EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

1-anthroic acid, 9,10-dihydro-2,5,7, 8-tetrahydroxy-4-methyl-9,10-dioxo-6- (2,3,4, 5-tetrahydroxyhexanoyl)-

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Name:3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]anthracene-2-carboxylic acid
CAS Number: 1390-65-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):8022-93-3
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:215-724-4
FDA UNII: Search
XlogP3-AA:0.50 (est)
Molecular Weight:492.39100000
Formula:C22 H20 O13
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
CAS Number: 1328-60-5
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:215-527-3
FDA UNII: Search
Also(can) Contains:cochineal
 carminic acid
Category:coloring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
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JECFA Food Additive: Carmines

Cochineal Extract
GSFA Codex: Carmines (120)

Carmines (120)
DG SANTE Food Additives:carmine
FEMA Number:2242 carmine
FDA:No longer provide for the use of these seven synthetic flavoring substances
FDA Mainterm (SATF):1390-65-4 ; CARMINE (COCCUS CACTI L.)
FDA Regulation:
Subpart A--Foods
Sec. 73.100 Cochineal extract; carmine.

Subpart B--Drugs
Sec. 73.1100 Cochineal extract; carmine.

Subpart C--Cosmetics
Sec. 73.2087 Carmine.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:red to dark red powder or liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 907.00 to 908.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 600.00 °F. TCC ( 315.56 °C. )
logP (o/w): 1.532 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1300 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: cosmetic colorants
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Carmine 98%
Blue Pacific Flavors
Carmine Powder
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Carmine Red
Chr. Hansen A/S
Flavor: characteristic
Carmine is one of the most stable natural colors available. The color shade is pH dependent, orange in acid solutions and purple in alkaline. Carmine is an excellent replacer of artificial food colors and Chr. Hansen offers a complete range of effective, high quality carmine solutions.
Glentham Life Sciences
Carmine (C.I. 75470), certified
Glentham Life Sciences
Carmine (C.I. 75470)
P.L. Thomas
Pangaea Sciences
Penta International
Rung International
Odor: characteristic
Use: Carmine has been used as a colorant even in the ancient civilizations be it Egyptian or the Maya or the Inca. At one point the worth of this color was more than that of real gold. It is used as a food colorant, a dye and body colorant. Canary Islands and Peru are the major centers for the cultivation of the cochineal insects known as the best source of carmine.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Carmine powder
For experimental / research use only.
Carmine >40.0%(HPLC)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
None - None found.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 - Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
coloring agents
Recommendation for carmine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: 7.00000300.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): --
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: -200.00000
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: --
fruit ices: --
gelatins / puddings: --
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 10.00000100.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: --
meat products: -40.00000
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of cochineal, carminic acid, carmines (E 120) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):1390-65-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :14950
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]anthracene-2-carboxylic acid
 3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]anthracene-2-carboxylic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:1390-65-4
Pubchem (cid):14950
Pubchem (sid):126691174
Canada Domestic Sub. List:1328-60-5
Pubchem (sid):135310583
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:3205.00.1020
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FDA Color Additive Status ListView
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
 cosmetic colorants
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 coccus cacti
Search Trop Picture
 alum lake of carminic acid
1-anthroic acid, 9,10-dihydro-2,5,7, 8-tetrahydroxy-4-methyl-9,10-dioxo-6- (2,3,4, 5-tetrahydroxyhexanoyl)-
 b rose liquid
 carmine FCC
 carmine powder
 coccus cacti l. color principle
 cochineal extract lake
 hexitol, 1,5-anhydro-1-C-(7-carboxy-9,10-dihydro-1,3,4,6-tetrahydroxy-8-methyl-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenyl)-
 kanikama base EX-4275
 kanikama base EX-SGY-1887
 natural red 4
3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-7-(3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-pyran-2-yl)-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid
3,5,6,8-tetrahydroxy-1-methyl-9,10-dioxo-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]anthracene-2-carboxylic acid


PubMed:New composite nitrite-free and low-nitrite meat-curing systems using natural colorants.
PubMed:Fast determination of seven synthetic pigments from wine and soft drinks using magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of carmine in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of dyes in wines by HPLC coupled to quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Structure elucidation and chromatographic identification of anthraquinone components of cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) detected in historical objects.
PubMed:Colloidal approach to prepare colour blends from colourants with different solubility profiles.
PubMed:Modulation of accessibility of subdomain IB in the pH-dependent interaction of bovine serum albumin with Cochineal Red A: a combined view from spectroscopy and docking simulations.
PubMed:Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Exposure assessment of synthetic colours approved in Korea.
PubMed:The hazardous effects of the three natural food dyes on developmental stages and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster.
PubMed:Thermal stability of selected natural red extracts used as food colorants.
PubMed:Medication dyes as a source of drug allergy.
PubMed:On the application of nanostructured electrodes prepared by Ti/TiO2/WO3 "template": a case study of removing toxicity of indigo using visible irradiation.
PubMed:Aminocarminic acid in E120-labelled food additives and beverages.
PubMed:[Determination of sixteen food additives in beverage by capillary zone electrophoresis].
PubMed:Synthesis and bioactivity study of 2-acylamino-substituted N'-benzylbenzohydrazide derivatives.
PubMed:Spectroscopic studies of DNA interactions with food colorant indigo carmine with the use of ethidium bromide as a fluorescence probe.
PubMed:First record of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, infesting Withania somnifera in India.
PubMed:Lac color inhibits development of rat thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of plasma hyaluronan-binding protein.
PubMed:Promoting effects of carminic acid-enriched cochineal extracts on capsular invasive thyroid carcinomas through targeting activation of angiogenesis in rats.
PubMed:Seed colour loci, homoeology and linkage groups of the C genome chromosomes revealed in Brassica rapa-B. oleracea monosomic alien addition lines.
PubMed:Design, synthesis, and analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationships of 4-phenyl-acyl-substituted 3-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-ene-2,8-dione derivatives.
PubMed:Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of five food dyes using the somatic mutation and recombination test.
PubMed:Optical spectroscopic exploration of binding of Cochineal Red A with two homologous serum albumins.
PubMed:Design, synthesis, structure, and acaricidal/insecticidal activity of novel spirocyclic tetronic acid derivatives containing an oxalyl moiety.
PubMed:Intrinsic UV absorption spectrometry observed with a liquid core waveguide as a sensor technique for monitoring ozone in water.
PubMed:[Use of the granulocytic myeloperoxidase release reaction to diagnose food additive allergies].
PubMed:Design, synthesis, and biological activities of milbemycin analogues.
PubMed:Methods for the determination of European Union-permitted added natural colours in foods: a review.
PubMed:Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activities of novel monohalovinylated pyrethroids.
PubMed:Controlling the bleeding of carmine colorant in crabstick.
PubMed:[Absolute quantification of carminic acid in cochineal extract by quantitative NMR].
PubMed:Modified nondestructive colorimetric method to evaluate the variability of oxygen diffusion rate through wine bottle closures.
PubMed:Toxicity of xanthene food dyes by inhibition of human drug-metabolizing enzymes in a noncompetitive manner.
PubMed:Prevalence of Toxocara canis in stray dogs, northern Iran.
PubMed:Determination of carmine food dye (E120) in foodstuffs by stripping voltammetry.
PubMed:Spectroscopic and theoretical study of the "azo"-dye E124 in condensate phase: evidence of a dominant hydrazo form.
PubMed:Carmine dye and cochineal extract: hidden allergens no more.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of indigo dye by newly isolated naphthalene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp. HOB1 and its application in dyeing cotton fabric.
PubMed:Allergy to carmine red (E120) is not dependent on concurrent mite allergy.
PubMed:[Food additive hypersenisivity--near myth].
PubMed:Carmine hypersensitivity masquerading as azithromycin hypersensitivity.
PubMed:Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a major 38-kd cochineal allergen.
PubMed:Recombinant aryl hydrocarbon receptors for bioassay of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands in transgenic tobacco plants.
PubMed:Reflectometric cutinase assay for rapid screening of contaminants and residues of insecticidal organophosphates and carbamates.
PubMed:Eight years of severe allergic reactions in Finland: a register-based report.
PubMed:Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of tartrazine, patent blue V, and indigo carmine in commercial products by partial least squares and principal component regression methods.
PubMed:[Microbial biosynthesis and biotransformation of indigo and indigo-like pigments].
PubMed:Purple urine bag syndrome: a community-based study and literature review.
PubMed:[Case of urticaria due to cochineal dye in red-colored diet].
PubMed:The history, chemistry and modes of action of carmine and related dyes.
PubMed:Purple urine bag syndrome: a rare and interesting phenomenon.
PubMed:Revised procedures for the certification of carmine (C.I. 75470, Natural red 4) as a biological stain.
PubMed:Determination of 13 synthetic food colorants in water-soluble foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector.
PubMed:Use of novel nest boxes by carmine bee-eaters (Merops nubicus) in captivity.
PubMed:Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.
PubMed:Impact of storage position on oxygen ingress through different closures into wine bottles.
PubMed:A method for determining identity and relative purity of carmine, carminic acid and aminocarminic acid.
PubMed:[Allergy to food colouring. A prospective study in ten children].
PubMed:Occupational asthma to carmine in a butcher.
PubMed:Evaluation of complex spectral-pH three-way arrays by modified bilinear least-squares: determination of four different dyes in interfering systems.
PubMed:Flow and conduit formation in the external fluid-transport system of a suspension feeder.
PubMed:[Identification and determination of the isomer and subsidiary color in food blue no. 2 (indigo carmine) by LC/MS and HPLC].
PubMed:Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.
PubMed:Production of superoxide radical in reductive metabolism of a synthetic food-coloring agent, indigocarmine, and related compounds.
PubMed:Evaluation of photo-mutagenicity and photo-cytotoxicity of food coloring agents.
PubMed:Environmental factors affecting productivity, indican content, and indigo yield in Polygonum tinctorium Ait., a subtropical crop grown under temperate conditions.
PubMed:Determination of food colorants by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.
PubMed:Formation of natural indigo derived from woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) in relation to product purity.
PubMed:[Determination of synthetic food dyes in food by capillary electrophoresis].
PubMed:A novel method for the determination of synthetic colors in ice cream samples.
PubMed:Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity by indirubin and indigo.
PubMed:Color quality of pigments in cochineals (Dactylopius coccus Costa). Geographical origin characterization using multivariate statistical analysis.
PubMed:[Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].
PubMed:Occupational asthma induced by inhaled carmine among butchers.
PubMed:Decreased ethanol preference and wheel running in Nurr1-deficient mice.
PubMed:Adipose tissue as a source of inflammatory cytokines in health and disease: focus on end-stage renal disease.
PubMed:[Simultaneous rapid determination of eight food additives in foods by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].
PubMed:[Identification of acid-stable carmine in imported apple syrup product].
PubMed:Optimizing conditions for the extraction of pigments in cochineals (Dactylopius coccus Costa) using response surface methodology.
PubMed:Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1B1, 1A1 and 1A2 by antigenotoxic compounds, purpurin and alizarin.
PubMed:Determining eight colorants in milk beverages by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:Structure of acid-stable carmine.
PubMed:Erythromycin as a prokinetic agent in preterm infants.
PubMed:The effect of low-dose erythromycin on whole gastrointestinal transit time of preterm infants.
PubMed:Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants.
PubMed:Preventive effects of anthraquinone food pigments on the DNA damage induced by carcinogens in Drosophila.
PubMed:[Food additives: effects on pregnancy and lactation].
PubMed:Ingredient and labeling issues associated with allergenic foods.
PubMed:The role of natural color additives in food allergy.
PubMed:Hydrolysed protein accelerates the gastrointestinal transport of formula in preterm infants.
PubMed:Identification of carmine allergens among three carmine allergy patients.
PubMed:Carmine dye.
PubMed:[Food additives as a cause of medical symptoms: relationship shown between sulfites and asthma and anaphylaxis; results of a literature review].
PubMed:Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation of soybean seeds on seed mycoflora, growth, nodulation, and resistance to Fusarium solani.
PubMed:Analysis of natural food pigments by capillary electrophoresis.
PubMed:Anaphylaxis after ingestion of carmine colored foods: two case reports and a review of the literature.
PubMed:Development of a medium for differentiation between Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157:H7.
PubMed:Randomised controlled trial of trophic feeding and gut motility.
PubMed:Factors affecting the perception of naturalness and flavor strength in citrus drinks.
PubMed:Determination of eight synthetic food colorants in drinks by high-performance ion chromatography.
PubMed:Influence of the pharmacological modification of gastric emptying on lactose digestion and gastrointestinal symptoms.
PubMed:Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine.
PubMed:Evaluation of iron bioavailability in infant weaning foods fortified with haem concentrate.
PubMed:Estimates of maximum limits of food colours use in Brazil through the Danish Budget Method and the Bär and Würtzen-modified method.
PubMed:Cancer chemopreventive activity of synthetic colorants used in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations.
PubMed:Separation and recovery of food coloring dyes using aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic resins.
PubMed:Modifications of allergenicity linked to food technologies.
PubMed:Anaphylactic reactions to ingested carmine (E120).
PubMed:Popsicle-induced anaphylaxis due to carmine dye allergy.
PubMed:Indigo formation by microorganisms expressing styrene monooxygenase activity.
PubMed:Development and validation of a quantitative method for determination of carmine (E120) in foodstuffs by liquid chromatography: NMKL Collaborative Study.
PubMed:Reductive and hydrolytic activities of enteric bacteria on food colours.
PubMed:Effect of natural food colorings on immunoglobulin production in vitro by rat spleen lymphocytes.
PubMed:High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of carminic acid, alpha- and beta-bixin, and alpha- and beta-norbixin, and the determination of carminic acid in foods.
PubMed:Anaphylaxis following ingestion of carmine.
PubMed:[Analysis of cytogenetic activity of food dyes].
PubMed:[Detection of food additives by enzyme immunoassay].
PubMed:Enzyme immunoassay for carminic acid in foods.
PubMed:Food anaphylaxis following ingestion of carmine.
PubMed:Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of cochineal administered to mice in the diet.
PubMed:[A study of the content of synthetic food dyes in gelatin jellies].
PubMed:Identification of unlawful food dyes by thin-layer chromatography-fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.
PubMed:[A 13-week toxicity study of simultaneous administration of cochineal and aluminum potassium sulfate in rats].
PubMed:Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes.
PubMed:Bio-metabolism of green S and indigo carmine through caecal microflora of rats.
PubMed:Sustained food vacuole formation by axenic Paramecium tetraurelia and the inhibition of membrane recycling by Alcian Blue.
PubMed:Genotoxicity studies in vitro and in vivo on carminic acid (natural red 4).
PubMed:Food ingestion and egestion in mating reactive populations of Paramecium primaurelia.
PubMed:Microbiological research on soft drinks: discolouring of natural-flavoured products.
PubMed:Carcinogenicity study of cochineal in B6C3F1 mice.
PubMed:Effects of certain food dyes on chromosomes of Allium cepa.
PubMed:Quantitative fecal carbohydrate excretion in premature infants.
PubMed:Lack of improved growth outcome related to nonnutritive sucking in very low birth weight premature infants fed a controlled nutrient intake: a randomized prospective study.
PubMed:Stress effects on gastrointestinal transit in the rat.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic determination of carminic acid in yogurt.
PubMed:Nutrient balance studies in premature infants fed premature formula or fortified preterm human milk.
PubMed:Simple method for the analysis of food dyes on reversed-phase thin-layer plates.
PubMed:Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity study of carmine of cochineal in the rat.
PubMed:Three-generation reproduction study on carmine of cochineal in the rat.
PubMed:Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study of carmine of cochineal in the rat.
PubMed:Evaluation of the potential teratogenicity of FD & C Blue No. 2 in rats and rabbits.
PubMed:Carminic acid-promoted oxygen radical damage to lipid and carbohydrate.
PubMed:Zinc and copper balances in preterm infants.
PubMed:Multigeneration study of FD & C Blue No. 2 in rats.
PubMed:Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study of FD & C Blue No. 2 in mice.
PubMed:The effect of ranitidine on the absorption of food cobalamins.
PubMed:Chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study of FD & C Blue No. 2 in rats.
PubMed:Dye marked antibiotics for lactating cow mastitis therapy.
PubMed:[Mutagenic effect of the food-coloring agents tartrazine and indigo carmine].
PubMed:Red dye No. 2 and the red pigment carmine enhance aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and guanylate cyclase activities.
PubMed:Enzyme-mediated mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium of contaminants of synthetic indigo products.
PubMed:Determination of indigo carmine in boiled sweets and similiar confectionary products.
PubMed:[Detection of a natural organic dye, cochineal, in meat products].
PubMed:Metabolic fate of food colorants.
PubMed:Cytotoxicity of food dyes on cultured fetal rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:[Intolerance to acetylsalicylacid and food additives in patients suffering from recurrent urticaria (author's transl)].
PubMed:A review of the specifications and toxicity of synthetic food colors permitted in Canada.
PubMed:Binding of dyes to chlorhexidine-treated hydroxyapatite.
PubMed:Detection and identification of natural water-soluble colouring matters in foods.
PubMed:[Identification of synthetic food dyes by a method of thin-layer chromatography].
PubMed:[Assessment of the lactose test and its value in detecting intolerance to milk sugar].
PubMed:Particle ejection from the cytoproct of Tetrahymena.
PubMed:Qualitative tests for added coloring matter in meat products.
PubMed:Some carmine substitutes in biological microtechnique.
PubMed:Food colours--harmless aesthetics or epicurean luxuries?
PubMed:Long-term toxicity of indigo carmine in mice.
PubMed:Short-term toxicity study on indigo carmine in the pig.
None found
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