EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

para-hydroquinone
quinol

Supplier Sponsors

Name:benzene-1,4-diol
CAS Number: 123-31-9Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:204-617-8
FDA UNII:XV74C1N1AE
Nikkaji Web:J2.929G
Beilstein Number:605970
MDL:MFCD00002339
CoE Number:11249
XlogP3:0.60 (est)
Molecular Weight:110.11222000
Formula:C6 H6 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:stabilizing agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
FCN 1452 Hydroquinone View - notice
FCN 1460 Hydroquinone View - notice
FCN 1632 Hydroquinone View - notice
FCN 1834 Hydroquinone REPLACES FCNs 1246 and 1306 View - notice
DG SANTE Food Contact Materials:quinol
FDA Mainterm (IAUFC):123-31-9 ; HYDROQUINONE
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to pale yellow crystalline solid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 172.00 to 173.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 286.00 to 288.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Vapor Pressure:0.002000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 287.00 °F. TCC ( 141.60 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 0.590
Soluble in:
 alcohol
 water, 72000 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Insoluble in:
 water
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: stabilising agents
 
Suppliers:
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Hydroquinone 98%
Charkit Chemical
HYDROQUINONE PREMIUM FLAKE
Charkit Chemical
HYDROQUINONE PREMIUM HYDROQUINONE HIGH PURITY
Charkit Chemical
HYDROQUINONE, MEETS USP SPEC. FOR COSMETIC USE
Eastman Chemical
Eastman™ Hydroquinone, USP
Odor: characteristic
Use: Eastman™ Hydroquinone, USP, has been formulated for many years into creams, lotions, and gels to produce effective skin- lightening products. Eastman™ Hydroquinone, USP, meets or exceeds the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia and is produced under conditions of current good manufacturing practices for drugs. Because a high quality hydroquinone is needed to ensure safety, effectiveness, and consistent purity and potency, Eastman supplies only Eastman™ Hydroquinone, USP Grade or European Pharma Grade for skin-lightening products worldwide.
ECSA Chemicals
HYDROQUINONE
ECSA TRADE THE MOST UPDATED FINANCIAL PUBLICATION ON THE WORLD OF CHEMISTRY
EMD Millipore
For experimental / research use only.
Hydroquinone
fnfsurplus.com
Hydroquinone
Glentham Life Sciences
Hydroquinone
OQEMA
Hydroquinone Pro Photo
OQEMA
Hydroquinone
Penta International
HYDROQUINONE COSMETIC GRADE
Penta International
HYDROQUINONE INHIBITOR GRADE
Penta International
HYDROQUINONE PHOTO GRADE
Penta International
HYDROQUINONE TECHNICAL GRADE
Penta International
HYDROQUINONE USP
Shiva Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals
Hydroquinone
Sigma-Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
Hydroquinone ReagentPlus®, ≥99%
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Hydroquinone >99.0%(T)
Tengzhou Xiang Yuan Aroma Chemicals
1,4-Benzendiol
 
Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 302 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0555537

oral-rabbit LD50 200 mg/kg
International Polymer Science and Technology. Vol. 3, Pg. 93, 1976.

oral-mouse LD50 245 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 38(8), Pg. 6, 1973.

oral-cat LD50 50 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. OTS0555537

oral-dog LD50 200 mg/kg
GASTROINTESTINAL: NAUSEA OR VOMITING BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 8, Pg. 348, 1949.

intravenous-dog LDLo 80 mg/kg
"Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 162, 1955.

parenteral-frog LDLo 190 mg/kg
PERIPHERAL NERVE AND SENSATION: SPASTIC PARALYSIS WITH OR WITHOUT SENSORY CHANGE CARDIAC: OTHER CHANGES BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 166, Pg. 437, 1932.

oral-guinea pig LD50 550 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT
Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 8, Pg. 348, 1949.

intraperitoneal-guinea pig LDLo 200 mg/kg
"Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 162, 1955.

oral-human LDLo 29 mg/kg
"Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969Vol. -, Pg. 321, 1969.

oral-human TDLo 170 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: CYANOSIS CARDIAC: PULSE RATE INCREASE WITHOUT FALL IN BP BEHAVIORAL: COMA
Annales de Medecine Legale. Criminologie, Police Scientifique et Toxicologie. Vol. 7, Pg. 79, 1927.

oral-mammal (species unspecified) LD50 480 mg/kg
LUNGS, THORAX, OR RESPIRATION: DYSPNEA BEHAVIORAL: MUSCLE CONTRACTION OR SPASTICITY) BEHAVIORAL: CHANGES IN MOTOR ACTIVITY (SPECIFIC ASSAY)
Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. Vol. 15, Pg. 136, 1979.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 100 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD414-344

unreported-mouse LD50 150 mg/kg
British Journal of Cancer. Vol. 6, Pg. 160, 1952.

intraperitoneal-rabbit LD50 125 mg/kg
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 19, Pg. 327, 1990.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo 100 mg/kg
Agressologie. Revue Internationale de Physio-Biologie et de Pharmacologie Appliquees aux Effets de l'Agression. Vol. 3, Pg. 311, 1962.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 170 mg/kg
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 19, Pg. 327, 1990.

intravenous-rat LD50 115 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR BEHAVIORAL: EXCITEMENT BEHAVIORAL: CONVULSIONS OR EFFECT ON SEIZURE THRESHOLD
Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Vol. 8, Pg. 348, 1949.

unreported-rat LD50 720 mg/kg
Gigiena Truda i Professional'naya Patologiya v Estonskoi SSR. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Pathology in the Estonian SSR. Vol. 8, Pg. 145, 1972.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 182 mg/kg
Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete. Vol. 2, Pg. 333, 1947.

subcutaneous-cat LDLo 50 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR VASCULAR: REGIONAL OR GENERAL ARTERIOLAR OR VENOUS DILATION BLOOD: METHEMOGLOBINEMIA-CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN
Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 72, Pg. 241, 1913.

subcutaneous-dog LDLo 100 mg/kg
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 183, Pg. 319, 1936.

subcutaneous-frog LDLo 190 mg/kg
"Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 160, 1955.

subcutaneous-guinea pig LDLo 300 mg/kg
"Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 162, 1955.

skin-mammal (species unspecified) LD50 5970 mg/kg
Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. Vol. 45(10), Pg. 16, 1980.

subcutaneous-rat LDLo 300 mg/kg
"Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59Vol. 1, Pg. 162, 1955.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category:
stabilizing agents
Recommendation for para-hydroquinone usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for para-hydroquinone flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
EPA-Iris:IRIS
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
NIOSH International Chemical Safety Cards:search
NIOSH Pocket Guide:search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System:Search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database:Search
EPA GENetic TOXicology:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):123-31-9
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :785
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
SCCNFP:opinion
WISER:UN 2662
WGK Germany:3
benzene-1,4-diol
Chemidplus:0000123319
EPA/NOAA CAMEO:hazardous materials
RTECS:123-31-9
 
References:
 benzene-1,4-diol
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:123-31-9
Pubchem (cid):785
Pubchem (sid):134974392
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Indirect Additives used in Food Contact Substances:View
CHEBI:View
CHEMBL:View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
UM BBD:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00530
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB02434
FooDB:FDB000885
Export Tariff Code:2907.22.5000
Typical G.C.
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
 antioxidants
 bleaching agents
 hair dyeing agents
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 anise plant
Search Trop Picture
 anise seed
Search Trop Picture
 anise star anise fruit
Search Trop Picture
 anise star anise seed
Search Trop Picture
 bilberry fruit
Search Trop Picture
 bilberry leaf
Search Trop Picture
 ketaki flower oil india @ 6.10%
Data GC Search Trop Picture
 lingonberry
Search Trop Picture
 marjoram plant
Search Trop Picture
 marjoram shoot
Search Trop Picture
 orange root bark
Search Trop Picture
 pear plant
Search Trop Picture
 
Synonyms:
1,4-benzene diol
 benzene-1,4-diol
 benzene, p-dihydroxy-
1,4-benzenediol
p-benzenediol
 benzol-1,4-diol
1,4-benzoquinol
p-dihydroquinone
1,4-dihydroxybenzene
4-dihydroxybenzene
p-dihydroxybenzene
para-dihydroxybenzene
p-hydroquinone
4-hydroxyphenol
p-hydroxyphenol
para-hydroxyphenol
p-phenylenediol
 quinol
p-quinol
 

Articles:

PubMed:A magnetically drivable nanovehicle for curcumin with antioxidant capacity and MRI relaxation properties.
PubMed:Potential involvement of chemicals in liver cancer progression: An alternative toxicological approach combining biomarkers and innovative technologies.
PubMed:Selective and simultaneous determination of trace bisphenol A and tebuconazole in vegetable and juice samples by membrane-based molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and HPLC.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) using gas chromatographic methods.
PubMed:Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Spectrophotometric analysis of phenols, which involves a hemin-graphene hybrid nanoparticles with peroxidase-like activity.
PubMed:Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.
PubMed:Inhibition of influenza H7 hemagglutinin-mediated entry.
PubMed:Methanobactin-mediated one-step synthesis of gold nanoparticles.
PubMed:An electrochemical magneto immunosensor (EMIS) for the determination of paraquat residues in potato samples.
PubMed:Vanadium(IV/V)-p-dioxolene temperature induced electron transfer associated with ligation/deligation of solvent molecules.
PubMed:Design and implementation of an imprinted material for the extraction of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A from milk.
PubMed:Genotoxicity of hydroquinone in A549 cells.
PubMed:Development and validation of a fast chromatographic method for screening and quantification of legal and illegal skin whitening agents.
PubMed:Polar paradox revisited: analogous pairs of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants in linoleic acid emulsion containing Cu(II).
PubMed:Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles for the simultaneous determination of three food antioxidants.
PubMed:Functional food quality of Curcuma caesia, Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma aeruginosa endemic to Northeastern India.
PubMed:Electrochemical microdevice for on-site determination of rice freshness.
PubMed:A novel dsDNA/polydiphenylamine-4-sulfonic acid electrochemical biosensor for selective detection of the toxic catechol and related DNA damage.
PubMed:Nanoplatinum-enclosed gold nanocores as catalytically promoted nanolabels for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay.
PubMed:Effects of alcohol compounds on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.
PubMed:Comparative study of the labial gland secretion in termites (Isoptera).
PubMed:Study on mitigation of acrylamide formation in cookies by 5 antioxidants.
PubMed:Application of gold nanoparticles/TiO2 modified electrode for the electrooxidative determination of catechol in tea samples.
PubMed:In vitro antioxidant activities of extract and oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed against sunflower oil autoxidation.
PubMed:Disposable amperometric magneto-immunosensor for direct detection of tetracyclines antibiotics residues in milk.
PubMed:ID-CUBE direct analysis in real time high-resolution mass spectrometry and its capabilities in the identification of phenolic components from the green leaves of Bergenia crassifolia L.
PubMed:Characterization of the two-component monooxygenase system AlnT/AlnH reveals early timing of quinone formation in alnumycin biosynthesis.
PubMed:Utility of 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan for the spectrofluorimetric determination of butylated hydroxyanisole and propyl gallate in foodstuffs.
PubMed:Development of an electrochemical immunoassay for detection of gatifloxacin in swine urine.
PubMed:Depigmentation therapies in vitiligo.
PubMed:A novel combined thermometric and amperometric biosensor for lactose determination based on immobilised cellobiose dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Oxidative stability of fish oil supplemented with carnosic acid compared with synthetic antioxidants during long-term storage.
PubMed:The hydroquinone debate.
PubMed:A kinetic spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of phenol and its three derivatives with the aid of artificial neural network.
PubMed:Fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives.
PubMed:Efficiency of trapping methylglyoxal by phenols and phenolic acids.
PubMed:Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils.
PubMed:Integrated electrokinetic magnetic bead-based electrochemical immunoassay on microfluidic chips for reliable control of permitted levels of zearalenone in infant foods.
PubMed:Sequential treatment with triple combination cream and intense pulsed light is more efficacious than sequential treatment with an inactive (control) cream and intense pulsed light in patients with moderate to severe melasma.
PubMed:Metabolic pathways of ochratoxin A.
PubMed:Antibacterial activity against foodborne Staphylococcus aureus and antioxidant capacity of various pure phenolic compounds.
PubMed:Antimicrobial activities of 1,4-benzoquinones and wheat germ extract.
PubMed:Hydroquinone PBPK model refinement and application to dermal exposure.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of hydroquinone galactoside using Kluyveromyces lactis lactase.
PubMed:Effect of antioxidants on elimination and formation of acrylamide in model reaction systems.
PubMed:Liquid chromatography on a monolithic column microfluidic chip coupled with "three-T" sample injection mode and amperometric detection.
PubMed:Reassessment of antioxidant activity of arbutin: multifaceted evaluation using five antioxidant assay systems.
PubMed:Screening of phenolic antioxidants for their inhibitory activity against foodborne Staphylococcus aureus strains.
PubMed:Tea catechins induce the conversion of preformed lysozyme amyloid fibrils to amorphous aggregates.
PubMed:Electrochemical immunoassay using magnetic beads for the determination of zearalenone in baby food: an anticipated analytical tool for food safety.
PubMed:Monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone and 4-tertiary butyl phenol activate markedly different physiological responses in melanocytes: relevance to skin depigmentation.
PubMed:Skin bleaching: highlighting the misuse of cutaneous depigmenting agents.
PubMed:Identification of an Alkylhydroquinone from Rhus succedanea as an Inhibitor of Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis.
PubMed:Successful treatment of moderate to severe melasma with triple-combination cream and glycolic acid peels: a pilot study.
PubMed:Functional assembly of a microbial consortium with autofluorescent and mineralizing activity for the biodegradation of organophosphates.
PubMed:More toxic and photoresistant products from photodegradation of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl.
PubMed:Solid state and aqueous solution characterization of rectangular tetranuclear V(IV/V)-p-semiquinonate/hydroquinonate complexes exhibiting a proton induced electron transfer.
PubMed:Chemical composition of volatile extract and biological activities of volatile and less-volatile extracts of juniper berry (Juniperus drupacea L.) fruit.
PubMed:Biphenylalkylacetylhydroquinone ethers suppress the proliferation of murine B16 melanoma cells.
PubMed:Multi-commutation in flow analysis: recent developments and applications.
PubMed:Comparing soluble and co-immobilized catalysts for 2-ketoaldose production by pyranose 2-oxidase and auxiliary enzymes.
PubMed:Structure-activity relationships for the fluorescence of ochratoxin A: insight for detection of ochratoxin A metabolites.
PubMed:Hydroquinone-induced genotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells.
PubMed:Hydroquinone--what is its future?
PubMed:Variability in floral scent in rewarding and deceptive orchids: the signature of pollinator-imposed selection?
PubMed:The safety of hydroquinone: a dermatologist's response to the 2006 Federal Register.
PubMed:Inhibition by dietary hydroquinone of acetylaminofluorene induction of initiation of rat liver carcinogenesis.
PubMed:Hydroquinone and the FDA--the debate?
PubMed:Phytochemicals induce breast cancer resistance protein in Caco-2 cells and enhance the transport of benzo[a]pyrene-3-sulfate.
PubMed:Hydroquinone: acute and subchronic toxicity studies with emphasis on neurobehavioral and nephrotoxic effects.
PubMed:Genotoxicity of the hydroquinone metabolite of ochratoxin A: structure-activity relationships for covalent DNA adduction.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of five synthetic antioxidants in edible vegetable oil by GC-MS.
PubMed:Mutagenicity of arbutin in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.
PubMed:Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.
PubMed:[Determination of vitamin K in aojiru (green juice) products by HPLC].
PubMed:Cigarette smoke-related oxidants and the development of sub-RPE deposits in an experimental animal model of dry AMD.
PubMed:Production, properties and application to biocatalysis of a novel extracellular alkaline phenol oxidase from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum.
PubMed:Estimated daily intakes of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants in Korea.
PubMed:Mechanism of formation of redox-active hydroxylated benzenes and pyrazine in 13C-labeled glycine/D-glucose model systems.
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene-quinones from the New Zealand sponge Dysidea cf. cristagalli.
PubMed:Studies on the poisonous skin secretion of individual red bellied toads, Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura, Bufonidae), from Uruguay.
PubMed:Effect of benzene and its closed ring metabolites on intrachromosomal recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
PubMed:Risk assessment of domestic and industrial effluents unloaded into a freshwater environment.
PubMed:Oxidation of tea extracts and tea catechins by molecular oxygen.
PubMed:Metabolism and disposition of hydroquinone in Fischer 344 rats after oral or dermal administration.
PubMed:Metabolism of benzoquinone by yeast cells and oxidative characteristics of corresponding hydroquinone: application to highly sensitive measurement of yeast cell density by using benzoquinone and a chemiluminescent probe.
PubMed:Estimation of scavenging activity of phenolic compounds using the ABTS(*+) assay.
PubMed:Effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of edible fats and oils: thermogravimetric analysis.
PubMed:Chromatographic separation and in vitro activity of sorgoleone congeners from the roots of sorghum bicolor.
PubMed:Lack of clastogenic effects in cultured human lymphocytes treated with hydroquinone.
PubMed:Spectrophotometric assay of yeast vitality using 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone and tetrazolium salts.
PubMed:Differential activation of MAPK and ICE/Ced-3 protease in chemical-induced apoptosis. The role of oxidative stress in the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) leading to gene expression and survival or activation of caspases leading to apoptosis.
PubMed:Cell death induced by the phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone and its metabolite tert-butylquinone in human monocytic leukemia U937 cells.
PubMed:[Determination of 2,5-ditertiary butylhydroquinone by gas chromatography].
PubMed:Novel oxidations of (+)-catechin by horseradish peroxidase and laccase.
PubMed:Copper redox-dependent activation of 2-tert-butyl(1,4)hydroquinone: formation of reactive oxygen species and induction of oxidative DNA damage in isolated DNA and cultured rat hepatocytes.
PubMed:Determination of vitamin K1 isomers in foods by liquid chromatography with C30 bonded-phase column.
PubMed:Hydroquinone: a general phagostimulating pheromone in termites.
PubMed:Influence of redox-active compounds and PXR-activators on human MRP1 and MRP2 gene expression.
PubMed:GC-MS analysis of hydrophobic root exudates of sorghum and implications on the parasitic plant Striga asiatica.
PubMed:Estimates of the theoretical maximum daily intake of phenolic antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ in Brazil.
PubMed:Up-regulation of transporters of the MRP family by drugs and toxins.
PubMed:Lack of correlation between cigarette mainstream smoke particulate phase radicals and hydroquinone yield.
PubMed:Kinetic solvent effects on phenolic antioxidants determined by spectrophotometric measurements.
PubMed:Ozonation Products of Organosolvolytic Extracts from Vegetal Materials.
PubMed:Determination of vitamin K1 in medical foods by liquid chromatography with postcolumn reduction and fluorometric detection.
PubMed:Effect of alcohol compounds found in hemicellulose hydrolysate on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli.
PubMed:Hydroquinone antioxidants from the Indian ocean tunicate Aplidium savignyi.
PubMed:Stabilization of azadirachtin A in neem formulations: effect of some solid carriers, neem oil, and stabilizers.
PubMed:The effects of an alpha hydroxy acid (glycolic acid) on hairless guinea pig skin permeability.
PubMed:Hydroquinone: genotoxicity and prevention of genotoxicity following ingestion.
PubMed:Liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamin K1 in milk-based infant formula with matrix solid-phase dispersion.
PubMed:Structure-activity relationship of polyphenols on inhibition of chemical mediator release from rat peritoneal exudate cells.
PubMed:Depigmentation with tert-butyl hydroquinone using black guinea pigs.
PubMed:Modulation of halobenzene-induced hepatotoxicity by DT-diaphorase modulators, butylated hydroxyanisole and dicoumarol: evidence for possible involvement of quinone metabolites in the toxicity of halobenzenes.
PubMed:Use of a laccase-column for flow-injection calorimetry.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and tert-butyl hydroquinone in oils, foods, and biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.
PubMed:Acylated ascorbate stimulates collagen synthesis in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts at lower doses than does ascorbic acid.
PubMed:Lack of nephrotoxicity and renal cell proliferation following subchronic dermal application of a hydroquinone cream.
PubMed:Induction of contact sensitization to monotertiary butyl hydroquinone.
PubMed:Species and strain differences in the hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated biotransformation of 1,4-dichlorobenzene.
PubMed:The de novo production of drosophilin A (tetrachloro-4-methoxyphenol) and drosophilin A methyl ether (tetrachloro-1,4-dimethoxybenzene) by ligninolytic basidiomycetes.
PubMed:NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of t-Butylhydroquinone (CAS No. 1948-33-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F(1) Mice (Feed Studies).
PubMed:Effect of tea polyphenols on histamine release from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells: the structure-inhibitory activity relationship.
PubMed:Dihydro-vitamin K1: primary food sources and estimated dietary intakes in the American diet.
PubMed:Transcriptional regulation of the human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) gene by monofunctional inducers.
PubMed:Metabolism of tert-butylhydroquinone to S-substituted conjugates in the male Fischer 344 rat.
PubMed:Dose-dependent kinetics and metabolism of 1,2-dichlorobenzene in rat: effect of pretreatment with phenobarbital.
PubMed:Human exposure to naturally occurring hydroquinone.
PubMed:Sensitization of mice to paraphenylenediamine and structurally-related compounds: adjuvant effects of vitamin A supplementation.
PubMed:Melasma. Etiologic and therapeutic considerations.
PubMed:Induction of oxidative DNA damages and enhancement of cell proliferation in human lymphocytes in vitro by butylated hydroxyanisole.
PubMed:Some comments on the potential effects of hydroquinone exposure.
PubMed:Cleavage of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid by chicken microsomal preparations.
PubMed:Dietary fish oil inhibits human breast carcinoma growth: a function of increased lipid peroxidation.
PubMed:The role of prostaglandin H synthase-mediated metabolism in the induction of oxidative DNA damage by BHA metabolites.
PubMed:Oxygen radical formation during prostaglandin H synthase-mediated biotransformation of butylated hydroxyanisole.
PubMed:Toxicity and carcinogenicity of hydroquinone in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.
PubMed:Butylated hydroxyanisole specifically inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced cytotoxicity and growth enhancement.
PubMed:Effect of dietary fat on growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 human breast carcinomas in athymic nude mice: relationship between carcinoma growth and lipid peroxidation product levels.
PubMed:NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Hydroquinone (CAS No. 123-31-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).
PubMed:Butylated hydroxyanisole-induced alterations in cell kinetic parameters in rat forestomach in relation to its oxidative cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism.
PubMed:Rapid induction of Thy-1 antigenic markers on keratinocytes and epidermal immune cells in the skin of mice following topical treatment with common preservatives used in topical medications and in foods.
PubMed:Effects of BHA and related phenols on the forestomach of rats.
PubMed:Studies related to the mechanism of 3-BHA-induced neoplasia of the rat forestomach.
PubMed:Dependence of curing time, peak temperature, and mechanical properties on the composition of bone cement.
PubMed:Induction of forestomach lesions by butylhydroxyanisole and structurally related substances.
PubMed:A new metabolite of butylated hydroxyanisole in man.
 
Notes:
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol, is an aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2. Its chemical structure has two hydroxyl groups bonded to a benzene ring in a para position. Hydroquinone is commonly used as a biomarker for benzene exposure. The presence of hydroquinone in normal individuals stems mainly from direct dietary ingestion, catabolism of tyrosine and other substrates by gut bacteria, ingestion of arbutin containing foods, cigarette smoking, and the use of some over-the-counter medicines. Hydroquinone is a white granular solid at room temperature and pressure. The hydroxyl groups of hydroquinone are quite weakly acidic. Hydroquinone can lose an H+ from one of the hydroxyls to form a monophenolate ion or lose an H+ from both to form a diphenolate ion. Hydroquinone has a variety of uses principally associated with its action as a reducing agent which is soluble in water. It is a major component in most photographic developers where, with the compound Metol, it reduces silver halides to elemental silver. [HMDB]
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