EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

1,3-butylene glycol

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 107-88-0Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):18826-95-4
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:203-529-7
Nikkaji Web:J5.066K
Beilstein Number:1731276
XlogP3-AA:-0.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:90.12210000
Formula:C4 H10 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments:
Category:processing aids
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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JECFA Food Additive: Butane-1,3-diol
DG SANTE Food Flavourings:02.132 butane-1,3-diol
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:butane-1,3-diol
FDA Mainterm (SATF):107-88-0 ; 1,3-BUTYLENE GLYCOL
FDA Regulation:
H--Other Specific Usage Additives
Sec. 172.712 1,3-Butylene glycol.

Subpart C--Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 173.220 1,3-Butylene glycol.

Subpart B--Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives
Sec. 175.105 Adhesives.

Subpart C--Substances for Use as Components of Coatings
Sec. 175.320 Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1200 Cellophane.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1210 Closures with sealing gaskets for food containers.

Subpart B--Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact
Sec. 177.1680 Polyurethane resins.

Subpart C--Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use
Sec. 177.2420 Polyester resins, cross-linked.

Subpart C--Antioxidants and Stabilizers
Sec. 178.2010 Antioxidants and/or stabilizers for polymers.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 sum of isomers
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.00400 to 1.00700 @ 20.00 °C.
Pounds per Gallon - (est).: 8.364 to 8.389
Refractive Index:1.43900 to 1.44100 @ 20.00 °C.
Melting Point: -50.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 207.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.020100 mmHg @ 25.00 °C.
Vapor Density:3.2 ( Air = 1 )
Flash Point: 228.00 °F. TCC ( 108.89 °C. )
logP (o/w): -0.290
Soluble in:
 water, 1.00E+06 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:odorless
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: fragrance
skin conditioning
viscosity controlling agents
Allan Chemical
1,3-Butylene Glycol
Apple Flavor & Fragrance
1,3-Butanediol Natural
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
1,3-Butanediol 99.5%
Connect Chemicals
Bio-butylene glycol
Odor: characteristic
Use: bio-Butylene Glycol is a natural diol, very pure, clear and odorless liquid. It is a common humectant used in cosmetic as moisturizer for the skin, solvent, fragrance enhancer.
ECSA Chemicals
ECSA Chemicals
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Godavari Biorefineries
1,3-Butanediol 99%
Norman, Fox & Co.
Penta International
Penta International
Penta International
For experimental / research use only.
(±)-1,3-Butanediol anhydrous, ≥99%
For experimental / research use only.
1,3-Butanediol >99.0%(GC)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
gavage-rat LD50 [sex: F] > 5000 mg/kg
(CTFA, 1978)

gavage-rat LD50 [sex: M] 18610 mg/kg
(Smyth et al., 1941)

gavage-rat LD50 [sex: M] 22800 mg/kg
(Smyth et al., 1951a)

oral-rat LD50 29590 mg/kg
(Bornmann, 1954)

oral-mouse LD50 23440 mg/kg
(Bornmann, 1954)

oral-mouse LD50 23310 mg/kg
(Kopf et al., 1950; Loeser

oral-mouse LD50 12980 mg/kg
(Wenzel & Koff, 1956)

gavage-guinea pig LD50 [sex: M,F] 11460 mg/kg
(Smyth et al., 1941)

oral-guinea pig LD50 11000 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 10276 mg/kg
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 49, Pg. 385, 1979.

oral-mouse LD50 12980 mg/kg
Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. Vol. 45, Pg. 669, 1956.

oral-rat LD50 18610 mg/kg
Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, Pg. 259, 1941.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-rabbit LD50 > 20000 mg/kg
Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 14, 1974.

subcutaneous-rat LD50 20000 mg/kg
Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. Vol. 1, Pg. 14, 1974.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
processing aids
Recommendation for 1,3-butylene glycol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 0.0061 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 3900 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:1800 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: I
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 7.0000035.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 5.0000025.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 10.0000050.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): 7.0000035.00000
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 10.0000050.00000
Chewing gum (05.3): --
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 5.0000025.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 10.0000050.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 2.0000010.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 2.0000010.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 5.0000025.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): 10.0000050.00000
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 5.0000025.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 10.0000050.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 20.00000100.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): 5.0000025.00000
Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(EFSA):Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in contact with Food (AFC) on a request from the Commission related to - Flavouring Group Evaluation 10: Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000 of 18 July 2000)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 1 (FGE10 Rev1)[1] - Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC)
View page or View pdf

Flavouring Group Evaluation 64 (FGE.64): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30 evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (EFSA, 2008ab)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 92 (FGE.92): Consideration of aliphatic acyclic diols, triols, and related substances evaluated by JECFA (68th meeting) structurally related to aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones evaluated by EFSA in FGE.10Rev1 (2009)
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 2 (FGE.10Rev2): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 10, Revision 3 (FGE.10Rev3): Aliphatic primary and secondary saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acetals, carboxylic acids and esters containing an additional oxygenated functional group and lactones from chemical groups 9, 13 and 30
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils Part I of III
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):107-88-0
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :7896
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:107-88-0
Pubchem (cid):7896
Pubchem (sid):134972737
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):C20335
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB31320
Export Tariff Code:2905.39.1000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 coupling agent
 skin conditioning
 viscosity controlling agents
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 pepper bell pepper fruit
Search Trop Picture
1,3-butane diol
1,3-butanediol natural
(±)-1,3-butylene glycol
beta-butylene glycol
1,3-butylene glycol FCC
 methyl trimethylene glycol
1-methyl-1,3-propane diol
 methyltrimethylene glycol


PubMed:Asymmetric reduction of 4-hydroxy-2-butanone to (R)-1,3-butanediol with absolute stereochemical selectivity by a newly isolated strain of Pichia jadinii.
PubMed:A study on the formation of liquid ordered phase in lysophospholipid/cholesterol/1,3-butanediol/ water and lysophospholipid/ceramide/1,3- butanediol/water systems.
PubMed:Enhancement of (R)-1,3-butanediol production by engineered Escherichia coli using a bioreactor system with strict regulation of overall oxygen transfer coefficient and pH.
PubMed:Efficacy of 1,3-butanediol for enhancement of neonatal pig survival.
PubMed:Carbonate phosphonium salts as catalysts for the transesterification of dialkyl carbonates with diols. The competition between cyclic carbonates and linear dicarbonate products.
PubMed:Ketone ester effects on metabolism and transcription.
PubMed:Ketone supplementation decreases tumor cell viability and prolongs survival of mice with metastatic cancer.
PubMed:Ketone body therapy: from the ketogenic diet to the oral administration of ketone ester.
PubMed:Design, synthesis and properties of artificial nucleic acids from (R)-4-amino-butane-1,3-diol.
PubMed:A study of the methylene/perfluormethylene selectivity of porous polymer monolithic stationary phases exhibiting different fluorous/hydrophobic content.
PubMed:A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy.
PubMed:Sensitive chiral analysis via microwave three-wave mixing.
PubMed:1H NMR spectra of alkane-1,3-diols in benzene: GIAO/DFT shift calculations.
PubMed:Acoustic nonlinearity parameter B/A determined by means of thermodynamic method under elevated pressures for alkanediols.
PubMed:Therapeutic ketosis with ketone ester delays central nervous system oxygen toxicity seizures in rats.
PubMed:Effect of adulteration versus storage on volatiles in unifloral honeys from different floral sources and locations.
PubMed:Improvement of (R)-1,3-butanediol production by engineered Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Heterogeneous ceria catalyst with water-tolerant Lewis acidic sites for one-pot synthesis of 1,3-diols via Prins condensation and hydrolysis reactions.
PubMed:Low molecular weight gelators based on biosurfactants, cellobiose lipids by Cryptococcus humicola.
PubMed:Stone comminution correlates with the average peak pressure incident on a stone during shock wave lithotripsy.
PubMed:Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet.
PubMed:Asymmetric synthesis of (R)-1,3-butanediol from 4-hydroxy-2-butanone by a newly isolated strain Candida krusei ZJB-09162.
PubMed:Determination of the shell permeability of microcapsules with a core of oil-based active ingredient.
PubMed:Highly crosslinked polymeric monoliths for reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography of small molecules.
PubMed:Acrylate ester-based monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography separation of triacylglycerols in vegetable oils.
PubMed:Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by fermentation and bioconversion processes with Azohydromonas lata.
PubMed:Influence of polyols on the formation of iron oxide nanoparticles in solvothermal system.
PubMed:Removal of the 26-methyl group from 19-nor-1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ markedly reduces in vivo calcemic activity without altering in vitro VDR binding, HL-60 cell differentiation, and transcription.
PubMed:Engineering of glycerol dehydrogenase for improved activity towards 1, 3-butanediol.
PubMed:A ketone ester diet increases brain malonyl-CoA and Uncoupling proteins 4 and 5 while decreasing food intake in the normal Wistar Rat.
PubMed:Optimisation of secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) for the trace determination of gas-phase volatile organic compounds.
PubMed:Phenylethynylpyrene excimer forming hybridization probes for fluorescence SNP detection.
PubMed:Conformational cooling dynamics in matrix-isolated 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Screening of volatile composition of Lavandula hybrida Reverchon II honey using headspace solid-phase microextraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction.
PubMed:Study of the solubility and stability of polystyrene wastes in a dissolution recycling process.
PubMed:Polymer induced crystal organization of composite resins.
PubMed:Entrapment of functionalized silica microspheres with photo-initiated acrylate-based polymers.
PubMed:(2S,3S)-2-(N,N-dibenzylamino)butane-1,3-diol refined using a multipolar atom model.
PubMed:Increasing analytical space in gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry with dispersion field amplitude programming.
PubMed:Identification of TLC markers and quantification by HPLC-MS of various constituents in noni fruit powder and commercial noni-derived products.
PubMed:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) induces shape change in rat C6 glioma cells through the S1P2 receptor: development of an agonist for S1P receptors.
PubMed:Continuous production of chiral 1,3-butanediol using immobilized biocatalysts in a packed bed reactor: promising biocatalysis method with an asymmetric hydrogen-transfer bioreduction.
PubMed:Anisotropic crystal growth in aerosil/polymethylmethacrylate systems dispersed in dimethacrylate monomers.
PubMed:Manipulation of electrocatalytic reaction pathways through surface chemistry: in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of 1,3-butanediol oxidation on a Pt surface modified with Sb and S adatoms.
PubMed:Development of acrylate-based monolithic stationary phases for electrochromatographic separations.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of an enzyme that has dihydroxyacetone-reducing activity from methanol-grown Hansenula ofunaensis.
PubMed:Physical characterizations of microemulsion systems using tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as a surfactant for the oral delivery of protein drugs.
PubMed:Chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis using borate anion as a central ion.
PubMed:Development and in situ synthesis of monolithic stationary phases for electrochromatographic separations.
PubMed:Leachability of plasticizer and residual monomer from commercial temporary restorative resins.
PubMed:Novel chiral phosphoramidite monomers from (R)- and (S)-1,3-butanediol: synthesis of modified oligonucleotides and binding affinity studies.
PubMed:[In situ FTIR spectrocopic investigations of 1,3-butanediol oxidation on Sb and S modified Pt electrodes].
PubMed:[Preparation and chromatographic characteristics of linear [60] fullerene polysiloxane stationary phase for capillary gas chromatography].
PubMed:Evaluation of volatile compounds in different types of ghee using direct injection with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Synthesis of (R)-1,3-butanediol by enantioselective oxidation using whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing (S)-specific secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.
PubMed:[New orally active penem antibiotic: Farom].
PubMed:Evaluation of media and derivatization chemistry for six aldehydes in a passive sampler.
PubMed:Simultaneous detection and quantitation of diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and the toxic alcohols in serum using capillary column gas chromatography.
PubMed:Dog model of therapeutic ketosis induced by oral administration of R,S-1,3-butanediol diacetoacetate.
PubMed:Effect of Added Salts or Polyols on the Cloud Point and the Liquid-Crystalline Structures of Polyoxyethylene-Modified Silicone.
PubMed:Suppression of feed intake after parenteral administration of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate in pygmy goats.
PubMed:Glass-forming tendency in the system water-dimethyl sulfoxide.
PubMed:Effects of vitrification medium composition on the survival of bovine in vitro produced embryos, following in straw-dilution, in vitro and in vivo following transfer.
PubMed:Attenuation of brain hyperbaric oxygen toxicity by fasting is not related to ketosis.
PubMed:Isolation, identification, and enantioselective synthesis of octane-1,3,7-triol: determination of its absolute configuration
PubMed:Conjugates of oligonucleotides with polyaromatic fluorophores as promising DNA probes.
PubMed:Metabolic characteristics of induced ketosis in normal and obese dairy cows.
PubMed:Effect of Saccharides on the Glass-Forming Tendency and Stability of Solutions of 2,3-Butanediol, 1,2-Propanediol, or 1,3-Butanediol in Water, Phosphate-Buffered Saline, Euro-Collins Solution, or Saint Thomas Cardioplegic Solution
PubMed:Block polycationic oligonucleotide derivative: synthesis and inhibition of herpes virus reproduction.
PubMed:Effects of chemical pretreatment on posttraumatic cortical edema in the rat.
PubMed:Effect of D- and L-1,3-butanediol isomers on glycolytic and citric acid cycle intermediates in the rat brain.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of (S)-1,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis.
PubMed:Model of extreme hypoglycemia in dogs made ketotic with (R,S)-1,3-butanediol acetoacetate esters.
PubMed:Three distinct quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are expressed when Pseudomonas putida is grown on different alcohols.
PubMed:Metabolism of (R,S)-1,3-butanediol acetoacetate esters, potential parenteral and enteral nutrients in conscious pigs.
PubMed:Biochemical studies on the effect of S-1,3-butanediol of diabetes induced rats.
PubMed:Delayed treatment with 1,3-butanediol reduces loss of CA1 neurons in the hippocampus of rats following brief forebrain ischemia.
PubMed:Assay of the enantiomers of 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,3-pentanediol, and the corresponding hydroxyacids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Aminooxyacetic acid striatal lesions attenuated by 1,3-butanediol and coenzyme Q10.
PubMed:Effect of 1,3-butanediol on cerebral energy metabolism. Comparison with beta-hydroxybutyrate.
PubMed:Changes in extracellular and rat brain tissue concentrations of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate after 1,3-butanediol treatment.
PubMed:Determination of ethylene glycol in serum utilizing direct injection on a wide-bore capillary column.
PubMed:Pharmacological influences on cardiopulmonary arrest-related brain damage in the rat.
PubMed:Induction of rat hepatic mixed-function oxidases by acetone and other physiological ketones: their role in diabetes-induced changes in cytochrome P450 proteins.
PubMed:Successful cryopreservation of mouse blastocysts using a new vitrification solution.
PubMed:Structural determinants for alcohol substrates to be oxidized to formaldehyde by rat liver microsomes.
PubMed:Metabolism of R- and S-1,3-butanediol in perfused livers from meal-fed and starved rats.
PubMed:Metabolic changes in dairy cows with ketonemia in response to feed restriction and dietary 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Cryoprotection of red blood cells by a 2,3-butanediol containing mainly the levo and dextro isomers.
PubMed:Ischemic brain damage is not ameliorated by 1,3-butanediol in hyperglycemic rats.
PubMed:Effects of ketones, acetate, and glucose on in vitro immunoglobulin secretion by bovine lymphocytes.
PubMed:Dietary nonprotein calories and cerebral infarction size in rats.
PubMed:Metabolic changes in blood and liver of dairy cows during either feed restriction or administration of 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Metabolic changes in blood and liver during development and early treatment of experimental fatty liver and ketosis in cows.
PubMed:Peripheral type benzodiazepine binding sites following transient forebrain ischemia in the rat: effect of neuroprotective drugs.
PubMed:The periplasmic modifier protein for methanol dehydrogenase in the methylotrophs Methylophilus methylotrophus and Paracoccus denitrificans.
PubMed:Beneficial effect of 1,3-butanediol on cerebral energy metabolism and edema following brain embolization in rats.
PubMed:Influence of enzyme induction and exposure profile on liver injury due to chlorinated hydrocarbon inhalation.
PubMed:Experimental dissection of devitrification in aqueous solutions of 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Solvolysis of model compounds for alpha-hydroxylation of N'-nitrosonornicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone: evidence for a cyclic oxonium ion intermediate in the alkylation of nucleophiles.
PubMed:Quantitation of 1,3-butanediol and its acidic metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:In vitro production of beta-hydroxybutyrate from 1,3-butanediol by bovine liver, rumen mucosa, and kidney.
PubMed:Influence of vehicle on topical efficacy of 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone and related derivatives on in vivo type 2 herpes simplex virus infections.
PubMed:Metabolic responses of lactating goats to feed restriction and dietary 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Metabolic effects of intraruminal administration of 1,3-butanediol or tributyrin in lactating goats.
PubMed:Effect of 1,3-butanediol on rat liver microsomal NDMA demethylation and other monooxygenase activities.
PubMed:The stereochemical course of phospho group transfer catalyzed by rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase.
PubMed:Potentiation of CCl4-induced liver injury by ketonic and ketogenic compounds: role of the CCl4 dose.
PubMed:Cryoprotection of red blood cells by 1,3-butanediol and 2,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Protective action of 1,3-butanediol in cerebral ischemia. A neurologic, histologic, and metabolic study.
PubMed:Failure of phenobarbital or butanediol pretreatment to potentiate tienilic acid hepatotoxicity in vivo in the rat.
PubMed:Motor performance in rats exposed to severe forebrain ischemia: effect of fasting and 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Elevated blood ketone and glucagon levels cannot account for 1,3-butanediol induced cerebral protection in the Levine rat.
PubMed:Effects of dietary additions of 1,3-butanediol or lard for sows on survival of neonatal pigs.
PubMed:Glass-forming tendency and stability of the amorphous state in the aqueous solutions of linear polyalcohols with four carbons. I. Binary systems water-polyalcohol.
PubMed:1,3-Butanediol-induced increases in ketone bodies and potentiation of CCl4 hepatotoxicity.
PubMed:Thiosemicarbazones of 2-acetylpyridine, 2-acetylquinoline, 1-acetylisoquinoline, and related compounds as inhibitors of herpes simplex virus in vitro and in a cutaneous herpes guinea pig model.
PubMed:Characterization of metabolic changes during a protocol for inducing lactation ketosis in dairy cows.
PubMed:A gas-liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of 1,3-butylene glycol in whole blood or plasma and the separation of the short chain glycols.
PubMed:Effects of prepartum administration of 1,3-butanediol to sows on growth and survival of neonatal pigs.
PubMed:Reduction of neurologic deficit by 1,3-butanediol induced ketosis in levine rats.
PubMed:Suppression of mitogenic response of bovine lymphocytes during experimental ketosis in calves.
PubMed:Effect of 1,3-butanediol and short chain acids in sow gestation diets on maternal plasma metabolites and fetal energy storage.
PubMed:1,3 Butanediol treatment of ethylene glycol toxicosis in dogs.
PubMed:In vitro hepatic gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis as affected by prolonged ketonemia-glucosuria and fasting in steers.
PubMed:Plasma and liver metabolites and glucose kinetics as affected by prolonged ketonemia-glucosuria and fasting in steers.
PubMed:In vitro hepatic gluconeogenesis during experimental ketosis produced in steers by 1,3-butanediol and phlorizin.
PubMed:Glucose kinetics, plasma metabolites, and endocrine responses during experimental ketosis in steers.
PubMed:Effect of dietary niacin supplementation on phlorhizin and 1,3-butanediol-induced ketonemia and hypoglycemia in steers.
PubMed:Butanediol induced cerebral protection from ischemic-hypoxia in the instrumented Levine rat.
PubMed:Effects of ethanol, fructose, and ethanol plus fructose infusions on plasma glucose concentration and glucose turnover in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) as measured by [6-3H]glucose.
PubMed:Characterization of susceptibility to audiogenic seizures in ethanol-dependent rats after microinjection of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists into the inferior colliculus, substantia nigra or medial septum.
PubMed:Role of tissue lactate and substrate availability in 1,3-butanediol-enhanced hypoxic survival in the mouse.
PubMed:Mechanism of ketone-induced protection from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in the rat.
PubMed:Diagnosis of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) intoxication in dogs by determination of glycolic acid in serum and urine with high pressure liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Plasma fat metabolites and hunger.
PubMed:Dose-response relationships in 1,3-butanediol-induced potentiation of carbon tetrachloride toxicity.
PubMed:Reproduction and teratology study of 1,3-butanediol in rats.
PubMed:The fate of the ethanol analogue 1,3-butanediol in the dog. An in vivo-in vitro comparison.
PubMed:1,3-Butanediol pretreatment on the cholestasis induced in rats by manganese--bilirubin combination, taurolithocholic acid, or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate.
PubMed:Effects of acute and chronic 1,3-butanediol treatment on central nervous system function: a comparison with ethanol.
PubMed:Comparison of two high-pressure liquid chromatographic assays for carboprost, a synthetic prostaglandin.
PubMed:The antimycotic activity in vitro of five diols.
PubMed:Modification of haloalkane-induced hepatotoxicity by exogenous ketones and metabolic ketosis.
PubMed:Effects of 1,3-butanediol-1,3-dioctanoate and corn oil on lipids of chick plasma, liver, and skin.
PubMed:Hypoxic tolerance enhanced by beta-hydroxybutyrate-glucagon in the mouse.
PubMed:Butanediol induced ketosis increases tolerance to hypoxia in the mouse.
PubMed:Effect of feeding 1,3-butanediol-1,3-dioctanoate as an energy source for chicks for catch-up growth during recovery from Newcastle disease virus.
PubMed:Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity by 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Neuronal and liver protein synthesis in the developing offsprings following treatment of pregnant rats with ethanol or 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Metabolite levels, redox states, and gluconeogenic enzyme activities in livers of rats fed diets containing 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Effect of dietary energy on hepatic glycogen metabolism in the turkey hen.
PubMed:[Stimulation of gluconeogenesis with 1,3-butanediol in the perfused rat liver].
PubMed:[Gluconeogenesis in the liver of rats receiving 1,3-butanediol in their diet].
PubMed:High levels of endogenous 1,3-butanediol in the blood of a man after ethanol ingestion.
PubMed:[Role of the oxidation-reduction state and phosphate potential in regulating rat liver gluconeogenesis during inclusion of 1,3-butanediol in the diet].
PubMed:Influence of dietary 1,3-butanediol on blood ketone levels and on glucose metabolism in the dog (39892).
PubMed:Suppression by 1,3-butanediol of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats.
PubMed:Effects of 1,3-butanediol and 1,2-propanediol on growth, blood metabolites, and liver glycogen broiler chickens.
PubMed:Butanediols: selection, open field activity, and NAD reduction by liver extracts in inbred mouse strains.
PubMed:Effects of 1,3-butanediol and 1,2-propanediol on blood ketone bodies and glucose in sheep fed restricted diets.
PubMed:Butanediol and lipid metabolism.
PubMed:1,3-Butanediol catabolism in the rat.
PubMed:Nutritional and metabolic studies in humans with 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Synthetic food additives as a source of calories: 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Nutritional application and implication of 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Use of 1,3-butanediol for lactation and growth in cattle.
PubMed:Influence of 1,3-butanediol on blood glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin content of streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
PubMed:Diol lipids of rat liver. Quantitation and structural characteristics of neutral lipids and phospholipids derived from ethanediol, propanediols, and butanediols.
PubMed:Influence of dietary 1,3-butanediol on wieght gain, blood, and liver metabolites and lipogenesis in the pig and chick.
PubMed:Physiological effects of 1,3-butanediol fed to cattle.
PubMed:Effect of 1,3-butanediol on hepatic fatty acid synthesis and metabolite levels in the rat.
PubMed:Brain metabolite concentrations and redox states in rats fed diets containing 1,3-butanediol and ethanol.
PubMed:Utilization of 1,3-butanediol and nonspecific nitrogen in human adults.
PubMed:[Various aspects of 1,2-propanediol and 1,3-butanediol metabolism following parenteral administration combined with glucose and sorbitol (experimental study)].
PubMed:Effect of 1,3-butanediol and propionic acid on blood ketones, lipids and metal ions in rats.
PubMed:Liver and kidney gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzyme activities and synthesis of glucose by kidney cortex slices in rats fed 1,3-butanediol-containing diets.
PubMed:Redox and phosphorylation states and metabolite concentrations in frozen clamped livers of rats fed diets containing 1,3-butanediol and DL-carnitine.
PubMed:Metabolic fate of 1,3-butanediol in the rat: liver tissue slices metabolism.
PubMed:Metabolic fate of 1,3-butanediol in the rat: conversion to -hydroxybutyrate.
PubMed:Metabolic control of enzymes in normal, diabetic, and diabetic insulin-treated rats utilizing 1,3 butanediol.
PubMed:Comparisons of 1,3-butanediol and glycerol on several behavioral measures.
PubMed:Physiologic disposition of 1,3-butanediol cyclic sulfite (NSC-60195) given orally to rats.
PubMed:Chronic oral toxicity of 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Utilization by the rat of 1,3-butanediol as a synthetic source of dietary energy.
PubMed:Distribution of lipids in rats fed 1,3-butanediol.
PubMed:Inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase by sulfite-releasing compounds, especially 1,3-butanediol cyclic sulfite (NSC-60195) and alpha-anilino-alpha-toluene sulfonic acid sodium salt (NSC-526051).
PubMed:Effect of 1,3-butanediol cyclic sulfite (NSC-60195) on lactate dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Influence of 1,3-butanediol on tissue lipids of cold-exposed rats.
PubMed:[Choleretic effect of new 1, 3-butanediol derivatives].
PubMed:[Retardation of resorption by 1, 3-butanediol].
Solv. for flavouring agents 1,3-Butanediol is an organic chemical, an alcohol. It is commonly used as a solvent for food flavouring agents and is a co-monomer used in certain polyurethane and polyester resins. It is one of four stable isomers of butanediol. In biology, 1,3-butanediol is used as a hypoglycaemic agent.
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