EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes
 

diacerein
1,8-diacetoxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 13739-02-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
FDA UNII:4HU6J11EL5
Nikkaji Web:J14.479G
Beilstein Number:2184909
MDL:MFCD00468030
XlogP3-AA:1.90 (est)
Molecular Weight:368.29824000
Formula:C19 H12 O8
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
Category:pharmaceuticals / chemical synthisis
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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Physical Properties:
Appearance:white powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 217.50 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 631.46 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point: 449.00 °F. TCC ( 231.80 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): 3.126 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 3.197 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
1,8-Diacetoxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone >98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Diacerin is an inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) production, prescribed for osteoarthritis and chronic inflammatory arthritis.
Carbosynth
For experimental / research use only.
Diacerein
Coompo
For experimental / research use only.
Diacerein from Plants ≥98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Diacerein is a drug used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It works by inhibiting interleukin-1. Diacerein to be slightly, but significantly, more effective than placebo in improving pain and slowing the progress of osteoarthritis in the hip.
Santa Cruz Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Diacerein
Sigma-Aldrich: Sigma
For experimental / research use only.
Diacerein ≥95% (HPLC)
Sinoway Industrial
For experimental / research use only.
Diacerein
 
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
unreported-rat LD50 7500 mg/kg
Drugs of the Future. Vol. 4, Pg. 445, 1979.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category: pharmaceuticals / chemical synthisis
Recommendation for diacerein usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for diacerein flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :26248
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
4,5-diacetyloxy-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylic acid
Chemidplus:0013739021
RTECS:CB8781000 for cas# 13739-02-1
 
References:
 4,5-diacetyloxy-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylic acid
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):26248
Pubchem (sid):134989126
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEMBL:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D07270
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
RSC Learn Chemistry:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
4,5-bis(acetyloxy)-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid
4,5-bis(acetyloxy)-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-carboxylic acid
2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, 4,5-bis(acetyloxy)-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-
2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, 4,5-bis(acetyloxy)-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo- (9CI)
2-anthroic acid, 9,10-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-, diacetate
 artrodar
 diacerhein
 diacerin
1,8-diacetoxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone
4,5-diacetoxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid
4,5-diacetoxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid
4,5-diacetoxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-carboxylic acid
1,8-diacetoxyanthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid
4,5-diacetyloxy-9,10-bis(oxidanylidene)anthracene-2-carboxylic acid
4,5-diacetyloxy-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid
4,5-diacetyloxy-9,10-dioxoanthracene-2-carboxylic acid
 diacetylrhein
4,5-diacetylrhein
9,10-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-2-anthroic acid diacetate
9,10-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-2-anthroic acid, diacetate
 rhein diacetate
 

Articles:

PubMed:Interaction between rhein acyl glucuronide and methotrexate based on human organic anion transporters.
PubMed:Current Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Diacerein inhibits Estradiol-benzoate induced cervical hyperkeratosis in female rats.
PubMed:Efficacy and Safety of Diacerein in Patients With Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
PubMed:Chitosan-coated diacerein nanosuspensions as a platform for enhancing bioavailability and lowering side effects: preparation, characterization, and ex vivo/in vivo evaluation.
PubMed:Quantitative analysis of anti-inflammatory drugs using FTIR-ATR spectrometry.
PubMed:Erratum to: Diacerein: Benefits, Risks and Place in the Management of Osteoarthritis. An Opinion-Based Report from the ESCEO.
PubMed:Diacerein inhibits the pro-atherogenic & pro-inflammatory effects of IL-1 on human keratinocytes & endothelial cells.
PubMed:The role of interleukin-1b and its antagonist (diacerein) in estradiol benzoate-induced endometrial hyperplasia and atypia in female rats.
PubMed:Effect of diacerein as an add-on to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycemic control.
PubMed:Somatostatin receptor targeted liposomes with Diacerein inhibit IL-6 for breast cancer therapy.
PubMed:Evaluation of superabsorbent linseed-polysaccharides as a novel stimuli-responsive oral sustained release drug delivery system.
PubMed:Development, characterization and in vitro evaluation of biodegradable rhein-loaded microparticles for treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Efficacy of glucosamine plus diacerein versus monotherapy of glucosamine: a double-blind, parallel randomized clinical trial.
PubMed:Formulation and optimization of niosomes for topical diacerein delivery using 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design for the management of psoriasis.
PubMed:Ultrasonic Processing Technique as a Green Preparation Approach for Diacerein-Loaded Niosomes.
PubMed:Development and in-vitro characterization of sorbitan monolaurate and poloxamer 184 based niosomes for oral delivery of diacerein.
PubMed:Suppression of Cartilage Degradation by Zingerone Involving the p38 and JNK MAPK Signaling Pathway.
PubMed:[The Analysis of Efficacy of The Application of Interleukin-1 Inhibitor in the Complex Therapy of Secondary Osteoarthritis Taking Into Account the Dynamics of Clinical and Functional Indicators].
PubMed:Chemokine CXCL13 mediates orofacial neuropathic pain via CXCR5/ERK pathway in the trigeminal ganglion of mice.
PubMed:In Vitro Chondroprotective Potential of Extracts Obtained from Various Phyllantus Species.
PubMed:Non-surgical treatments for the management of early osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Melanosis coli due to diacerein.
PubMed:Possible Protective Effect of Diacerein on Doxorubicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.
PubMed:Diacerein: Benefits, Risks and Place in the Management of Osteoarthritis. An Opinion-Based Report from the ESCEO.
PubMed:Lecithin-gold hybrid nanocarriers as efficient and pH selective vehicles for oral delivery of diacerein-In-vitro and in-vivo study.
PubMed:Effects of glucosamine sulfate on the use of rescue non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in knee osteoarthritis: Results from the Pharmaco-Epidemiology of GonArthroSis (PEGASus) study.
PubMed:Diacerein-mediated inhibition of IL-6/IL-6R signaling induces apoptotic effects on breast cancer.
PubMed:Diacerein retards cell growth of chondrosarcoma cells at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint via cyclin B1/CDK1 and CDK2 downregulation.
PubMed:Multi-drug intoxication fatality involving atorvastatin: A case report.
PubMed:Diacerein reduces joint damage, pain behavior and inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, matrix metalloproteinase and glial cells in rat spinal cord.
PubMed:Design and synthesis of aloe-emodin derivatives as potent anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents.
PubMed:Diacerein protects against iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in the femorotibial joints of rats.
PubMed:Diacerein: A potential therapeutic drug for the management of experimental periodontitis in rats.
PubMed:Development and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of New Oral Formulations of Diacerein.
PubMed:Effects of diacerein on cartilage and subchondral bone in early stages of osteoarthritis in a rabbit model.
PubMed:[Treatment for knee osteoarthritis in patients with oxalate nephropathy].
PubMed:Combination Therapies of Diacerein and Febuxostat Inhibit IL-1β Responses and Improve Clinical Symptoms in Patients With Refractory Gout.
PubMed:Novel self-nanoemulsifying self-nanosuspension (SNESNS) for enhancing oral bioavailability of diacerein: Simultaneous portal blood absorption and lymphatic delivery.
PubMed:Comparison of various SYSADOA for the osteoarthritis treatment: an experimental study in rabbits.
PubMed:Diacerein. A controversial EU re-evaluation upholds marketing authorisation, unfortunately.
PubMed:Solid and liquid lipid-based binary solid lipid nanoparticles of diacerein: in vitro evaluation of sustained release, simultaneous loading of gold nanoparticles, and potential thermoresponsive behavior.
PubMed:Efficacy and safety of glucosamine, diacerein, and NSAIDs in osteoarthritis knee: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
PubMed:Diacerein niosomal gel for topical delivery: development, in vitro and in vivo assessment.
PubMed:Diacerein-Loaded novel gastroretentive nanofiber system using PLLA: Development and in vitro characterization.
PubMed:Diacerein improves left ventricular remodeling and cardiac function by reducing the inflammatory response after myocardial infarction.
PubMed:Celecoxib Combined with Diacerein Effectively Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Rats via Regulating JNK and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways.
PubMed:Diacerein-thymol prodrug: in vivo release and pharmacological screening in experimental models of osteoarthritis in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Benefit-risk assessment of diacerein in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Supplementary methods in the nonsurgical treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:[Correction of an inflammatory process with an interleukin-1 inhibitor in the combination treatment of secondary osteoarthritis in the presence of comorbid condition].
PubMed:Chondroprotective potential of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. in experimentally induced cartilage degradation in the explants culture model.
PubMed:Diacerein is a potent and selective inhibitor of palmitoylethanolamide inactivation with analgesic activity in a rat model of acute inflammatory pain.
PubMed:Experimental osteoarthritis model by means of medial meniscectomy in rats and effects of diacerein administration and hyaluronic acid injection.
PubMed:Combination of diacerhein and antiepileptic drugs after local peripheral, and oral administration in the rat formalin test.
PubMed:Nanosizing of a poorly soluble drug: technique optimization, factorial analysis, and pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers.
PubMed:The disease modifying osteoarthritis drug diacerein is able to antagonize pro inflammatory state of chondrocytes under mild mechanical stimuli.
PubMed:Stability-indicating HPLC method for quantification of celecoxib and diacerein along with its impurities in capsule dosage form.
PubMed:Rhein exerts pro- and anti-inflammatory actions by targeting IKKβ inhibition in LPS-activated macrophages.
PubMed:Spectroscopic characterization of both aqueous and solid-state diacerhein/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.
PubMed:Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of celecoxib and diacerein in bulk and capsule by absorption correction method and chemometric methods.
PubMed:Diacerein for osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Targeting of diacerein loaded lipid nanoparticles to intra-articular cartilage using chondroitin sulfate as homing carrier for treatment of osteoarthritis in rats.
PubMed:OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis.
PubMed:[The pathogenetic substantiation of new therapeutic approach to the treatment of secondary osteoarthritis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with basis therapy].
PubMed:The anthraquinone drug rhein potently interferes with organic anion transporter-mediated renal elimination.
PubMed:Development of lipid nanoparticles of diacerein, an antiosteoarthritic drug for enhancement in bioavailability and reduction in its side effects.
PubMed:Disease-modifying effect of anthraquinone prodrug with boswellic acid on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Topical diacerein for epidermolysis bullosa: a randomized controlled pilot study.
PubMed:The efficacy of diacerein in hand osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
PubMed:Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs: in vitro and in vivo data on the development of DMOADs under investigation.
PubMed:The pathogenetic role of IL-1β in severe epidermolysis bullosa simplex.
PubMed:Validated stability indicating TLC-densitometric method for the determination of diacerein.
PubMed:Studies on synthesis, stability, release and pharmacodynamic profile of a novel diacerein-thymol prodrug.
PubMed:Synthesis and pharmacokinetic profile of rhein- boswellic acid conjugate.
PubMed:Nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis : a critical review.
PubMed:[Clinical study of Qianggu granule and diacerein capsule in treating knee osteoarthritis].
PubMed:Chondromodulating chimeric prodrugs of diacetylrhein: synthesis and evaluation in monoiodoacetate-induced hyperalgesia.
PubMed:Diacerhein attenuates the inflammatory response and improves survival in a model of severe sepsis.
PubMed:Saliva versus plasma pharmacokinetics: theory and application of a salivary excretion classification system.
PubMed:Diacerein decreases visceral pain through inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission and cytokine signaling in mice.
PubMed:[Management of osteoarthritis: oral therapies].
PubMed:Combined effect of subchondral drilling and hyaluronic acid with/without diacerein in full-thickness articular cartilage lesion in rabbits.
PubMed:Fast-dissolving and high-drug-loaded, Fatty Acid-based self-emulsifying solid dispersions of diacerein.
PubMed:Diacerein: a potential therapeutic drug for periodontal disease.
PubMed:[Clinical efficacy of bushen huoxue qubi decoction on treatment of knee-osteoarthritis and its effect on hemarheology, anti-inflammation and antioxidation].
PubMed:Diacerein as adjuvant to diclofenac sodium in osteoarthritis knee.
PubMed:Comment on: Ramos-Zavala et al. Effect of diacerein on insulin secretion and metabolic control in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1591-1594.
PubMed:Quantitative estimation of diacerein in bulk and in capsule formulation using hydrotropic solubilizing agents by UV-spectrophotometry and the first order derivative using the area under curve method.
PubMed:A comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of diclofenac in osteoarthritis: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
PubMed:[Pharmacological therapies for osteoarthritis].
PubMed:Rhein: a potential biological therapeutic drug for intervertebral disc degeneration.
PubMed:Diacerhein improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice on a high-fat diet.
PubMed:Effect of diacerein on insulin secretion and metabolic control in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.
PubMed:Stability-indicating spectrophotometric and spectrodensitometric methods for the determination of diacerein in the presence of its degradation product.
PubMed:Physicochemical characterization and dissolution study of solid dispersions of diacerein with polyethylene glycol 6000.
PubMed:Changes of body weight and inflammatory markers after 12-week intervention trial: results of a double-blind, placebo-control pilot study.
PubMed:Argirein alleviates diabetic nephropathy through attenuating NADPH oxidase, Cx43, and PERK in renal tissue.
PubMed:Visible spectrophotometric estimation of diacerein in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms.
PubMed:Stress degradation studies and development of a validated stability-indicating-assay-method for determination of diacerein in presence of degradation products.
PubMed:Improvement in the dissolution profile of diacerein using a surfactant-based solid dispersion technique.
PubMed:Are FoxO transcription factors implicated in osteoarthritis? Influence of Diacerhein.
PubMed:Effects of diacerein at the molecular level in the osteoarthritis disease process.
PubMed:A stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of diacerein in capsules.
PubMed:Symptomatic efficacy and safety of diacerein in the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.
PubMed:Diacerein decreases TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels in peritoneal fluid and prevents Baker's yeast-induced fever in young rats.
PubMed:Efficacy and safety of diacerein in early knee osteoarthritis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
PubMed:Aloe-emodin-induced DNA fragmentation in the mouse in vivo comet assay.
PubMed:Anti-inflammatory and anti-peroxidative roles of diacerein are possibly mediated through an alteration in thyroid functions in animal model of inflammation.
PubMed:Simultaneous HPLC-UV determination of rhein and aceclofenac in human plasma.
PubMed:Rhein, the metabolite of diacerhein, reduces the proliferation of osteoarthritic chondrocytes and synoviocytes without inducing apoptosis.
PubMed:[Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of large joints - new aspects].
PubMed:Self-reported prevalence of psoriasis and evaluation of the impact on the natural history of hip osteoarthritis: results of a 10 years follow-up study of 507 patients (ECHODIAH study).
PubMed:Physico-chemical and structural characterization of diacerhein.
PubMed:Isolation and structural elucidation of two impurities from a diacerein bulk drug.
PubMed:Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system.
PubMed:[Treatment of osteoarthritis with drugs and other modalities].
PubMed:In vitro inhibition of IL-1beta catabolic effects on cartilage: a mechanism involved on diacerein anti-OA properties.
PubMed:Bioequivalence study of two capsule formulations containing diacerein 50 mg in healthy human subjects.
PubMed:Comment on: comparison between chondroprotective effects of glucosamine, curcumin and diacerein in IL-1beta-stimulated C-28/I2 chondrocytes.
PubMed:An open prospective study on postmarketing evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of diacerein in osteo-arthritis of the knee (DOK).
PubMed:Clinical review of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis.
PubMed:The disease modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD): Is it in the horizon?
PubMed:Diacerein inhibits the synthesis of resorptive enzymes and reduces osteoclastic differentiation/survival in osteoarthritic subchondral bone: a possible mechanism for a protective effect against subchondral bone remodelling.
PubMed:In vitro effects of diacerein on NO production by chondrocytes in response to proinflammatory mediators.
PubMed:Diacerhein downregulate proinflammatory cytokines expression and decrease the autoimmune diabetes frequency in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.
PubMed:[Effectiveness of drugs used in degenerative joint diseases (arthroses)].
PubMed:Diacerein has a weak effect on the catabolic pathway of human osteoarthritis synovial fibroblast--comparison to its effects on osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
PubMed:Comparison between chondroprotective effects of glucosamine, curcumin, and diacerein in IL-1beta-stimulated C-28/I2 chondrocytes.
PubMed:On "Effectiveness of nonpharmacological and nonsurgical interventions..." Moe et al. Phys Ther. 2008;88: 1716-1727.
PubMed:OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines.
PubMed:The efficacy and safety of diacerein in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with primary end points at two months after the end of a three-month treatment period.
PubMed:[Review of the evidence about drugs used as SYSADOA].
PubMed:DMOAD developments: present and future.
PubMed:Effectiveness of nonpharmacological and nonsurgical interventions for hip osteoarthritis: an umbrella review of high-quality systematic reviews.
PubMed:Nutraceuticals in the management of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Direct spectrophotometric determination of diacerhein in capsules.
PubMed:Review: diacerein is more effective than placebo and is as effective as NSAIDs for knee and hip osteoarthritis.
PubMed:The efficacy, safety and carry-over effect of diacerein in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: a randomised, double-blind, NSAID-controlled study.
PubMed:Selection of reliable reference genes for qPCR studies on chondroprotective action.
PubMed:Diacerhein versus glucosamine in a rat model of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:A meta-analysis of controlled clinical studies with diacerein in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:[Inhibitory effect of diacerein on osteoclastic bone destruction and its possible mechanism of action].
PubMed:IL-1beta synthesis by chondrocyte analyzed by 3D microscopy and flow cytometry: effect of Rhein.
PubMed:Studies in animal models of osteoarthritis as predictors of a structure-modifying effect of diacerhein in humans with osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Inhibition of interleukin-1beta-induced activation of MEK/ERK pathway and DNA binding of NF-kappaB and AP-1: potential mechanism for Diacerein effects in osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Evaluation of efficacy and safety of diacerein in knee osteoarthritis in Chinese patients.
PubMed:Effect of oral diacerein (DAR) in an experimental hip chondrolysis model.
PubMed:Diacerein for osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Molecular markers of cartilage breakdown and synovitis at baseline as predictors of structural progression of hip osteoarthritis. The ECHODIAH Cohort.
PubMed:The effects of diacerhein on mechanical allodynia in inflammatory and neuropathic models of nociception in mice.
PubMed:Chondroprotective drugs in degenerative joint diseases.
PubMed:Heat-shock proteins and their role in chondrocyte protection, an application for autologous transplantation.
PubMed:Osteoarthritis: an overview of the disease and its treatment strategies.
PubMed:Tissue engineering of human cartilage and osteochondral composites using recirculation bioreactors.
PubMed:Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical management of canine osteoarthritis: present and future perspectives.
PubMed:Disease modification in osteoarthritis: are drugs the answer?
PubMed:A validated HPLC stability-indicating method for the determination of diacerhein in bulk drug substance.
PubMed:[Pharmacological treatment of osteoarthritis. Expectations and reality].
PubMed:Future treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Diacerein has a structure/disease-modifying effect on hip osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Expedient total syntheses of rhein and diacerhein via Fries rearrangement.
PubMed:Evaluation of the symptomatic and structural efficacy of a new hyaluronic acid compound, NRD101, in comparison with diacerein and placebo in a 1 year randomised controlled study in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.
PubMed:[Mechanisms of action of diacerein, the first inhibitor of interleukin-1 in osteoarthritis].
PubMed:[Total hip arthroplasty indication, evaluation criteria for structure modifying trials. Lessons from the ECHODIAH and PHARE studies].
PubMed:[Chondromodulation in 2003: dream or reality?].
PubMed:Recommendations for the use of new methods to assess the efficacy of disease-modifying drugs in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Attenuation of inflammatory polyarthritis in TNF transgenic mice by diacerein: comparative analysis with dexamethasone, methotrexate and anti-TNF protocols.
PubMed:Measurement of structure (disease) modification in osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Determination of chromium and selected elements in multimineral and multivitamin preparations and in pharmaceutical raw material.
PubMed:New perspectives in the management of osteoarthritis. structure modification: facts or fantasy?
PubMed:Long-term treatment with diacerein has a structure/disease modifying effect on hip osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Diacerein reduces the level of cartilage chondrocyte DNA fragmentation and death in experimental dog osteoarthritic cartilage at the same time that it inhibits caspase-3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
PubMed:The true results of the ECHODIAH study with diacerein.
PubMed:[Clinical and radiographic status of patients in the ECHODIAH study who underwent THA Pertinence of the pain-function index for operative decision making].
PubMed:[Comparison of the pharmacologic effect of diacerein and a selective COX-2 inhibitor in the mouse induced-granuloma model].
PubMed:[Efficacy of diacerein on the symptoms and radiographic progression of osteoarthritis].
PubMed:Response of young, aged and osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes to inflammatory cytokines: molecular and cellular aspects.
PubMed:Diacerhein and rhein prevent interleukin-1beta-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation by inhibiting the degradation of inhibitor kappaB-alpha.
PubMed:Oral and intra-articular remedies: Review of papers published from March 2001 to February 2002.
PubMed:Pharmacological studies of diacerein in animal models of inflammation, arthritis and bone resorption.
PubMed:In vitro study of intracellular IL-1beta production and beta1 integrins expression in stimulated chondrocytes--effect of rhein.
PubMed:COX-1, COX-2 and articular joint disease: a role for chondroprotective agents.
PubMed:[Current therapeutic possibilities in the treatment of arthrosis].
PubMed:[Total hip replacement: a criterion of coxarthrosis evaluation?].
PubMed:[Results of the ECHODIAH clinical trial on hip arthrosis].
PubMed:[Current medical possibilities in the treatment of arthrosis].
PubMed:Effects of diacerein on indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration.
PubMed:Evaluation of the structure-modifying effects of diacerein in hip osteoarthritis: ECHODIAH, a three-year, placebo-controlled trial. Evaluation of the Chondromodulating Effect of Diacerein in OA of the Hip.
PubMed:Innovative therapies in osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Diacerein as a disease-modulating agent in osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Pharmacological therapy of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:[Case report of fatal hepatitis from diacerein].
PubMed:Diacerein suppresses the increase in plasma nitric oxide in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.
PubMed:[Pharmacy clinics. How I treat...Osteoarthritis. 2nd part: new therapeutic perspectives].
PubMed:The effects of orally administered diacerein on cartilage and subchondral bone in an ovine model of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Diacerein reduces the excess synthesis of bone remodeling factors by human osteoblast cells from osteoarthritic subchondral bone.
PubMed:Reports of equivalence trials should not mask negative or mediocre results.
PubMed:Rhein, an active metabolite of diacerein, down-regulates the production of pro-matrix metalloproteinases-1, -3, -9 and -13 and up-regulates the production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes.
PubMed:A novel microassay for the quantitation of the sulfated glycosaminoglycan content of histological sections: its application to determine the effects of Diacerhein on cartilage in an ovine model of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Pharmacologic pain treatment of musculoskeletal disorders: current perspectives and future prospects.
PubMed:[Preclinical development of a medication: application to diacerhein].
PubMed:Rhein, an active metabolite of diacerein, suppresses the interleukin-1alpha-induced proteoglycan degradation in cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes.
PubMed:Efficacy and tolerance of Harpagophytum procumbens versus diacerhein in treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Harpagophytum procumbens in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Four-month results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind trial versus diacerhein.
PubMed:Efficacy and safety of diacerein in osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Diacerein Study Group.
PubMed:Synergistic antiinflammatory effect of NF-kappaB inhibitors and steroidal or non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the pleural inflammation induced by carrageenan in mice.
PubMed:Effects of diacerein on biosynthesis activities of chondrocytes in culture.
PubMed:Diacerhein and rhein reduce the ICE-induced IL-1beta and IL-18 activation in human osteoarthritic cartilage.
PubMed:Effect of diacerein on spontaneous polyarthritis in male New Zealand black/KN mice.
PubMed:Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs upon nitrate and myeloperoxidase levels in the mouse pleurisy induced by carrageenan.
PubMed:Anti-interleukin-1 effects of diacerein and rhein in human osteoarthritic synovial tissue and cartilage cultures.
PubMed:Stimulating effect of diacerein on TGF-beta1 and beta2 expression in articular chondrocytes cultured with and without interleukin-1.
PubMed:Diacerhein treatment reduces the severity of osteoarthritis in the canine cruciate-deficiency model of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:[Efficacy and tolerance of diacerhein in the treatment of gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis].
PubMed:[Evaluation of the effects of diacerhein in the sheep model of arthritis].
PubMed:Diacerhein and rhein reduce the interleukin 1beta stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthesis level and activity while stimulating cyclooxygenase-2 synthesis in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes.
PubMed:Clinical pharmacokinetics of diacerein.
PubMed:Diacerhein blocks iron regulatory protein activation in inflamed human monocytes.
PubMed:[Assessment of the placebo effect of symptomatic slow-acting anti-arthritics].
PubMed:[Functional manifestations of osteoarthritis: key points to the clinical efficacy of diacerhein].
PubMed:Fatal toxic epidermal necrosis: responsibility of diacerein? A controversy.
PubMed:Effects of diacerhein on granuloma induced cartilage breakdown in the mouse.
PubMed:In vitro effects of diacerhein and rhein on interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha systems in human osteoarthritic synovium and chondrocytes.
PubMed:Effects of diacerhein in an accelerated canine model of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:[Pragmatic study of diacerhein: results on clinical signs, quality of life and medico-economic costs].
PubMed:[Effects of diacerhein on canine model with accelerated osteoarthritis].
PubMed:[Effects of diacerhein on cytokine determinations in a model of cartilage degradation induced by granuloma in mice].
PubMed:[Anti-interleukin-1 effects of diacerhein in vitro].
PubMed:[Natural history of coxarthrosis: epidemiological data from the ECHODIAH study].
PubMed:Medico-economic analysis of diacerein with or without standard therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
PubMed:Effect of diacetylrhein on the development of experimental osteoarthritis. A biochemical investigation.
PubMed:[Acute hepatitis asociated with ingestion of of diacerein].
PubMed:Diacerein.
PubMed:Effect of diacetyl rhein on the development of experimental osteoarthritis. A biochemical investigation.
PubMed:[Why pragmatic trials of the treatment of osteoarthritis? Application to the pragmatic study of diacetylrhein].
PubMed:[Diacetylrhein administrated "curatively" in an experimental model of post-contusion osteoarthritis in rabbits].
PubMed:[Evaluation methods of osteoarthritis: apropos of the ECHODIAH study].
PubMed:[Study of ART 50 in daily rheumatological practice].
PubMed:[Beneficial effects of treatment with diacerhein in guinea pigs with osteoarthritis].
PubMed:[Molecular mechanisms implicated in the inhibition of collagenase expression by diacerheine].
PubMed:[Severe diarrhea with hypokalemia attributed to diacetylrhein].
PubMed:[A new drug for arthroses].
PubMed:[Study of ART 50 in everyday rheumatic practice].
PubMed:Diacerhein in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip.
PubMed:Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of diacerein after a single oral dose.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetics of diacerein in patients with liver cirrhosis.
PubMed:[Diacetylrhein, a new therapeutic approach of osteoarthritis].
PubMed:[Diacetylrhein on a postcontusion model of experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit].
PubMed:[Effect of diacerhein (ART 50) on the matrix synthesis and collagenase secretion by cultured joint chondrocytes in rabbits].
PubMed:Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of diacerein after a single oral dose.
PubMed:Antireactive properties of "chondroprotective" drugs.
PubMed:[Fangotherapy and diacerein in the treatment of osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee].
PubMed:Diacetylrhein and rhein: in vivo and in vitro effect on lymphocyte membrane fluidity.
PubMed:Modulation of urokinase receptors on human synovial cells and osteoarthritic chondrocytes by diacetylrhein.
PubMed:[Clinical evaluation of diacerein in the treatment of osteoarthrosis].
PubMed:Effects of diacerein on the quantity and phagocytic activity of thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages.
PubMed:Effects of rhein on renal arachidonic acid metabolism and renal function in patients with congestive heart failure.
PubMed:Simple method for the determination of rhein in biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography.
PubMed:Effect of diacetylrhein on the phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and its influence on the biosynthesis of hyaluronate in synovial cells.
PubMed:[Drug therapy of arthrosis].
PubMed:Rhein: an anthraquinone that modulates superoxide anion production from human neutrophils.
PubMed:[Endoscopic evaluation of the effects of diacerhein and naproxen on the gastroduodenal mucosa].
PubMed:[Diacereine: an original approach in the treatment of degenerative and/or extra-articular rheumatism].
PubMed:Studies in vitro on the effects of rhein on the chemotaxis of human leukocytes.
PubMed:Experimental studies on diacerhein: effects on the phagocytosis of neutrophil cells from subcutaneous carrageenan-induced exudate.
PubMed:[Influence of diacereine on the gastroduodenal mucosa of ulcer patients in remission and on the diuresis of cirrhosis ascites patients].
PubMed:[Diacerein].
PubMed:[Diacetylrhein in the treatment of degenerative arthropathies].
PubMed:A non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that stimulates prostaglandin release.
PubMed:Preliminary experience with diacetylrhein in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
 
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