EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

cod liver oil
fixed oil expressed from the fresh livers of codfish (Gadus spp., Gadidae). It consists primarily of the glycerides of C14-18 and C16-22 unsaturated fatty acids

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Name:gadus callarias liver oil
CAS Number: 8001-69-2
ECHA EC Number:232-289-6
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to amber brown clear oily liquid (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning - emollient
American International Chemical, LLC.
Augustus Oils
Cod Liver Fixed Oil
Charkit Chemical
COD LIVER OIL 1000/100
ECSA Chemicals
for flavor
Flavor: Fishy Brothy
Standard codfish powder made from different side streams. Can be used in ready meals, soups and stocks, snacks, noodles
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Cod Liver Oil
Maypro Industries
Fish Liver Oil
Cod Liver Oil - Pharmaceutical
Cod Liver Oil - Upgraded
Penta International
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
Recommendation for cod liver oil usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for cod liver oil flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Review of substances/agents that have direct beneficial effect on the environment: mode of action and assessment of efficacy
View page or View pdf
Daily Med:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):8001-69-2
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:nwg
gadus callarias liver oil
 gadus callarias liver oil
Canada Domestic Sub. List:8001-69-2
Pubchem (sid):135312175
Other Information:
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 gadus callarias
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 cod oil
 codfish powder
 fish liver oil
 fixed oil expressed from the fresh livers of codfish (Gadus spp., Gadidae). It consists primarily of the glycerides of C14-18 and C16-22 unsaturated fatty acids
 gadi lecur oil
 gadus callarias liver oil


PubMed:Dietary fatty acid composition affects food intake and gut-brain satiety signaling in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) larvae and post-larvae.
PubMed:Formation of reactive aldehydes (MDA, HHE, HNE) during the digestion of cod liver oil: comparison of human and porcine in vitro digestion models.
PubMed:Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids in cod liver oil via alternate solvent winterization and enzymatic interesterification.
PubMed:No increase in risk of hip fracture at high serum retinol concentrations in community-dwelling older Norwegians: the Norwegian Epidemiologic Osteoporosis Studies.
PubMed:The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in marine food model systems.
PubMed:Extraction of trace elements by ultrasound-assisted emulsification from edible oils producing detergentless microemulsions.
PubMed:Effect of feeding lipids recovered from fish processing waste by lactic acid fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis on antioxidant and membrane bound enzymes in rats.
PubMed:[National nutrition surveys and dietary changes in Iceland. Economic differences in healthy eating].
PubMed:Effect of in vitro digested cod liver oil of different quality on oxidative, proteomic and inflammatory responses in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
PubMed:Cod liver oil ameliorates sodium nitrite-induced insulin resistance and degradation of rat hepatic glycogen through inhibition of cAMP/PKA pathway.
PubMed:Vitamin D and infectious diseases.
PubMed:Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.
PubMed:Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.
PubMed:Cod liver oil in sodium nitrite induced hepatic injury: does it have a potential protective effect?
PubMed:Irritable eye syndrome: neuroimmune mechanisms and benefits of selected nutrients.
PubMed:Consumption of lean fish reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective population based cohort study of Norwegian women.
PubMed:Identification of arsenolipids and their degradation products in cod-liver oil.
PubMed:The impact of dietary and lifestyle factors on the risk of dental caries among young children in Qatar.
PubMed:Resolution of vitamin A cis/trans isomers resolves proficiency test assessments.
PubMed:Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.
PubMed:Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects.
PubMed:Problematic eating behaviour in Turkish children aged 12-72 months: characteristics of mothers and children.
PubMed:[Diet of six-year-old Icelandic children - National dietary survey 2011-2012].
PubMed:Seasonal variation in 25(OH)D at Aberdeen (57°N) and bone health indicators--could holidays in the sun and cod liver oil supplements alleviate deficiency?
PubMed:Trout-skin gelatin-based edible films containing phenolic antioxidants: effect on physical properties and oxidative stability of cod-liver oil model food.
PubMed:Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.
PubMed:[Dietary habits and their association with blood pressure among elderly Icelandic people].
PubMed:[Fish consumption and cardiovascular disease prevention].
PubMed:Oxidation of cod liver oil during gastrointestinal in vitro digestion.
PubMed:Flavonoids with potent antioxidant activity found in young green barley leaves.
PubMed:Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders.
PubMed:Environmental factors in Tiny Tim's near-fatal illness.
PubMed:Validity of retrospective diet history: assessing recall of midlife diet using food frequency questionnaire in later life.
PubMed:The historical evolution of thought regarding multiple micronutrient nutrition.
PubMed:Vitamin D recommendations: beyond deficiency.
PubMed:Intake of minerals, trace elements and vitamins in bone and raw food rations in adult dogs.
PubMed:[Rickets in a child].
PubMed:Authentication analysis of cod liver oil from beef fat using fatty acid composition and FTIR spectra.
PubMed:Effects of mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) derived from cod liver oil on H295R steroidogenesis.
PubMed:Cod liver oil, young children, and upper respiratory tract infections.
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of Korean rice wine concentrates.
PubMed:Effects of exposure to halogenated organic compounds combined with dietary restrictions on the antioxidant defense system in herring gull chicks.
PubMed:Quality of ready to serve tilapia fish curry with PUFA in retortable pouches.
PubMed:Quality changes during storage of minced fish products containing dietary fiber and fortified with ω3 fatty acids.
PubMed:Vitamin D3 quantification in a cod liver oil-based supplement.
PubMed:Developing a database of vitamin and mineral supplements (ViMiS) for the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).
PubMed:Multiresidue determination of organochlorines in fish oil by GC-MS: a new strategy in the sample preparation.
PubMed:PBB levels in fish from the Baltic and North seas and in selected food products from Poland.
PubMed:Fish oil and cod liver as safe and healthy food supplements.
PubMed:Introduction of oral vitamin D supplementation and the rise of the allergy pandemic.
PubMed:Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A.
PubMed:Quantitation of cis- and trans-monounsaturated fatty acids in dairy products and cod liver oil by mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode.
PubMed:Red blood cell n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first trimester of pregnancy are inversely associated with placental weight.
PubMed:Dietary cod protein reduces plasma C-reactive protein in insulin-resistant men and women.
PubMed:Vitamin D deficiency in healthy children in a sunny country: associated factors.
PubMed:A matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry investigation to assess the composition of cod liver oil based products which displayed a different in vivo allergenic power.
PubMed:Characterization of cod liver oil by spectroscopic techniques. New approaches for the determination of compositional parameters, acyl groups, and cholesterol from 1h nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectral data.
PubMed:Dietary supplements contribute substantially to the total nutrient intake in pregnant Norwegian women.
PubMed:Evaluation of automated direct sample introduction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the screening analysis of dioxins in fish oil.
PubMed:[Omega-3: from cod-liver oil to nutrigenomics].
PubMed:Vehicle-dependent disposition kinetics of fluoranthene in Fisher-344 rats.
PubMed:Hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative deterioration in foodstuffs rich in fish lipids.
PubMed:Vitamin D status in postmenopausal women living at higher latitudes in the UK in relation to bone health, overweight, sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of flavonoids isolated from young green barley leaves toward biological lipid samples.
PubMed:Standard reference materials for foods and dietary supplements.
PubMed:Enantioselective determination of anteiso fatty acids in food samples.
PubMed:Dietary lipid source modulates in vivo fatty acid metabolism in the freshwater fish, Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii).
PubMed:High-resolution (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy pattern recognition of fish oil capsules.
PubMed:[The use of herbal medicines, food supplements, and OTCs - design and testing of a questionnaire.].
PubMed:Quantitation of volatiles and nonvolatile acids in an extract from coffee beverages: correlation with antioxidant activity.
PubMed:Application of ethyl esters and d3-methyl esters as internal standards for the gas chromatographic quantification of transesterified fatty acid methyl esters in food.
PubMed:[The photobiology of vitamin D--a topic of renewed focus].
PubMed:Human metabolism of arsenolipids present in cod liver.
PubMed:Suitability of tandem-in-time mass spectrometry for polybrominated diphenylether measurement in fish and shellfish samples: comparison with high resolution mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet and breast milk of lactating icelandic women with traditional fish and cod liver oil consumption.
PubMed:Relationship between high consumption of marine fatty acids in early pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
PubMed:Modulatory effect of dietary factors on iron-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in liver and serum of albino rats.
PubMed:A gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring method for determining the fatty acid pattern in food after formation of fatty acid methyl esters.
PubMed:Effects of droplet size on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.
PubMed:Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas-chromatographic analysis of marine lipids: insight studies.
PubMed:Improved malonaldehyde assay using headspace solid-phase microextraction and its application to the measurement of the antioxidant activity of phytochemicals.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of total lipid hydroperoxides by a flow injection analysis system.
PubMed:Relationship between dietary intake of cod liver oil in early pregnancy and birthweight.
PubMed:Formation of genotoxic dicarbonyl compounds in dietary oils upon oxidation.
PubMed:Vitamin D status in a rural population of northern Norway with high fish liver consumption.
PubMed:Polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, and pesticide organochlorine residues in cod-liver oil dietary supplements.
PubMed:Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in five immigrant groups living in Oslo, Norway: the Oslo Immigrant Health Study.
PubMed:Predictors for cod-liver oil supplement use--the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.
PubMed:Birth weight, growth and feeding in infancy: relation to serum lipid concentration in 12-month-old infants.
PubMed:Fish oil feeding is associated with an increased accumulation of dietary lipids in enterocytes: results from an in vivo study in rats.
PubMed:Change in plasma levels of vitamin D after consumption of cod-liver and fresh cod-liver oil as part of the traditional north Norwegian fish dish "Mølje".
PubMed:Change in levels of persistent organic pollutants in human plasma after consumption of a traditional northern Norwegian fish dish-mølje (cod, cod liver, cod liver oil and hard roe).
PubMed:Effect of oxidative stress on serum and antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney of rats and their modulation through dietary factors.
PubMed:Development of a low-cost technology for mass production of the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus as an alternative live food for first feeding fish larvae.
PubMed:Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine. Part 2: medical management.
PubMed:Environmental occurrence of Q1, a C9H3C17N2 compound, that has been identified as a natural bioaccumulative organochlorine.
PubMed:Canned cod liver as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, with a reference to contamination.
PubMed:[Does supplementation of essential fatty acids influence the visual acuity and cognitive function of term infants?].
PubMed:[Vitamin D deficiency in a multicultural setting].
PubMed:On-line clean-up of pressurized liquid extracts for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in feedingstuffs and food matrices using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Cod liver oil consumption, smoking, and coronary heart disease mortality: three counties, Norway.
PubMed:Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.).
PubMed:Determination of non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental Standard Reference Materials.
PubMed:A new sample preparation technique for organochlorines in cod liver oil combining SPE and NP-HPLC with HRGC-ECD.
PubMed:Infant feeding in the 20th century: formula and beikost.
PubMed:Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.
PubMed:Nutritional research in World War 2: the Oxford Nutrition Survey and its research potential 50 years later.
PubMed:Antioxidant properties of aroma compounds isolated from soybeans and mung beans.
PubMed:Response of urinary lipophilic aldehydes and related carbonyl compounds to factors that stimulate lipid peroxidation in vivo.
PubMed:Enriched eggs as a source of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans.
PubMed:Dietary n-3 fatty acids, curcumin and capsaicin lower the release of lysosomal enzymes and eicosanoids in rat peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:[The AD-drops can be replaced by D-drops].
PubMed:Intake of very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids related to social status and lifestyle.
PubMed:[Biologically active food additives].
PubMed:Dietary fat intake and risk of lung cancer: a prospective study of 51,452 Norwegian men and women.
PubMed:Leptin levels in pregnant women and newborn infants: gender differences and reduction during the neonatal period.
PubMed:Serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and habitual intake of marine foods registered by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.
PubMed:The use of nutritional supplements by 4-12 year olds in England and Scotland.
PubMed:Diet and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma: a prospective study of 50,757 Norwegian men and women.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of acrolein, malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal produced from lipids oxidized with Fenton's reagent.
PubMed:Estimation of essential fatty acid requirements of common carp larvae using semi-purified artificial diets.
PubMed:Bait bases for Mastomys natalensis Smith 1834: a murid of public health interest in Africa.
PubMed:Evaluation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a group of Norwegian adolescents.
PubMed:Role of capsaicin, curcumin and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lowering the generation of reactive oxygen species in rat peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Most toxic and highly bioaccumulative PCB congeners in cod-liver oil of Baltic origin processed in Poland during the 1970s and 1980s, their TEQ-values and possible intake.
PubMed:[Clinical evaluation of aiconol side effects].
PubMed:Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.
PubMed:The effects of heparin and dietary fish oil on embolic events and the microcirculation downstream from a small-artery repair.
PubMed:Influence of low dietary lipid content on anorexia and [14C]glucose uptake in the intestine of zinc-deficient mice.
PubMed:Effects of dietary lipids on whole-body retention and organ distribution of organic and inorganic mercury in mice.
PubMed:Effect of added lipids on the texture of minced hake (Merluccius merluccius L.), megrim (Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis W.) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus W.) during frozen storage.
PubMed:Interactive effects of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and chronic ethanol intoxication on synaptic membrane lipid composition and fluidity in rats.
PubMed:[Infant nutrition in Norway in the light of recent research].
PubMed:The effect of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation on hepatic levels of vitamin A and E in ethanol and cod liver oil fed rats.
PubMed:Fatty acid content of marine oil capsules.
PubMed:Modification of rat platelet fatty acid composition by dietary lipids of animal and vegetable origin.
PubMed:Cod liver oil inhibits neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis in healthy males.
PubMed:Influence of dietary fish oil on arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis in animal models and in man.
PubMed:[Fatty acid composition and degree of peroxidation in fish oil and cod liver oil preparations].
PubMed:Linseed and cod liver oil induce rapid growth in a 7-year-old girl with N-3- fatty acid deficiency.
PubMed:n-3 Essential fatty acids decrease weight gain in genetically obese mice.
PubMed:The oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene mediated by lipid peroxidation in irradiated synthetic diets.
PubMed:Changes of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats dependent on the quantity and quality of fat intake.
PubMed:Antithrombin III and dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
PubMed:The effect of dietary supplements of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of platelets and plasma choline phosphoglycerides.
PubMed:Development of fish oil industry in the United States.
PubMed:[Characteristics of the process of oxidation of fats of diverse character during storage].
PubMed:Dietary requirements of subjects exposed to hyperbaric He-O2 conditions: effects of supplementation with major nutrient groups.
PubMed:[Addition of various types of fat to mixed dry feed as influencing the growth rate and the level of food utilization in rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri)].
PubMed:Nutritional rickets in children in Glasgow.
PubMed:Nonenzymic browning XIII. Effect of an antioxidant on the discoloration of lipid-protein mixtures.
PubMed:[A bacteriological investigation of Norwegian cod liver oil (author's transl)].
PubMed:[A change in erythrocyte membrane permeability in rodents under the influence of fish oil, vitamin E and fatty acids].
PubMed:Cholelithiasis in rabbits: effects of cod liver oil on dissolution of gallstones.
PubMed:[Various methods in the determination of the rancidity of cod liver oil].
PubMed:Growth of rats given cod-liver oil.
PubMed:Effects of vitamin E and cod liver oil in magnesium-deficient calves.
PubMed:[Comparative action of cod-liver oil and of axerophthol palmitate in avitaminosis A in rats].
PubMed:The second international standard for vitamin D: crystalline vitamin D3.
PubMed:Note on the Effect of High Temperatures on the Accessory Food Factor Content of Cod-Liver Oil.
oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, gadidae. it is a source of vitamin a and vitamin d. tsca definition 2008: extractives and their physically modified derivatives. it consists primarily of the glycerides of c14-c18 and c16-c22 unsatd. fatty acids. (gadus callarias, gadidae).
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