet, i.e., a Phenylketonuria (PKU) diet (compliance is a difficult issue; it is hard to quantify and is under-researched). The other strategy is just to increase phenylalanine's competing amino acids, i.e., tryptophan, valine, isoleucine and leucine, but not tyrosine. (http://www.dcnutrition.com)
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