dextro,laevo-isoleucine
DL-isoleucine
 
Notes:
Flavouring ingredient, dietary supplement, nutrient Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids whose carbon structure is marked by a branch point. These three amino acids are critical to human life and are particularly involved in stress, energy and muscle metabolism. BCAA supplementation as therapy, both oral and intravenous, in human health and disease holds great promise. "BCAA" denotes valine, isoleucine and leucine which are branched chain essential amino acids. Despite their structural similarities, the branched amino acids have different metabolic routes, with valine going solely to carbohydrates, leucine solely to fats and isoleucine to both. The different metabolism accounts for different requirements for these essential amino acids in humans: 12 mg/kg, 14 mg/kg and 16 mg/kg of valine, leucine and isoleucine respectively. Furthermore, these amino acids have different deficiency symptoms. Valine deficiency is marked by neurological defects in the brain, while isoleucine deficiency is marked by muscle tremors. BCAA are decreased in patients with liver disease, such as hepatitis, hepatic coma, cirrhosis, extrahepatic biliary atresia or portacaval shunt; aromatic amino acids (AAA)-tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine, as well as methionine-are increased in these conditions. Valine, in particular, has been established as a useful supplemental therapy to the ailing liver. All the BCAA probably compete with AAA for absorption into the brain. Supplemental BCAA with vitamin B6 and zinc help normalize the BCAA:AAA ratio. The BCAA are not without side effects. Leucine alone, for example, exacerbates pellagra and can cause psychosis in pellagra patients by increasing excretion of niacin in the urine. Leucine may lower brain serotonin and dopamine. A dose of 3 g of isoleucine added to the niacin regime has cleared leucine-aggravated psychosis in schizophrenic patients. Isoleucine may have potential as an antipsychotic treatment. Leucine is more highly concentrated in foods than other amino acids. A cup of milk contains 800 mg of leucine and only 500 mg of isoleucine and valine. A cup of wheat germ has about 1.6 g of leucine and 1 g of isoleucine and valine. The ratio evens out in eggs and cheese. One egg and an ounce of most cheeses each contain about 400 mg of leucine and 400 mg of valine and isoleucine. The ratio of leucine to other BCAA is greatest in pork, where leucine is 7 to 8 g and the other BCAA together are only 3 to 4 g. (http://www.dcnutrition.com)
  • Penta International
    • Penta International Corporation
      Chemistry innovation
      At Penta, our products and services help businesses do business better.
      For over 30 years, Penta Manufacturing Company has played a growing role in worldwide chemistry innovations and applications. As an industry leader, Penta continues to pioneer chemistry-based solutions for practically every area of commerce. Our products and expertise have helped fuel technical advances in dozens of commercial applications including flavoring, coloring, fragrances and chemical processes.
      US Email: Technical Services
      US Email: Sales
      US Voice: (973) 740-2300
      US Fax: (973) 740-1839
      Product(s):
      09-49310 DL-ISOLEUCINE, Kosher
       
  • Sigma-Aldrich
    • Sigma-Aldrich
      Complete Supply Chain
      The perfect blend of products and services that bring your creativity to life.
      Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company dedicated to providing high-quality, safe and certified flavor ingredients with transparent and easily accessible documentation to customers around the globe. Sigma-Aldrich also provides a suite of analytical tools that allow food analysts to simplify sample preparation, cleanup and analysis steps, while increasing sensitivity to trace ingredients and harmful substances to meet regulations and quality standards.
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      Certified Food Grade Products
      Product(s):
      W329509 DL-Isoleucine, 99%, FCC, FG
      SDS
       
  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
      Moving Your Chemistry Forward
      We continuously strive to advance our technology.
      Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI) is a leading worldwide manufacturer of specialty organic chemicals founded in 1946. TCI provides organic laboratory chemicals as well as pharmaceutical, cosmetic and functional materials. More than 60 years of synthesis experience and multi-purpose plants enable TCI to offer more than 27,000 products as well as custom synthesis. TCI established overseas facilities in North America, Europe, China and India to serve customers worldwide.
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      Product(s):
      I0180 DL-isoLeucine (mixture of 4 stereoisomers) >98.0%(T)
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid (Click)
CAS Number: 443-79-8Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 207-139-8
FDA UNII: 5HX0BYT4E3
Nikkaji Web: J1.283A
Beilstein Number: 1721790
MDL: MFCD00004268
CoE Number: 10127
XlogP3: -1.70 (est)
Molecular Weight: 131.17501000
Formula: C6 H13 N O2
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 1422  DL-isoleucine
Flavis Number: 17.010 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 17.010  DL-isoleucine
FEMA Number: 3295  DL-isoleucine
FDA Mainterm: DL-ISOLEUCINE
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00 % sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: Yes
Melting Point: 290.00 to  292.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 225.00 to  226.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure: 0.031000 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: > 230.00 °F. TCC ( > 110.00 °C. )
logP (o/w): 0.799 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 2.191e+004 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 2.23E+04 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 alcohol
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Organoleptic Properties:
 
Odor Type: odorless
 
Odor Strength: none
 
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
 
 
Flavor Type: bitter
 
 bitter  
Taste Description:
bitter
 
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
 
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
H-DL-lle-OH
Glentham Life Sciences
DL-isoLeucine
Penta International
DL-ISOLEUCINE, Kosher
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
DL-Isoleucine
Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Isoleucine, 99%, FCC, FG
Certified Food Grade Products
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
DL-isoLeucine (mixture of 4 stereoisomers) >98.0%(T)
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Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: special dietary and nutritional additives
Recommendation for dextro,laevo-isoleucine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 5.20 (μg/capita/day)
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 5
Click here to view publication 5
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -50.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -50.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: -50.00000
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -50.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: -50.00000
hard candy: --
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -50.00000
milk products: -50.00000
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: -50.00000
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Amino acids from chemical group 34 Flavouring Group Evaluation 26, Revision 1 - Scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 29 (FGE29)[1] - Substance from the priority list: Vinylbenzene from chemical group 31 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf
Flavouring Group Evaluation 79, (FGE.79)[1] - Consideration of amino acids and related substances evaluated by JECFA (63rd meeting) structurally related to amino acids from chemical group 34 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.26Rev1 (2008)
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of the use of amino acids (chemical group 34) when used as flavourings for all animal species
View page or View pdf
Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 49, Revision 1 (FGE.49Rev1): xanthine alkaloids from the priority list
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 443-79-8
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 791
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 1
 2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
Chemidplus: 0000443798
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References:
 2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 443-79-8
Pubchem (cid): 791
Pubchem (sid): 135017572
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
Golm Metabolome Database: Search
KEGG (GenomeNet): C16434
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB33923
FooDB: FDB012123
Export Tariff Code: 2922.49.4050
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 antistatic agents 
 hair conditioning 
 skin conditioning 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 not found in nature
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Synonyms:
 acetic acid, amino-sec-butyl-
2-amino-3-methyl pentanoic acid
2-amino-3-methyl valeric acid
(±)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
(±)-erythro-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid
2-amino-3-methylvaleric acid
DL-2-amino-3-methylvaleric acid
alpha-amino-beta-methyl valeric acid
(±)-isoleucine
dextro,laevo-allo-isoleucine
dextro,laevo-isoleucine
DL-allo-isoleucine
DL-isoleucine
isoleucine
 pentanoic acid, 2-amino-3-methyl-
 valeric acid, 2-amino-3-methyl-
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Linear-dichroic infrared spectroscopy - validation and experimental design of the new orientation technique of solid samples as suspension in nematic liquid crystal.
PubMed: Analysis of the loading and hydroxylation steps in lankamycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces rochei.
PubMed: Structural relationships in crystals accommodating different stereoisomers of 2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid.
PubMed: Stereoconfiguration of anteiso-fatty biosynthesized from DL-isoleucine in rat skin.
PubMed: Soft agar colony formation of bladder cells during carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine and application to detection of bladder cancer promoters.
PubMed: Preparation of Tc 99m-Sn-thioglycolic acid-dl-isoleucine (Tc-99m-TGA-ILEU) complex and its comparison with Tl 201-chloride for myocardial imaging.
PubMed: Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of four amino-acids.
PubMed: Comparative utilization of the alpha-keto and D- and L-alpha-hydroxy analogs of leucine, isoleucine and valine by chicks and rats.
PubMed: Effect of different concentrations of dl-isoleucine, dl-valine, and dl-alanine on growth and sporulation in Fusarium oxysporum f. udum (Butl.) Sn. et H.
PubMed: Influence of isoleucine upon quinomycin biosynthesis by Streptomyces sp. 732.
PubMed: Amino Acid and vitamin requirements of several bacteroides strains.
PubMed: NUTRITIONAL AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF SERINE METABOLISM IN ESCHERICHIA COLI.
PubMed: Nitrogenous compounds in germination and postgerminative development of Bacillus megaterium spores.
PubMed: THE EFFECT OF dl-METHIONINE, l-CYSTINE, AND dl-ISOLEUCINE ON THE UTILIZATION OF PARENTERALLY ADMINISTERED DOG HEMOGLOBIN : A SUGGESTION FOR DESIGNING THE COMPOSITION OF THE "IDEAL" PROTEIN DIGEST.
PubMed: PLASMA SUBSTITUTES : HUMAN AND ANIMAL GLOBIN RELATED TO THE PRODUCTION OF HEMOGLOBIN AND PLASMA PROTEIN DOG HEMOGLOBIN UTILIZATION IMPROVED BY METHIONINE BUT NOT BY ISOLEUCINE.
PubMed: Dog hemoglobin parenterally well utilized to maintain weight and nitrogen balance; utilization improved by dl-methionine but not by dl-isoleucine.
PubMed: PLASMA PROTEIN PRODUCTION INFLUENCED BY AMINO ACID MIXTURES AND LACK OF ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS : A DEFICIENCY STATE RELATED TO UNKNOWN FACTORS.
PubMed: TOLERANCE TO AMINO ACID MIXTURES AND CASEIN DIGESTS GIVEN INTRAVENOUSLY : GLUTAMIC ACID RESPONSIBLE FOR REACTIONS.
PubMed: AMINO ACID MIXTURES EFFECTIVE PARENTERALLY FOR LONG CONTINUED PLASMA PROTEIN PRODUCTION. CASEIN DIGESTS COMPARED.
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