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2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-3,7,11-tridecatrienyl]-, (2R)- (9CI)

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CAS Number: 14101-61-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Nikkaji Web:J13.903C
Beilstein Number:5483919
XlogP3-AA:8.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:410.64114000
Formula:C28 H42 O2
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:natural substances and extractives
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
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EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
Physical Properties:
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 530.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 425.00 °F. TCC ( 218.40 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 10.300 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1.929e-006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
None found
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
2H-1-Benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-tr imethyl-3,7,11-tridecatrienyl]-, (2R)- (9CI) >98%
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
gamma-Tocotrienol >98%
For experimental / research use only.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
natural substances and extractives
Recommendation for gamma-tocotrienol usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for gamma-tocotrienol flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :5282349
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:2
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):5282349
Pubchem (sid):135271617
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
KEGG (GenomeNet):C14155
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB12958
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
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2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyl-3,7,11-tridecatrienyl)-, [R-(E,E)]-
2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-3,7,11-tridecatrien-1-yl]-, (2R)-
2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-3,7,11-tridecatrienyl]-, (2R)-
2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,7,8-trimethyl-2-[(3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-3,7,11-tridecatrienyl]-, (2R)- (9CI)
 plastochromanol 3


PubMed:Anti-inflammatory γ- and δ-tocotrienols improve cardiovascular, liver and metabolic function in diet-induced obese rats.
PubMed:Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.
PubMed:HPLC Separation of Vitamin E and Its Oxidation Products and Effects of Oxidized Tocotrienols on the Viability of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro.
PubMed:Beneficial Effects of Ethanolic and Hexanic Rice Bran Extract on Mitochondrial Function in PC12 Cells and the Search for Bioactive Components.
PubMed:Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.
PubMed:Anticancer Effects of γ-Tocotrienol Are Associated with a Suppression in Aerobic Glycolysis.
PubMed:A new formulation of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol has superior bioavailability compared to existing Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction in healthy human subjects.
PubMed:Gamma tocotrienol targets tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 in mammospheres resulting in cell death through RAS/ERK pathway.
PubMed:PEGylated γ-tocotrienol isomer of vitamin E: Synthesis, characterization, in vitro cytotoxicity, and oral bioavailability.
PubMed:Differentiation and apoptosis induction by lovastatin and γ-tocotrienol in HL-60 cells via Ras/ERK/NF-κB and Ras/Akt/NF-κB signaling dependent down-regulation of glyoxalase 1 and HMG-CoA reductase.
PubMed:Synergistic anticancer effects of combined γ-tocotrienol and oridonin treatment is associated with the induction of autophagy.
PubMed:Anti-proliferative effects of γ-tocotrienol are associated with suppression of c-Myc expression in mammary tumour cells.
PubMed:Muscadine grape seed oil as a novel source of tocotrienols to reduce adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol and 6-Gingerol in Combination Synergistically Induce Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in HT-29 and SW837 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.
PubMed:Vitamin E Isoform γ-Tocotrienol Downregulates House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma.
PubMed:Changes in lipid substances in rice during grain development.
PubMed:Vitamin E γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Cytokine-Stimulated NF-κB Activation by Induction of Anti-Inflammatory A20 via Stress Adaptive Response Due to Modulation of Sphingolipids.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol reduces human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol treatment increased peroxiredoxin-4 expression in HepG2 liver cancer cell line.
PubMed:Thrombomodulin contributes to gamma tocotrienol-mediated lethality protection and hematopoietic cell recovery in irradiated mice.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy act concurrently to promote breast cancer cell death.
PubMed:A bioaccessible fraction of parboiled germinated brown rice exhibits a higher anti-inflammatory activity than that of brown rice.
PubMed:Elimination of ALDH+ breast tumor initiating cells by docosahexanoic acid and/or gamma tocotrienol through SHP-1 inhibition of Stat3 signaling.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol prevents 5-FU-induced reactive oxygen species production in human oral keratinocytes through the stabilization of 5-FU-induced activation of Nrf2.
PubMed:Cellular uptake, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of entrapped α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and chitosan covered PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Chi).
PubMed:Antioxidant activities of tocopherols/tocotrienols and lipophilic antioxidant capacity of wheat, vegetable oils, milk and milk cream by using photochemiluminescence.
PubMed:Alkaloid extracts of Ficus species and palm oil-derived tocotrienols synergistically inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells.
PubMed:Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.
PubMed:Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review.
PubMed:Progenitors mobilized by gamma-tocotrienol as an effective radiation countermeasure.
PubMed:Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Thai northern purple rice.
PubMed:Acute toxicity of subcutaneously administered vitamin E isomers delta- and gamma-tocotrienol in mice.
PubMed:Polysaccharopeptide enhanced the anti-cancer effect of gamma-tocotrienol through activation of AMPK.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance by inhibiting adipose inflammation and M1 macrophage recruitment.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss via mevalonate pathway as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol and hydroxy-chavicol synergistically inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human glioma cells.
PubMed:Anti-invasive activity against cancer cells of phytochemicals in red jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L.).
PubMed:Effect of γ-tocotrienol in counteracting oxidative stress and joint damage in collagen-induced arthritis in rats.
PubMed:Enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability of γ-tocotrienol using a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS).
PubMed:Oxazine derivatives of γ- and δ-tocotrienol display enhanced anticancer activity in vivo.
PubMed:Tocopherol and tocotrienol contents of different varieties of rice in Malaysia.
PubMed:Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of Combined γ -Tocotrienol and PPAR γ Antagonist Treatment Are Mediated through PPAR γ -Independent Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Cells.
PubMed:Y-tocotrienol inhibits angiogenesis-dependent growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma through abrogation of AKT/mTOR pathway in an orthotopic mouse model.
PubMed:Tissue distribution of emulsified γ-tocotrienol and its long-term biological effects after subcutaneous administration.
PubMed:Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities and their role in disease prevention and therapy.
PubMed:Activation of autophagy and AMPK by gamma-tocotrienol suppresses the adipogenesis in human adipose derived stem cells.
PubMed:Chamaerops humilis L. var. argentea André date palm seed oil: a potential dietetic plant product.
PubMed:Radioprotective efficacy of delta-tocotrienol, a vitamin E isoform, is mediated through granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
PubMed:Exogenous γ-tocotrienol promotes preimplantation development and improves the quality of porcine embryos.
PubMed:In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol-induced autophagy in malignant mammary cancer cells.
PubMed:Combined γ-tocotrienol and Met inhibitor treatment suppresses mammary cancer cell proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration.
PubMed:Gamma tocotrienol, a potent radioprotector, preferentially upregulates expression of anti-apoptotic genes to promote intestinal cell survival.
PubMed:Synergistic effect of combined treatment with gamma-tocotrienol and statin on human malignant mesothelioma cells.
PubMed:Rice bran extract protects from mitochondrial dysfunction in guinea pig brains.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activating the Bax-mediated mitochondrial and AMPK signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
PubMed:Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol attenuates triglyceride through effect on lipogenic gene expressions in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa 1-6.
PubMed:α-Tocopherol does not accelerate depletion of γ-tocopherol and tocotrienol or excretion of their metabolites in rats.
PubMed:Vitamin E: tocopherols and tocotrienols as potential radiation countermeasures.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol modulated gene expression in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as revealed by microarray analysis.
PubMed:Pure tocotrienol concentrate protected rat gastric mucosa from acute stress-induced injury by a non-antioxidant mechanism.
PubMed:Nonlinear absorption kinetics of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing tocotrienols as lipophilic molecules: in vivo and in vitro studies.
PubMed:Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor antibody abrogates radioprotective efficacy of gamma-tocotrienol, a promising radiation countermeasure.
PubMed:Effects of tocotrienol on tumor necrosis factor-α/d-galactosamine-induced steatohepatitis in rats.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol induces paraptosis-like cell death in human colon carcinoma SW620 cells.
PubMed:Nicotine-induced cessation of embryonic development is reversed by γ-tocotrienol in mice.
PubMed:Mechanisms Mediating the Effects of γ-Tocotrienol When Used in Combination with PPARγ Agonists or Antagonists on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.
PubMed:Mobilization of progenitor cells into peripheral blood by gamma-tocotrienol: a promising radiation countermeasure.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol reduces the triacylglycerol level in rat primary hepatocytes through regulation of fatty acid metabolism.
PubMed:Optimization of tocotrienols as antiproliferative and antimigratory leads.
PubMed:Tocotrienols target PI3K/Akt signaling in anti-breast cancer therapy.
PubMed:Synergistic radioprotection by gamma-tocotrienol and pentoxifylline: role of cAMP signaling.
PubMed:Sesamin synergistically potentiates the anticancer effects of γ-tocotrienol in mammary cancer cell lines.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interlukin-6 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor by suppressing C/EBPβ and NF-κB in macrophages.
PubMed:γ-tocotrienol enhances the chemosensitivity of human oral cancer cells to docetaxel through the downregulation of the expression of NF-κB-regulated anti-apoptotic gene products.
PubMed:Involvement of de novo ceramide synthesis in gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Eliminating drug resistant breast cancer stem-like cells with combination of simvastatin and gamma-tocotrienol.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol, a radiation prophylaxis agent, induces high levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
PubMed:Mechanisms mediating the synergistic anticancer effects of combined γ-tocotrienol and sesamin treatment.
PubMed:Effects of Low-Dose versus High-Dose γ-Tocotrienol on the Bone Cells Exposed to the Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.
PubMed:Inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and suppression of caspases by gamma-tocotrienol prevent apoptosis and delay aging in stress-induced premature senescence of skin fibroblasts.
PubMed:New therapy targeting differential androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer stem/progenitor vs. non-stem/progenitor cells.
PubMed:Increased α-tocotrienol content in seeds of transgenic rice overexpressing Arabidopsis γ-tocopherol methyltransferase.
PubMed:Identification of α-tocotrienolquinone epoxides and development of an efficient molecular distillation procedure for quantitation of α-tocotrienol oxidation products in food matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection.
PubMed:Distinct roles of different forms of vitamin E in DHA-induced apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Direct inhibition of osteoclast formation and activity by the vitamin E isomer gamma-tocotrienol.
PubMed:Disruption of mouse cytochrome p450 4f14 (Cyp4f14 gene) causes severe perturbations in vitamin E metabolism.
PubMed:Antidiabetic effects of a standardized Egyptian rice bran extract.
PubMed:Comparison of the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of γ-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol: in vitro, in situ and in vivo studies.
PubMed:Chemical characterization of chestnut cultivars from three consecutive years: chemometrics and contribution for authentication.
PubMed:Development and validation of a sensitive LC/MS/MS method for the determination of γ-tocotrienol in rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol modulation of senescence-associated gene expression prevents cellular aging in human diploid fibroblasts.
PubMed:First evidence that γ-tocotrienol inhibits the growth of human gastric cancer and chemosensitizes it to capecitabine in a xenograft mouse model through the modulation of NF-κB pathway.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol attenuates TNF-α-induced changes in secretion and gene expression of MCP-1, IL-6 and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
PubMed:Tissue distribution of vitamin E metabolites in rats after oral administration of tocopherol or tocotrienol.
PubMed:Enhancement of intestinal permeability utilizing solid lipid nanoparticles increases γ-tocotrienol oral bioavailability.
PubMed:Low dose of tocotrienols protects osteoblasts against oxidative stress.
PubMed:Determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol content of Greek barley varieties under conventional and organic cultivation techniques using validated reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method.
PubMed:Novel drugs to ameliorate gastrointestinal normal tissue radiation toxicity in clinical practice: what is emerging from the laboratory?
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol does not substantially protect DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury.
PubMed:Mechanisms Mediating the Synergistic Anticancer Effects of Combined γ-Tocotrienol and Celecoxib Treatment.
PubMed:Modulation of microRNA 20b with resveratrol and longevinex is linked with their potent anti-angiogenic action in the ischaemic myocardium and synergestic effects of resveratrol and γ-tocotrienol.
PubMed:Tissue distribution of α- and γ-tocotrienol and γ-tocopherol in rats and interference with their accumulation by α-tocopherol.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and renal cell death.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol inhibits HGF-dependent mitogenesis and Met activation in highly malignant mammary tumour cells.
PubMed:Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol augments the antitumor activity of gemcitabine and suppresses constitutive NF-κB activation in pancreatic cancer.
PubMed:New vitamin E isomers (gamma-tocomonoenol and alpha-tocomonoenol) in seeds, roasted seeds and roasted seed oil from the Slovenian pumpkin variety 'Slovenska golica'.
PubMed:Separation of α-tocotrienol oxidation products and eight tocochromanols by HPLC with DAD and fluorescence detection and identification of unknown peaks by DAD, PBI-EIMS, FTIR, and NMR.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol inhibits cell viability through suppression of β-catenin/Tcf signaling in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells.
PubMed:Induction of expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein efflux transporter by bioactive plant natural products.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol induces apoptosis in human T cell lymphoma through activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
PubMed:Vitamin E forms inhibit IL-13/STAT6-induced eotaxin-3 secretion by up-regulation of PAR4, an endogenous inhibitor of atypical PKC in human lung epithelial cells.
PubMed:Tocotrienols inhibit AKT and ERK activation and suppress pancreatic cancer cell proliferation by suppressing the ErbB2 pathway.
PubMed:Induction of apoptosis by γ-tocotrienol in human cancer cell lines and leukemic blasts from patients: dependency on Bid, cytochrome c, and caspase pathway.
PubMed:Tocotrienol combination therapy results in synergistic anticancer response.
PubMed:Changes in broiler chick tissue concentrations of lipid-soluble antioxidants immediately post-hatch.
PubMed:Role of immunoregulatory transcription factors in differential immunomodulatory effects of tocotrienols.
PubMed:Synergistic anticancer effects of combined γ-tocotrienol with statin or receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment.
PubMed:Palm tocotrienols decrease levels of pro-angiogenic markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and murine mammary cancer cells.
PubMed:Mechanisms underlying the radioprotective properties of γ-tocotrienol: comparative gene expression profiling in tocol-treated endothelial cells.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol induced apoptosis is associated with unfolded protein response in human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol induces apoptosis and autophagy in prostate cancer cells by increasing intracellular dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramide.
PubMed:Pentoxifylline enhances the radioprotective properties of γ-tocotrienol: differential effects on the hematopoietic, gastrointestinal and vascular systems.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol induces growth arrest through a novel pathway with TGFβ2 in prostate cancer.
PubMed:The enhancement of the oral bioavailability of γ-tocotrienol in mice by γ-cyclodextrin inclusion.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol inhibits angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cell induced by cancer cell.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol is a novel inhibitor of constitutive and inducible STAT3 signalling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma: potential role as an antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and chemosensitizing agent.
PubMed:Natural forms of vitamin E and 13'-carboxychromanol, a long-chain vitamin E metabolite, inhibit leukotriene generation from stimulated neutrophils by blocking calcium influx and suppressing 5-lipoxygenase activity, respectively.
PubMed:Nutritional value of the Chilean seaweeds Cryptonemia obovata and Rhodymenia corallina.
PubMed:Reduction of radiation-induced vascular nitrosative stress by the vitamin E analog γ-tocotrienol: evidence of a role for tetrahydrobiopterin.
PubMed:{Gamma}-tocotrienol inhibits pancreatic tumors and sensitizes them to gemcitabine treatment by modulating the inflammatory microenvironment.
PubMed:Vitamin E reversed nicotine-induced toxic effects on bone biochemical markers in male rats.
PubMed:Regulation of survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of tumor cells through modulation of inflammatory pathways by nutraceuticals.
PubMed:Development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of γ-tocotrienol in rat and human plasma.
PubMed:γ-Tocotrienol but not γ-tocopherol blocks STAT3 cell signaling pathway through induction of protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol prevents oxidative stress-induced telomere shortening in human fibroblasts derived from different aged individuals.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol reduces squalene hydroperoxide-induced inflammatory responses in HaCaT keratinocytes.
PubMed:Effect of experimental treatment on GAPDH mRNA expression as a housekeeping gene in human diploid fibroblasts.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol controls proliferation, modulates expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and up-regulates quinone reductase NQO2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p53-mediated upregulation of death receptors.
PubMed:Complexation of tocotrienol with gamma-cyclodextrin enhances intestinal absorption of tocotrienol in rats.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol as an effective agent in targeting prostate cancer stem cell-like population.
PubMed:Hematological targets of radiation damage.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice after total-body irradiation.
PubMed:Suppression of gamma-tocotrienol on UVB induced inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes and HR-1 hairless mice via inflammatory mediators multiple signaling.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol modulates the paracrine secretion of VEGF induced by cobalt(II) chloride via ERK signaling pathway in gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cell line.
PubMed:In vivo evidence of gamma-tocotrienol as a chemosensitizer in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
PubMed:Combined gamma-tocotrienol and erlotinib/gefitinib treatment suppresses Stat and Akt signaling in murine mammary tumor cells.
PubMed:Enhanced antiproliferative and apoptotic response to combined treatment of gamma-tocotrienol with erlotinib or gefitinib in mammary tumor cells.
PubMed:Intestinal absorption of gamma-tocotrienol is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1: in situ rat intestinal perfusion studies.
PubMed:Tocotrienols induce apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines via an endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent increase in extrinsic death receptor signaling.
PubMed:Beneficial effects of vitamin E isomer supplementation on static and dynamic bone histomorphometry parameters in normal male rats.
PubMed:The tocotrienol-rich fraction from rice bran enhances cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human mesothelioma H28 cells.
PubMed:Synergistic anticancer effects of combined gamma-tocotrienol and celecoxib treatment are associated with suppression in Akt and NFkappaB signaling.
PubMed:Deleterious effects of nicotine on the ultrastructure of oocytes: role of gamma-tocotrienol.
PubMed:Id1, inhibitor of differentiation, is a key protein mediating anti-tumor responses of gamma-tocotrienol in breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Anti-proliferative effects of gamma-tocotrienol on mammary tumour cells are associated with suppression of cell cycle progression.
PubMed:Vitamin E tocotrienols improve insulin sensitivity through activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.
PubMed:Intersection of the tocopherol and plastoquinol metabolic pathways at the plastoglobule.
PubMed:Co-ordinated autophagy with resveratrol and γ-tocotrienol confers synergetic cardioprotection.
PubMed:Vitamin E exhibits bone anabolic actions in normal male rats.
PubMed:Suppression in mevalonate synthesis mediates antitumor effects of combined statin and gamma-tocotrienol treatment.
PubMed:Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates gamma-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in mammary tumor cells.
PubMed:Antifibrotic effects of tocotrienols on human Tenon's fibroblasts.
PubMed:Tocotrienols suppress proinflammatory markers and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages.
PubMed:Synergistic actions of atorvastatin with gamma-tocotrienol and celecoxib against human colon cancer HT29 and HCT116 cells.
PubMed:A rice bran oil diet improves lipid abnormalities and suppress hyperinsulinemic responses in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol ameliorates intestinal radiation injury and reduces vascular oxidative stress after total-body irradiation by an HMG-CoA reductase-dependent mechanism.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol, a tocol antioxidant as a potent radioprotector.
PubMed:Evidence of gamma-tocotrienol as an apoptosis-inducing, invasion-suppressing, and chemotherapy drug-sensitizing agent in human melanoma cells.
PubMed:Combined treatment of gamma-tocotrienol with statins induce mammary tumor cell cycle arrest in G1.
PubMed:Simultaneous extraction of tocotrienols and tocopherols from cereals using pressurized liquid extraction prior to LC determination.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol and gamma-tocopherol are primarily metabolized to conjugated 2-(beta-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxy-2,7,8-trimethylchroman and sulfated long-chain carboxychromanols in rats.
PubMed:Inhibitory effects of gamma-tocotrienol on invasion and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells.
PubMed:Is vitamin E toxic to neuron cells?
PubMed:Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis by gamma-tocotrienol in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells.
PubMed:Design and QSAR study of analogs of gamma-tocotrienol with enhanced antiproliferative activity against human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Long-chain carboxychromanols, metabolites of vitamin E, are potent inhibitors of cyclooxygenases.
PubMed:Tocotrienol suppresses adipocyte differentiation and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
PubMed:Vitamin D receptor: molecular signaling and actions of nutritional ligands in disease prevention.
PubMed:Beneficial effects of tocotrienol and tocopherol on bone histomorphometric parameters in sprague-dawley male rats after nicotine cessation.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol suppresses prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion through multiple-signalling pathways.
PubMed:Suppression of cell proliferation and gene expression by combinatorial synergy of EGCG, resveratrol and gamma-tocotrienol in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Caveolin and proteasome in tocotrienol mediated myocardial protection.
PubMed:Tocochromanols, plastoquinol, and other biological prenyllipids as singlet oxygen quenchers-determination of singlet oxygen quenching rate constants and oxidation products.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells.
PubMed:Chemical composition and oxidative stability of flax, safflower and poppy seed and seed oils.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells is associated with a suppression in mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling.
PubMed:Determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method.
PubMed:Influence of growth temperature on the amounts of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and gamma-oryzanol in brown rice.
PubMed:Synergistic antiproliferative effects of gamma-tocotrienol and statin treatment on mammary tumor cells.
PubMed:Comprehensive analysis of vitamin E constituents in human plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Quantification of vitamin E and gamma-oryzanol components in rice germ and bran.
PubMed:Perillyl alcohol and genistein differentially regulate PKB/Akt and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation as well as eIF4E/eIF4G interactions in human tumor cells.
PubMed:Preparation and in vivo evaluation of a water-soluble prodrug for 2R-gamma-tocotrienol and as a two-step prodrug for 2,7,8-trimethyl-2S-(beta-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (S-gamma-CEHC) in rat.
PubMed:Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of vitamin E isoforms is a critical determinant of their tissue concentrations in rats.
PubMed:Intestinal epithelial cells absorb gamma-tocotrienol faster than alpha-tocopherol.
PubMed:Tocotrienols potentiate lovastatin-mediated growth suppression in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Dose dependent elevation of plasma tocotrienol levels and its effect on arterial compliance, plasma total antioxidant status, and lipid profile in healthy humans supplemented with tocotrienol rich vitamin E.
PubMed:Triton WR1339, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, decreases vitamin E concentration in some tissues of rats by inhibiting its transport to liver.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathway through inhibition of receptor-interacting protein and TAK1 leading to suppression of antiapoptotic gene products and potentiation of apoptosis.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol inhibits ErbB3-dependent PI3K/Akt mitogenic signalling in neoplastic mammary epithelial cells.
PubMed:Reinvestigation of the effect of heat pretreatment of corn fiber and corn germ on the levels of extractable tocopherols and tocotrienols.
PubMed:Quantitation of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in turpentine (Pistacia terebinthus Chia) growing wild in Turkey.
PubMed:Dose-response impact of various tocotrienols on serum lipid parameters in 5-week-old female chickens.
PubMed:Insig-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase stimulated by delta- and gamma-tocotrienols.
PubMed:Postprandial levels of the natural vitamin E tocotrienol in human circulation.
PubMed:A rice bran oil diet increases LDL-receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expressions and insulin sensitivity in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes.
PubMed:Comparative antioxidant activity of tocotrienols and the novel chromanyl-polyisoprenyl molecule FeAox-6 in isolated membranes and intact cells.
PubMed:Apoptosis induction by gamma-tocotrienol in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.
PubMed:Dietary supplements and related products: a brief summary.
PubMed:Comparative effects of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis on primary-cultured astrocytes.
PubMed:Induction of cytokines by radioprotective tocopherol analogs.
PubMed:Preferential radiation sensitization of prostate cancer in nude mice by nutraceutical antioxidant gamma-tocotrienol.
PubMed:Synthesis and study of the cancer cell growth inhibitory properties of alpha-, gamma-tocopheryl and gamma-tocotrienyl 2-phenylselenyl succinates.
PubMed:Lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride and its inhibition by antioxidant as evaluated by an oxidative stress marker, HODE.
PubMed:Application of supercritical fluid chromatography in the quantitative analysis of minor components (carotenes, vitamin E, sterols, and squalene) from palm oil.
PubMed:Intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of gamma-tocotrienol in neoplastic mammary epithelial cells.
PubMed:Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by vitamin E.
PubMed:Vitamin E composition of walnuts (Juglans regia L.): a 3-year comparative study of different cultivars.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol inhibits neoplastic mammary epithelial cell proliferation by decreasing Akt and nuclear factor kappaB activity.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol metabolism and antiproliferative effect in prostate cancer cells.
PubMed:Tocotrienol-induced cytotoxicity is unrelated to mitochondrial stress apoptotic signaling in neoplastic mammary epithelial cells.
PubMed:Yield and composition of grape seed oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects.
PubMed:Separation of vitamin E (tocopherol, tocotrienol, and tocomonoenol) in palm oil.
PubMed:Modulation of Cyp3a11 mRNA expression by alpha-tocopherol but not gamma-tocotrienol in mice.
PubMed:A developmental study on the appearance of tocopherols and tocotrienols in developing palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis).
PubMed:Distribution of tocopherols and tocotrienols to rat ocular tissues after topical ophthalmic administration.
PubMed:Tocotrienol-induced caspase-8 activation is unrelated to death receptor apoptotic signaling in neoplastic mammary epithelial cells.
PubMed:Studies of the isoprenoid-mediated inhibition of mevalonate synthesis applied to cancer chemotherapy and chemoprevention.
PubMed:Effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on body composition and bone calcium content in adrenalectomized rats replaced with dexamethasone.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of vitamin E homologs in chicken meat by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.
PubMed:Disruption of mitochondria during tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Nitric oxide synthase activity in blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats: antioxidant protection by gamma-tocotrienol.
PubMed:Gamma-tocotrienol, a vitamin E homolog, is a natriuretic hormone precursor.
PubMed:Constitutive overexpression of barley 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase in tobacco results in elevation of the vitamin E content in seeds but not in leaves.
PubMed:Dietary alpha-tocopherol decreases alpha-tocotrienol but not gamma-tocotrienol concentration in rats.
PubMed:HPLC analysis of vitamin E isoforms in human epidermis: correlation with minimal erythema dose and free radical scavenging activity.
PubMed:Vitamin E isoforms alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocopherol prevent cerebral infarction in mice.
PubMed:Vitamin E activates gene expression via the pregnane X receptor.
PubMed:Supplementation with 3 compositionally different tocotrienol supplements does not improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with hypercholesterolemia.
PubMed:Tocotrienols inhibit human glutathione S-transferase P1-1.
PubMed:Identities and differences in the metabolism of tocotrienols and tocopherols in HepG2 cells.
PubMed:Effect of sesaminol on plasma and tissue alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol concentrations in rats fed a vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols.
PubMed:Effect of either gamma-tocotrienol or a tocotrienol mixture on the plasma lipid profile in hamsters.
PubMed:Dietary sesame seeds elevate alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol concentrations in skin and adipose tissue of rats fed the tocotrienol-rich fraction extracted from palm oil.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and gamma-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride.
PubMed:Determination of RS,E/Z-tocotrienols by HPLC.
PubMed:Alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols are metabolized to carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman derivatives and excreted in human urine.
PubMed:Novel tocotrienols of rice bran suppress cholesterogenesis in hereditary hypercholesterolemic swine.
PubMed:Production of LLU-alpha following an oral administration of gamma-tocotrienol or gamma-tocopherol to rats.
PubMed:Palm tocotrienols protect ApoE +/- mice from diet-induced atheroma formation.
PubMed:Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of tocopherols and tocotrienols on preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary epithelial cells.
PubMed:Selective uptake of dietary tocotrienols into rat skin.
PubMed:Simultaneous detection of ubiquinol-10, ubiquinone-10, and tocopherols in human plasma microsamples and macrosamples as a marker of oxidative damage in neonates and infants.
PubMed:Fatty acids and tocochromanols in seeds of Orobanche.
PubMed:Vitamin E levels in soleus muscles of experimentally induced hyperthyroid rats differ consequent to feeding of edible oils.
PubMed:Effect of gamma-tocotrienol on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
PubMed:Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human and murine tumor cells are initiated by isoprenoids.
PubMed:Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells.
PubMed:Selective excretion of yolk-derived tocotrienols into the bile of the chick embryo.
PubMed:Tocotrienols inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells irrespective of estrogen receptor status.
PubMed:Effects of tocotrienol on the intracellular translocation and degradation of apolipoprotein B: possible involvement of a proteasome independent pathway.
PubMed:Penetration and distribution of alpha-tocopherol, alpha- or gamma-tocotrienols applied individually onto murine skin.
PubMed:Isoprenoids suppress the growth of murine B16 melanomas in vitro and in vivo.
PubMed:Tocotrienols from palm oil as effective inhibitors of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes.
PubMed:Different starting times of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol supplementation and tumor marker enzyme activities in the rat chemically induced with cancer.
PubMed:Palm oil antioxidant effects in patients with hyperlipidaemia and carotid stenosis-2 year experience.
PubMed:Diet-derived and topically applied tocotrienols accumulate in skin and protect the tissue against ultraviolet light-induced oxidative stress.
PubMed:Efficacy of topically applied tocopherols and tocotrienols in protection of murine skin from oxidative damage induced by UV-irradiation.
PubMed:Simultaneous determination of tissue tocopherols, tocotrienols, ubiquinols, and ubiquinones.
PubMed:Dietary alpha-tocopherol attenuates the impact of gamma-tocotrienol on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in chickens.
PubMed:Monitoring of ubiquinol-10, ubiquinone-10, carotenoids, and tocopherols in neonatal plasma microsamples using high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric electrochemical detection.
PubMed:Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis.
PubMed:Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of tocotrienols.
PubMed:Tocotrienols from palm oil as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in rat brain mitochondria.
PubMed:Inhibition of tumour promotion by various palm-oil tocotrienols.
PubMed:The chemoprevention of cancer by mevalonate-derived constituents of fruits and vegetables.
PubMed:Vitamin E, glutathione S-transferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in cultured hepatocytes of rats treated with carcinogens.
PubMed:Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. 2. Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of benzopyran and tetrahydronaphthalene analogues of the tocotrienols.
PubMed:gamma-Tocotrienol as a hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant agent in rats fed atherogenic diets.
PubMed:Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase.
PubMed:Comparative antioxidant activity of tocotrienols and other natural lipid-soluble antioxidants in a homogeneous system, and in rat and human lipoproteins.
PubMed:Tocotrienol and fatty acid composition of barley oil and their effects on lipid metabolism.
PubMed:Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols.
PubMed:Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvitee).
PubMed:Studies on the biological activity of tocotrienols.
PubMed:Distribution of tocopherols in human plasma and red blood cells.
PubMed:Identification of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols and their contents in human milk.
PubMed:Isolation of gamma-tocotrienol dimers from Hevea latex.
PubMed:[The stereochemistry of natural gamma-tocotrienol (plastochromanol-3), plastochromanol-8 and plastochromenol-8].
Constit. of palm oil. Nutriceutical with anticancer props. and a positive influence on the blood lipid profile
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