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dextro-gluconic acid
D-gluco-hexonic acid

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 526-95-4Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:208-401-4
Nikkaji Web:J3.286G
Beilstein Number:1726055
XlogP3-AA:-3.40 (est)
Molecular Weight:196.15604000
Formula:C6 H12 O7
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:solvents/deluents for flavoring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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DG SANTE Food Additives:gluconic acid
FDA Mainterm (SATF):526-95-4 ; D-GLUCONIC ACID
Physical Properties:
Assay: 98.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Specific Gravity:1.23400 @ 25.00 °C.
Melting Point: 130.00 to 131.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 673.59 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 707.00 °F. TCC ( 375.20 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -2.116 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 316000 mg/L @ 25 °C
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 water, 3.16E+05 mg/L @ 25 °C (exp)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: buffering agents
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Gluconic acid
For experimental / research use only.
D-Gluconic acid
Covalent Chemical
Gluconic Acid
ECSA Chemicals
Glentham Life Sciences
D-Gluconic acid, 50% solution
Graham Chemical
Gluconic Acid
Jungbunzlauer Suisse
Gluconic Acid
Flavor: characteristic
Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid, neither caustic nor corrosive and with an excellent sequestering power. Non toxic and readily biodegradable (98% after 2 days), it occurs naturally in plants, fruits and other foodstuffs such as wine (up to 0.25%) and honey (up to 1%). Gluconic acid is prepared by fermentation of glucose, whereby the physiological d-form is produced. In all recipes where gluconic acid is used together with sodium hydroxide, we recommend the direct use of sodium gluconate, the dry sodium salt of gluconic acid or the special product NAGLUSOL®.
Jungbunzlauer Suisse
Odor: characteristic
Use: NAGLUSOL® is a 60 % solution of equal parts of gluconic acid and sodium gluconate. Like its components, NAGLUSOL® is an excellent chelating agent, non-corrosive, non-toxic and easily biodegradable (98 % after 2 days). In addition, it combines the advantages of sodium gluconate and gluconic acid without their drawbacks.
Kraft Chemical
Gluconic Acid
Penta International
Penta International
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
D-Gluconic acid solution
Sigma-Aldrich: Aldrich
For experimental / research use only.
D--Gluconic acid solution 49-53 wt. % in H2O
For experimental / research use only.
Gluconic Acid (contains Gluconolactone) (45-50% in Water)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
solvents/deluents for flavoring agents
Recommendation for dextro-gluconic acid usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for dextro-gluconic acid flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Report of EFSA on the risk assessment of salts of authorised acids, phenols or alcohols for use in food contact materials [1]
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):526-95-4
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :10690
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:1
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid
RTECS:LZ5057100 for cas# 526-95-4
 (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:526-95-4
Pubchem (cid):10690
Pubchem (sid):134978405
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Golm Metabolome Database:Search
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00257
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00625
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00383
Export Tariff Code:2918.16.1000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
•because of difficulties of preparing solid crystal product, gluconic acid of commerce is 50% aq soln... •grades: technical, 50% soln.
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
D-gluco-hexonic acid
 gluconic acid
D-gluconic acid
 gluconic acid, D-
D-glucosonic acid
 glycogenic acid
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid
(3S,2R,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid
2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid


PubMed:Vibrio madracius sp. nov. Isolated from Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil.
PubMed:Identification of a novel promoter gHp0169 for gene expression in Gluconobacter oxydans.
PubMed:Gluconobacter cerevisiae sp. nov., isolated from the brewery environment.
PubMed:Acetobacter lambici sp. nov., isolated from fermenting lambic beer.
PubMed:Development and validation of an indirect pulsed electrochemical detection method for monitoring the inhibition of Abl1 tyrosine kinase.
PubMed:Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on rats with Type II diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin: a urine metabonomic study.
PubMed:Intracellular trafficking and cellular uptake mechanism of mPEG-PLGA-PLL and mPEG-PLGA-PLL-Gal nanoparticles for targeted delivery to hepatomas.
PubMed:Discovery of cellobionic acid phosphorylase in cellulolytic bacteria and fungi.
PubMed:Accumulation of the mycotoxin patulin in the presence of gluconic acid contributes to pathogenicity of Penicillium expansum.
PubMed:Salmonella utilizes D-glucosaminate via a mannose family phosphotransferase system permease and associated enzymes.
PubMed:The calcium silicate/alginate composite: preparation and evaluation of its behavior as bioactive injectable hydrogels.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of glucose, D-gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic and 5-keto-D-gluconic acids by ion chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection with column-switching technique.
PubMed:Cloning, expression and characterization of an ethanol tolerant GH3 β-glucosidase from Myceliophthora thermophila.
PubMed:Comparative proteomic and metabolomic profiling of citrus fruit with enhancement of disease resistance by postharvest heat treatment.
PubMed:Low pH D-xylonate production with Pichia kudriavzevii.
PubMed:Evaluation of the food grade expression systems NICE and pSIP for the production of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.
PubMed:Gluconacetobacter maltaceti sp. nov., a novel vinegar producing acetic acid bacterium.
PubMed:Aggregation and structural changes of silver carp actomyosin as affected by mild acidification with D-gluconic acid δ-lactone.
PubMed:Microbiologically produced carboxylic acids used as building blocks in organic synthesis.
PubMed:Metabonomic profiling of TASTPM transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model.
PubMed:Enzymatic growth of quantum dots: applications to probe glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase and sense glucose.
PubMed:Serratia marcescens quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase activity mediates medium acidification and inhibition of prodigiosin production by glucose.
PubMed:Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov., cellulose- and non-cellulose-producing acetic acid bacteria isolated from vinegar.
PubMed:Wickerhamomyces tratensis sp. nov. and Candida namnaoensis sp. nov., two novel ascomycetous yeast species in the Wickerhamomyces clade found in Thailand.
PubMed:The hazardous hexavalent chromium formed on trivalent chromium conversion coating: The origin, influence factors and control measures.
PubMed:Differences in amino acid residues in the binding pockets dictate substrate specificities of mouse senescence marker protein-30, human paraoxonase1, and squid diisopropylfluorophosphatase.
PubMed:A Penicillium expansum glucose oxidase-encoding gene, GOX2, is essential for gluconic acid production and acidification during colonization of deciduous fruit.
PubMed:Surface-enhanced spectra on D-gluconic acid coated silver nanoparticles.
PubMed:The RpiR-like repressor IolR regulates inositol catabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti.
PubMed:Analysis of metabolism of 6FDG: a PET glucose transport tracer.
PubMed:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method for metabolic profiling of tobacco leaves.
PubMed:Xylitol production from DEO hydrolysate of corn stover by Pichia stipitis YS-30.
PubMed:In vitro study of the antioxidative properties of the glucose derivatives against oxidation of plasma components.
PubMed:Molecular identification of unsaturated uronate reductase prerequisite for alginate metabolism in Sphingomonas sp. A1.
PubMed:Coencapsulation of oxygen carriers and glucose oxidase in polyelectrolyte complex capsules for the enhancement of D-gluconic acid and delta-gluconolactone production.
PubMed:Synthesis of sintering-resistant sorbents for CO2 capture.
PubMed:EPR and optical absorption studies of Cr3+ ions in d-gluconic acid monohydrate.
PubMed:Paenibacillus tundrae sp. nov. and Paenibacillus xylanexedens sp. nov., psychrotolerant, xylan-degrading bacteria from Alaskan tundra.
PubMed:Screening of thermotolerant Gluconobacter strains for production of 5-keto-D-gluconic acid and disruption of flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing D-gluconate dehydrogenase.
PubMed:Alginate/Hydroxyapatite biocomposite for bone ingrowth: a trabecular structure with high and isotropic connectivity.
PubMed:Chemiluminescence flow biosensor for glucose based on gold nanoparticle-enhanced activities of glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase.
PubMed:Acetobacter fabarum sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium from a Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation.
PubMed:Chiral separation of amino acids and glycyl dipeptides by chiral ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis comparing Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of three different sugar acids.
PubMed:myo-Inositol catabolism in Bacillus subtilis.
PubMed:DO-stat fed-batch production of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid from cassava using immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:PA2663 (PpyR) increases biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 through the psl operon and stimulates virulence and quorum-sensing phenotypes.
PubMed:Chemiluminescence flow-through biosensor for glucose with eggshell membrane as enzyme immobilization platform.
PubMed:Simulations of vibrational spectra from classical trajectories: calibration with ab initio force fields.
PubMed:Acetobacter senegalensis sp. nov., a thermotolerant acetic acid bacterium isolated in Senegal (sub-Saharan Africa) from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).
PubMed:Carbon source utilization by the marine Dendryphiella species D. arenaria and D. salina.
PubMed:Modification of the membrane-bound glucose oxidation system in Gluconobacter oxydans significantly increases gluconate and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid accumulation.
PubMed:High-yield 5-keto-D-gluconic acid formation is mediated by soluble and membrane-bound gluconate-5-dehydrogenases of Gluconobacter oxydans.
PubMed:A kinetic study of D-glucose oxidation by bromine in aqueous solutions.
PubMed:Gluconic acid: an antifungal agent produced by Pseudomonas species in biological control of take-all.
PubMed:Asymmetric oxidation by Gluconobacter oxydans.
PubMed:Tetrapisispora namnaonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast species isolated from forest soil of Nam Nao National Park, Thailand.
PubMed:Urothelial injury to the rabbit bladder caused by calcium dissolving agents including two new citrate solutions.
PubMed:White biotechnology for green chemistry: fermentative 2-oxocarboxylic acids as novel building blocks for subsequent chemical syntheses.
PubMed:Droplet-based micro-flow chemiluminescence system for in vivo glucose determination by microdialysis sampling.
PubMed:A Gluconobacter oxydans mutant converting glucose almost quantitatively to 5-keto-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:The host plant as a factor in the synthesis and secretion of salivary glucose oxidase in larval Helicoverpa zea.
PubMed:Enzymatic synthesis of D-glucosaminic acid from D-glucosamine.
PubMed:Characterisation of a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Xanthomonas campestris DSM 3586.
PubMed:Catalytic mechanism of alpha-retaining glucosyl transfer by Corynebacterium callunae starch phosphorylase: the role of histidine-334 examined through kinetic characterization of site-directed mutants.
PubMed:Multinuclear NMR study of the complexes of 6-phospho-D-gluconic acid with W(VI) and Mo(VI).
PubMed:Structural alteration of cofactor specificity in Corynebacterium 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase.
PubMed:Biotransformation of glucose to 5-keto-D-gluconic acid by recombinant Gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2343.
PubMed:[Search for lectin-producers among representatives of some yeast genera].
PubMed:Mathematical modeling of in vitro enzymatic production of 2-Keto-L-gulonic acid using NAD(H) or NADP(H) as cofactors.
PubMed:Verification of a novel NADH-binding motif: combinatorial mutagenesis of three amino acids in the cofactor-binding pocket of Corynebacterium 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase.
PubMed:Microbial aldo-keto reductases.
PubMed:Synthesis and surface-active properties of a new class of surfactants derived from D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:Optimizing an artificial metabolic pathway: engineering the cofactor specificity of Corynebacterium 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase for use in vitamin C biosynthesis.
PubMed:Alteration of the specificity of the cofactor-binding pocket of Corynebacterium 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase A.
PubMed:Novel degradable polymers combining D-gluconic acid, a sugar of vegetal origin, with lactic and glycolic acids.
PubMed:Chemical mechanism of beta-xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414: pH-dependence of kinetic parameters.
PubMed:Thioglucosidase activity from Sphingobacterium sp. strain OTG1.
PubMed:Substrate selectivity of Gluconobacter oxydans for production of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid and synthesis of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid in a multienzyme system.
PubMed:DNA from uncultured organisms as a source of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductases.
PubMed:Structural assembly of the active site in an aldo-keto reductase by NADPH cofactor.
PubMed:[Preparation, X-ray structural and spectroscopic studies of some D-lactobionic acid complexes with Cs(I), Fe(III) and di-n-butyltin(IV)].
PubMed:Gluconobacter oxydans: its biotechnological applications.
PubMed:Reduction of wobble-position GC bases in Corynebacteria genes and enhancement of PCR and heterologous expression.
PubMed:Synthesis and conformational studies of peptidomimetics containing furanoid sugar amino acids and a sugar diacid.
PubMed:A multicomponent mobile phase for ion chromatography applied to the separation of anions from the residue of low explosives
PubMed:Molecular modeling of substrate binding in wild-type and mutant Corynebacteria 2,5-diketo-D-gluconate reductases.
PubMed:Screening for L-sorbose and L-sorbosone dehydrogenase producing microbes for 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production.
PubMed:Studies on the chemical identity and biological functions of pangamic acid.
PubMed:3-FG as substrate for investigating flux through the polyol pathway in dog lens by 19F-NMR spectroscopy.
PubMed:Interference by carbohydrate substrates, flavonoids, and monosaccharide derivatives on bacterial beta-D-glucuronidase assays.
PubMed:Crystal structure of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase A complexed with NADPH at 2.1-A resolution.
PubMed:Catabolism of D-glucose by Pseudomonas putida U occurs via extracellular transformation into D-gluconic acid and induction of a specific gluconate transport system.
PubMed:Comparative biochemistry of a cytosolic artiodactyl glycosidase.
PubMed:Tastes, structure and solution properties of D-glucono-1,5-lactone.
PubMed:Effect of mu, delta and kappa opioid receptor agonists on a reactive oxygen species mediated model of skin inflammation.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of a beta-glucosidase from solid-state cultures of Humicola grisea var. thermoidea.
PubMed:Specific transfer of 3H from D-[3-3H]gluconic acid into L-tartaric acid in vitaceous plants.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of the endocellular beta-glucosidase of a new strain of Candida entomophila isolated from fermenting agave (Agave sp.) juice.
PubMed:Bacterial morphine dehydrogenase further defines a distinct superfamily of oxidoreductases with diverse functional activities.
PubMed:Effects of hexoses and their derivatives on glucagon secretion from isolated perfused rat pancreas.
PubMed:19F and 13C NMR studies of polyol metabolism in freeze-tolerant pupae of Hyalophora cecropia.
PubMed:Evaluation of potential strontium chelators in an octanol-water system.
PubMed:Lactobionic and gluconic acid complexes of FeII and FeIII; control of oxidation pathways by an organ transplantation preservant.
PubMed:Some derivatives of 6-amino-6-deoxy-D-gluconic acid that are precursors for the synthesis of polyamides.
PubMed:Pantoea punctata sp. nov., Pantoea citrea sp. nov., and Pantoea terrea sp. nov. isolated from fruit and soil samples.
PubMed:Synthesis and hydrolysis by arginyl-hydrolases of p-nitroanilide chromogenic substrates containing polyethylene glycol and D-gluconyl moieties.
PubMed:In vivo metabolism of 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-D-glucose.
PubMed:Biosynthesis of xanthurenic acid 8-O-beta-D-glucoside in Drosophila. Characterization of the xanthurenic acid:UDP-glucosyltransferase activity.
PubMed:Microbial processes for ascorbic acid biosynthesis: a review.
PubMed:Confirmation of the structures of the products obtained on acylation of 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation involves an indirect proteolytic cleavage of aggregin by calpain.
PubMed:The developmentally regulated P100/11E gene of Leishmania major shows homology to a superfamily of reductase genes.
PubMed:Assay of strictosidine synthase from plant cell cultures by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:[A comparative study of the formation of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid by free and immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida].
PubMed:Kinetic regulation of hexokinase activity in a heterogeneous branched bienzyme system.
PubMed:[Effect of the medium composition on the accumulation of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid in Pseudomonas putida cultures].
PubMed:Synthesis and biological activity of tuftsin and rigin derivatives containing monosaccharides or monosaccharide derivatives.
PubMed:Hopantenic acid beta-glucoside as a new urinary metabolite of calcium hopantenate in dogs.
PubMed:Production of 2-Keto-L-Gulonate, an Intermediate in L-Ascorbate Synthesis, by a Genetically Modified Erwinia herbicola.
PubMed:Role of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in the inhibition of phagocytosis by mouse peritoneal macrophage.
PubMed:Balanced contribution of glycolytic and adenylate pool in supply of metabolic energy in platelets.
PubMed:Synthesis of l-(+)-Tartaric Acid from l-Ascorbic Acid via 5-Keto-d-Gluconic Acid in Grapes.
PubMed:Production of 2-Keto-l-Gulonic Acid from d-Glucose by Two-Stage Fermentation.
PubMed:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of metabolites in hemodialysis fluid.
PubMed:Fermentation of glucose by Acetobacter melanogenus.
PubMed:[Enzymatic properties of neuraminidase from corynebacterium diptherial].
PubMed:[Spectrophometric methods of measuring 5-keto-D-gluconic acid].
PubMed:Biochemical dehydrogenations of saccharides. VII. 2-Deoxy-D-gluconic acid from 2-deoxy-D-glucose.
PubMed:The specificity of oxidase and kinase preparations from Pseudomonas fluorescens towards deoxyfluoromonosaccharides.
PubMed:The pathway of myo-inositol degradation in Aerobacter aerogenes. Conversion of 2-deoxy-5-keto-D-gluconic acid to glycolytic intermediates.
PubMed:The pathway of myo-inositol degradation in Aerobacter aerogenes. Identification of the intermediate 2-deoxy-5-keto-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:D-Gluconic Acid: Isolation from the Defensive Secretion of the Cockroach Eurycotis decipiens.
PubMed:Enzymatic utilization of glucose by a basidiomycete.
PubMed:Alginic acid metabolism in bacteria. II. The enzymatic reduction of 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:[The metabolic cycle of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid in Leuconostoc mesenteroides].
PubMed:[Enzymatic preparation of 2-desoxy-D-gluconic acid from 2-desoxy-D-glucose].
PubMed:Oxidation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose to 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid by extracts of pseudomonas aeruginosa.
PubMed:Spectrophotometric method for the determination of 5-keto-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:Formation of arabinose, ribulose and tartronic acid from 2-keto-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:Formation of 2-keto-D-gluconic acid, 5-keto-D-gluconic acid, and tartronic acid by Acetobacter species.
PubMed:The structure of 2,4;3,5-dimethylene-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:Dimethylene-D-gluconic acid.
PubMed:2-Keto-D-gluconic acid in the polysaccharide of Irish moss.
PubMed:2-Keto-D-gluconic acid in the polysaccharide of Irish moss.
Dietary supplement, acidity regulator approved in Japan. Component of bottle rinsing formulations Gluconic acid is one of the 16 stereoisomers of 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid. The salts of gluconic acid are known as "gluconates". Gluconic acid, gluconate salts, and gluconate esters occur widely in nature because such species arise from the oxidation of glucose. Gluconic acid occurs naturally in fruit, honey, kombucha tea, and wine. As a food additive (E574), it is an acidity regulator. (Wikipedia)
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