EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

2H-azepin-2-one, 1-dodecylhexahydro-

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 59227-89-3Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:261-668-9
Nikkaji Web:J32.521J
Beilstein Number:0167211
XlogP3:5.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:281.48315000
Formula:C18 H35 N O
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:cosmetic agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Appearance:colorless to pale yellow clear liquid (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: -7.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Boiling Point: 404.90 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:1.280000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 329.00 °F. TCC ( 165.20 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 6.570 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 0.06836 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: skin conditioning
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Laurocapram 97∼102%
For experimental / research use only.
Matrix Scientific
For experimental / research use only.
N-Dodecylcaprolactam, 95+%
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 100 mg/kg
National Technical Information Service. Vol. AD277-689

intravenous-mouse LD50 8000 mg/kg
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. Vol. 9, Pg. 725, 1983.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 8000 mg/kg
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. Vol. 9, Pg. 725, 1983.

intravenous-rat LD50 8000 mg/kg
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. Vol. 9, Pg. 725, 1983.

oral-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
United States Patent Document. Vol. #4882359

unreported-rat LD50 8000 mg/kg
Archives of Dermatology. Vol. 118, Pg. 474, 1982.

Dermal Toxicity:
skin-mouse LD50 8000 mg/kg
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. Vol. 9, Pg. 725, 1983.

skin-rat LD50 8000 mg/kg
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. Vol. 9, Pg. 725, 1983.

subcutaneous-rat LD50 > 5000 mg/kg
United States Patent Document. Vol. #4882359

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
cosmetic agents
Recommendation for laurocapram usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for laurocapram flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :42981
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):42981
Pubchem (sid):135005357
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
KEGG (GenomeNet):D04678
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
2H-azepin-2-one, 1-dodecylhexahydro-
1-dodecyl azacyclohepta-2-one
N-lauryl caprolactam


PubMed:[Jatropha seed oils extracted by different methods and their effect on killing cercaria of Schistosoma japonicum].
PubMed:AzoneĀ® decreases the buccal mucosal permeation of diazepam in a concentration-dependent manner via a reservoir effect.
PubMed:Development of a doxazosin and finasteride transdermal system for combination therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
PubMed:Evaluation of percutaneous absorption of esculetin: effect of chemical enhancers.
PubMed:Azone analogues: classification, design, and transdermal penetration principles.
PubMed:Effect of soybean-lecithin as an enhancer of buccal mucosa absorption of insulin.
PubMed:Transdermal absorption of memantin--effect of chemical enhancers, iontophoresis, and role of enhancer lipophilicity.
PubMed:[Influence of penetration enhancers on in vitro transdermal permeation of L-tethrahydropalmatine].
PubMed:Transdermal and transbuccal drug delivery systems: enhancement using iontophoretic and chemical approaches.
PubMed:Preparation and evaluation of 5, 9-dimethyl-2-cyclopropyl-2-decanol as a penetration enhancer for drugs through rat skin.
PubMed:Investigation of microemulsion microstructures and their relationship to transdermal permeation of model drugs: ketoprofen, lidocaine, and caffeine.
PubMed:Corneal permeability assay of topical eye drop solutions in rabbits by MRI.
PubMed:Enhanced in vitro transbuccal drug delivery of ondansetron HCl.
PubMed:Topical drug delivery by a polymeric nanosphere gel: Formulation optimization and in vitro and in vivo skin distribution studies.
PubMed:The buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of risperidone.
PubMed:Combined strategies for enhancing the transdermal absorption of midazolam through human skin.
PubMed:Percutaneous penetration modifiers and formulation effects: thermal and spectral analyses.
PubMed:Development and evaluation of occlusive systems employing polyvinyl alcohol for transdermal delivery of sumatriptan succinate.
PubMed:Percutaneous penetration modifiers and formulation effects.
PubMed:Effect of counter-ions and penetration enhancers on the skin permeation of flurbiprofen.
PubMed:Chemical penetration enhancers: a patent review.
PubMed:Mechanical and baicalin delivery properties of adhesive matrices for iontophoretic flexible electrodes.
PubMed:[Effects of penetration enhancers on percutaneous permeability of geniposide in Xiao'er Ninhuang tuire cataplasms].
PubMed:Effect of ion-pairing and enhancers on scutellarin skin permeability.
PubMed:Enhancement of nortriptyline penetration through human epidermis: influence of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis.
PubMed:Transdermal permeation enhancement of N-trimethyl chitosan for testosterone.
PubMed:[Preparation of transdermal drug delivery system of felodipine-metoprolol and its bioavailability in rabbits].
PubMed:Sumatriptan succinate transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of migraine.
PubMed:In vitro studies on transdermal permeation of butorphanol.
PubMed:[Influence of permeation enhancers on transdermal permeation of anemonin].
PubMed:Simultaneous measurements of K+ and calcein release from liposomes and the determination of pore size formed in a membrane.
PubMed:Investigation into the potential of low-frequency ultrasound facilitated topical delivery of Cyclosporin A.
PubMed:[Corneal permeability of topically applied pirenzepine solution].
PubMed:Combination strategies for enhancing transdermal absorption of sumatriptan through skin.
PubMed:Pretreatment of plantar warts with azone enhances the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
PubMed:Chemical enhancers for the absorption of substances through the skin: Laurocapram and its derivatives.
PubMed:In vivo skin permeation of sodium naproxen formulated in pluronic F-127 gels: effect of Azone and Transcutol.
PubMed:[Effects of different penetration enhancers on percutaneous absorption of lappaconitine gel in vitro].
PubMed:Interaction of 1-dodecyl-azacycloheptan-2-one with mouse stratum corneum.
PubMed:Enhancing the buccal mucosal uptake and retention of triamcinolone acetonide.
PubMed:Effects of ionization and penetration enhancers on the transdermal delivery of 5-fluorouracil through excised human stratum corneum.
PubMed:Enhanced buccal mucosal retention and reduced buccal permeability of estradiol in the presence of padimate O and Azone: a mechanistic study.
PubMed:[Synthetical evaluation of promoting effect of some kinds of transdermal enhancers with grey relational cluster method].
PubMed:In vitro release study of transdermal delivery systems of progesterone.
PubMed:[Evaluation of a compound with dan-shen root and azone for scar treatment].
PubMed:Development and in vitro evaluation of furosemide transdermal formulations using experimental design techniques.
PubMed:Penetration enhancers.
PubMed:Gateways to clinical trials.
PubMed:Enhanced iontophoretic delivery of buspirone hydrochloride across human skin using chemical enhancers.
PubMed:L-Serine and glycine based ceramide analogues as transdermal permeation enhancers: polar head size and hydrogen bonding.
PubMed:Phase 1/2 pilot study of methotrexate-laurocapram topical gel for the treatment of patients with early-stage mycosis fungoides.
PubMed:In vitro and in vivo evaluations of the efficacy and safety of skin permeation enhancers using flurbiprofen as a model drug.
PubMed:[Transdermal delivery of diclofenac sodium gel after iontophoresis]
PubMed:Effect of Azone upon the in vivo antiviral efficacy of cidofovir or acyclovir topical formulations in treatment/prevention of cutaneous HSV-1 infections and its correlation with skin target site free drug concentration in hairless mice.
PubMed:[Effects of Azone of different concentrations on percutaneous absorption of baicalin in vitro].
PubMed:[Promotion of ferulic acid transdermal absorption by water-soluble azone in Shengfaling tincture].
PubMed:Experimental study of in vitro buprenorphine hydrochloride transdermal permeation through hairless mouse skin.
PubMed:[Azone-induced changes on corneal endothelium in rabbits].
PubMed:[Screening of enhancers for permeation of berberine in ruyi patcher in vitro].
PubMed:Evaluation of in vitro percutaneous absorption of lorazepam and clonazepam from hydro-alcoholic gel formulations.
PubMed:Passive skin penetration enhancement and its quantification in vitro.
PubMed:Azone enhances clinical effectiveness of an optimized formulation of triamcinolone acetonide in atopic dermatitis.
PubMed:The influence of two azones and sebaceous lipids on the lateral organization of lipids isolated from human stratum corneum.
PubMed:The effect of two azones on the lateral lipid organization of human stratum corneum and its permeability.
PubMed:Transdermal macromolecular delivery: real-time visualization of iontophoretic and chemically enhanced transport using two-photon excitation microscopy.
PubMed:The influence of Span20 on stratum corneum lipids in langmuir monolayers: comparison with Azone.
PubMed:Penetration enhancers assessed by corneoxenometry.
PubMed:Comparative enhancer effects of Span20 with Tween20 and Azone on the in vitro percutaneous penetration of compounds with different lipophilicities.
PubMed:The synergistic effect of laurocapram pretreatment and iontophoresis on the percutaneous permeation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in vitro.
PubMed:The skin barrier from a lipid perspective.
PubMed:Transdermal iontophoretic delivery of timolol maleate in albino rabbits.
PubMed:Structure-related aspects on water diffusivity in fatty acid-soap and skin lipid model systems.
PubMed:Synthesis and evaluation of N-acetylprolinate esters - novel skin penetration enhancers.
PubMed:A new computer-based evaporimeter system for rapid and precise measurements of water diffusion through stratum corneum in vitro.
PubMed:Ultrasound-enhanced diffusion into coupling gel during phonophoresis of 5-fluorouracil.
PubMed:The effects of Azone and capsaicin on the permeation of naproxen through human skin.
PubMed:Synthesis and effect of two new penetration enhancers on the transdermal delivery of 5-fluorouracil through excised rat skin.
PubMed:Enhanced skin permeation of sex hormones with novel topical spray vehicles.
PubMed:Phase coexistence in cholesterol-fatty acid mixtures and the effect of the penetration enhancer Azone.
PubMed:Assessment of correlation between skin target site free drug concentration and the in vivo topical antiviral efficacy in hairless mice for (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine and acyclovir formulations.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of disopyramide, lidocaine and trimecaine.
PubMed:Effects of penetration enhancers on the in-vitro percutaneous absorption of progesterone.
PubMed:Effect of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of methotrexate and edatrexate through hairless mouse skin.
PubMed:Influences of 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one on permeation of membranes by weak electrolytes. 1. Theoretical analysis of weak electrolyte diffusion through membranes and studies involving silicone rubber membranes.
PubMed:Terbutaline transdermal delivery: preformulation studies and limitations of in-vitro predictive parameters.
PubMed:Modification of macrophage adhesion by ozone: role of cytokines and cell adhesion molecules.
PubMed:Development of a transdermal patch of methadone: in vitro evaluation across hairless mouse and human cadaver skin.
PubMed:Influence of vehicle on patch test response to nickel sulfate.
PubMed:Phase transitions of rat stratum corneum lipids by an electron paramagnetic resonance study and relationship of phase states to drug penetration.
PubMed:Effect of topical laurocapram (Azone) on the in vitro percutaneous permeation of sodium lauryl sulfate using human skin.
PubMed:Microscopic FT-IR/DSC system used to simultaneously investigate the conversion process of protein structure in porcine stratum corneum after pretreatment with skin penetration enhancers.
PubMed:The relative effect of Azone and Transcutol on permeant diffusivity and solubility in human stratum corneum.
PubMed:Transdermal delivery of drugs with differing lipophilicities using azone analogs as dermal penetration enhancers.
PubMed:[The effect of different topical agents on pseudomonas infection of burn wound].
PubMed:Percutaneous penetration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans and the mechanism for enhancement effect of enhancers on the intercellular penetration.
PubMed:Role of appendages in skin resistance and iontophoretic peptide flux: human versus snake skin.
PubMed:[Percutaneous absorption of venenum bufonis in vitro].
PubMed:In vitro percutaneous absorption of arildone, a highly lipophilic drug, and the apparent no-effect of the penetration enhancer Azone in excised human skin.
PubMed:n-pentyl N-acetylprolinate. A new skin penetration enhancer.
PubMed:Effect of various enhancers on transdermal penetration of indomethacin and urea, and relationship between penetration parameters and enhancement factors.
PubMed:Effect of benzyl alcohol on rat skin as a solvent of liquid droplet dispersion ointment.
PubMed:Behavior of propylene glycol (PG) in dermis after treatment of rat intact skin surface with fatty acids, fatty amines or azone dissolved in PG.
PubMed:[Transdermal iontophoresis of insulin: effect of penetration enhancers on blood glucose level in diabetic rats].
PubMed:Transdermal iontophoresis: effect of penetration enhancer and iontophoresis on drug transport and surface characteristics of human epidermis.
PubMed:Mechanism of the enhancement effect of n-octyl-beta-D-thioglucoside on the transdermal penetration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextrans and the molecular weight dependence of water-soluble penetrants through stripped skin.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of physiologically active peptides, ebiratide and elcatonin, in rats.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine in rats.
PubMed:[Influential factors of water evaporation from burn wound].
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of azone following single and multiple doses to human volunteers.
PubMed:Effect of some penetration enhancers on epithelial membrane lipid domains: evidence from fluorescence spectroscopy studies.
PubMed:Effects of four penetration enhancers on corneal permeability of drugs in vitro.
PubMed:[An efficacious topical agent--SD-Ag-azone cream].
PubMed:epsilon-Aminocaproic acid esters as transdermal penetration enhancing agents.
PubMed:Transport of testosterone through rat skin from transdermal patch formulations.
PubMed:[Comparison of therapeutic value of various topical agents in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An experimental study].
PubMed:Electrochemical characterization of human skin by impedance spectroscopy: the effect of penetration enhancers.
PubMed:Measuring the uptake of Azone into excised human stratum corneum from thin polymer films.
PubMed:Facilitated transport of two model steroids by esters and amides of clofibric acid.
PubMed:Effect of PEG 400, ethanol and laurocapram (Azone) on the transport of testosterone through rat skin.
PubMed:Effects of transdermal penetration enhancers on the permeability of shed snakeskin.
PubMed:Evaluation of a new penetration enhancer 1-[2-(decylthio)ethyl]azacyclopentan-2-one (HPE-101).
PubMed:Enhancement of percutaneous absorption by laurocapram.
PubMed:Comparison of azone and hexamethylene lauramide in toxicologic effects and penetration enhancement of cimetidine in rabbit eyes.
PubMed:Cutaneous metabolism of nitroglycerin in vitro. II. Effects of skin condition and penetration enhancement.
PubMed:Influence of limonene and laurocapram on percutaneous absorption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
PubMed:Improved transdermal delivery of prostaglandin E1 through hairless mouse skin: combined use of carboxymethyl-ethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and penetration enhancers.
PubMed:Mechanism of skin penetration-enhancing effect by laurocapram.
PubMed:[Transdermal properties of timolol and factors affecting its permeability in vitro].
PubMed:Preparation of alkyl-substituted pyrrolidone derivatives and their evaluation as transdermal penetration enhancers.
PubMed:Design of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) transdermal delivery system for animal studies: regulation of drug concentration in vivo.
PubMed:Dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate and azone enhance drug penetration across human, snake, and rabbit skin.
PubMed:[Effect of enhancers on cutaneous permeation of piroxicam in vitro].
PubMed:Enhanced skin permeation of papaverine by a medium chain glyceride.
PubMed:Effect of 1-alkyl- or 1-alkenylazacycloalkanone derivatives on the penetration of drugs with different lipophilicities through guinea pig skin.
PubMed:[Research on nifedipine patch].
PubMed:Enhanced percutaneous absorption of a novel topical cyclosporin A formulation and assessment of its immunosuppressive activity.
PubMed:Use of shed snake skin as a model membrane for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies: comparison with human skin.
PubMed:Effect of cyclic monoterpenes on percutaneous absorption in the case of a water-soluble drug (diclofenac sodium).
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption enhancing effect and skin irritation of monocyclic monoterpenes.
PubMed:Evaluation of in-vitro percutaneous absorption across human skin and in animal models.
PubMed:Transdermal drug delivery: efficacy and potential applications of the penetration enhancer Azone.
PubMed:Effect of monoglycerides on the percutaneous absorption of papaverine hydrochloride.
PubMed:Disposition and metabolic profiling of the penetration enhancer Azone. I. In vitro studies: urinary profiles of hamster, rat, monkey, and man.
PubMed:Enhancing effect of piperidone derivatives on the percutaneous absorption of indomethacin.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption, metabolic profiling, and excretion of the penetration enhancer azone after multiple dosing of an azone-containing triamcinolone acetonide cream in humans.
PubMed:[Effect of artesunate transdermal preparation on Plasmodium cynomolgi].
PubMed:[Use of derivative UV spectroscopy to monitor the percutaneous absorption of befunolol-HCL].
PubMed:Enhancement of hydrocortisone permeation of human and hairless mouse skin by 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one.
PubMed:Dose-dependent enhancement effects of azone on skin permeability.
PubMed:[Influence of laurocapram on ultrastructures of mouse skin and sarcoma 180 membrane].
PubMed:Variable effects of laurocapram (Azone) on rectal cefoxitin absorption in rats.
PubMed:Effect of limonene and related compounds on the percutaneous absorption of indomethacin.
PubMed:A pharmacokinetic model for the percutaneous absorption of indomethacin and the prediction of drug disposition kinetics.
PubMed:Topical methotrexate therapy for psoriasis.
PubMed:[Continuous effect of azone pretreatment on permeability of antivirotic Ara-ADA through hairless mouse skin].
PubMed:Utility of topical formulations of morphine hydrochloride containing azone and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption enhancer applied to membrane permeation-controlled transdermal delivery of nicardipine hydrochloride.
PubMed:Effect of oleic acid on diffusion of drugs through hairless mouse skin.
PubMed:Corneal endothelial changes with azone, a penetration enhancer.
PubMed:Application of propranolol to the keratinized oral mucosa: avoidance of first-pass elimination and the use of 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one (Azone) as an absorption enhancer of bioadhesive film-dosage form.
PubMed:Thermodynamic study on enhancement of percutaneous penetration of drugs by Azone.
PubMed:Influence of dimethylacetamide, N-N-diethyl-m-toluamide and 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one on ex vivo permeation of phosphonoformic acid through rat skin.
PubMed:Comparison of penetration-enhancing ability of laurocapram, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and dodecyl-L-pyroglutamate.
PubMed:Action of penetration enhancers on human skin as assessed by the permeation of model drugs 5-fluorouracil and estradiol. I. Infinite dose technique.
PubMed:Influence of 1-dodecylhexahydro-2H-azepin-2-one (Azone) on the in vitro permeation of verapamil hydrochloride across rat, hairless mouse, and human cadaver skin.
PubMed:Hairless mouse skin is limited as a model for assessing the effects of penetration enhancers in human skin.
PubMed:The effect of azone on ocular levobunolol absorption: calculating the area under the curve and its standard error using tissue sampling compartments.
PubMed:Effects of penetration enhancers on percutaneous absorption of nifedipine. Comparison between Deet and Azone.
PubMed:Topically applied cyclosporine in azone prolongs corneal allograft survival.
PubMed:Transdermal delivery of isoproterenol HCl: an investigation of stability, solubility, partition coefficient, and vehicle effects.
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption of hydroquinone in humans: effect of 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one (azone) and the 2-ethylhexyl ester of 4-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid (Escalol 507).
PubMed:Percutaneous absorption and elimination of the penetration enhancer Azone in humans.
PubMed:Combination effect of penetration enhancers and propylene glycol on in vitro transdermal absorption of insulin.
PubMed:Effect of penetration enhancers on the permeation of mannitol, hydrocortisone and progesterone through human skin.
PubMed:Topical administration of tetrasodium-meso-tetraphenylporphinesulfonate (TPPS) and red light irradiation for the treatment of superficial neoplastic lesions.
PubMed:Topical administration of tetrasodium-meso-tetraphenyl-porphinesulfonate (TPPS): correlation between drug penetration and depth of necrosis in skin of nude mice following red light irradiation.
PubMed:Effect of Azone on the percutaneous absorption of 5-fluorouracil from gels in hairless rats.
PubMed:Gel ointment of verapamil for percutaneous absorption.
PubMed:Inhibitory effect of Azone (1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one) on herpes simplex viruses. In vivo and in vitro studies.
PubMed:Dermal penetration enhancement profile of hexamethylenelauramide and its homologues: in vitro versus in vivo behavior of enhancers in the penetration of hydrocortisone.
PubMed:Systemic effects of topically applied trichothecenes. III. The role of absorption enhancers.
PubMed:Topical tritiated thymidine for epidermal growth fraction determination.
PubMed:Pharmacodynamic measurement of percutaneous penetration enhancement in vivo.
PubMed:Enhancing effect of absorption promoters on percutaneous absorption of a model dye (6-carboxyfluorescein) as a poorly absorbable drug. III. Histological study after addition of various absorption promoters in rats.
PubMed:Enhancing effect of absorption promoters on percutaneous absorption of a model dye (6-carboxyfluorescein) as poorly absorbable drugs. II. Study on the absorption promoting effect of azone.
PubMed:Influence of 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one (Azone) on the topical therapy of cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in hairless mice with 2',3'-di-O-acetyl-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine and 5'-O-valeryl-9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine.
PubMed:Facilitated transport of sodium salicylate across an artificial lipid membrane by Azone.
PubMed:Effect of the absorption enhancer, Azone, on the transport of 5-fluorouracil across hairless rat skin.
PubMed:Concentration-dependent enhancement of 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one on the percutaneous penetration kinetics of triamcinolone acetonide.
PubMed:Effect of azone and propylene glycol on penetration of trifluorothymidine through skin and efficacy of different topical formulations against cutaneous herpes simplex virus infections in guinea pigs.
PubMed:Enhanced percutaneous penetration with 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one.
PubMed:[Investigations on the interference of some new azopyrazolones in the metabolism of ethanol].
enhances percutaneous absorption of different chemicals.
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