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caffeine citrate
1H-purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate (1:1) (salt)

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CAS Number: 69-22-7Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):2406-91-9
FDA UNII: U26EO4675Q
MDL:MFCD00044986
Molecular Weight:386.31826000
Formula:C14 H18 N4 O9
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:specific usage additives
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
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Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
PubMed:Search
NCBI:Search
 
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 416.80 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Vapor Pressure:0.000000 mmHg @ 25.00 °C. (est)
Flash Point: 403.00 °F. TCC ( 205.90 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -0.131 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
 
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
 
Cosmetic Information:
None found
 
Suppliers:
American International Chemical, LLC.
CAFFEINE CITRATE
Odor: characterisitc
Use: Nutritional food supplements as a source for caffeine and citric acid. Also used as an ingredient in analgesics and central nervous system (CNS) stimulants.
Augustus Oils
Caffeine Citrate
Services
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Caffeine Citrate
 
Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 540 mg/kg
United States Patent Document. Vol. #3755326

intravenous-mouse LD50 49 mg/kg
British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. Vol. 17, Pg. 196, 1961.

oral-mouse LD50 356 mg/kg
British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy. Vol. 17, Pg. 196, 1961.

intraperitoneal-rat LDLo 300 mg/kg
BEHAVIORAL: TREMOR
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. Vol. 27, Pg. 1048, 1989.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
 
Safety in Use Information:
Category:
specific usage additives
Recommendation for caffeine citrate usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Recommendation for caffeine citrate flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
 
Safety References:
EPI System: View
ClinicalTrials.gov:search
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :6241
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylicacid;1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
Chemidplus:0000069227
 
References:
 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylicacid;1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):6241
Pubchem (sid):134971527
 
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
CHEMBL:View
KEGG (GenomeNet):D07603
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
MedlinePlusSupp:View
ChemSpider:View
Wikipedia:View
 
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
 
Potential Uses:
None Found
 
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 not found in nature
 
Synonyms:
 cafcit
 caffeine citrate (1:1)
 caffeine citrated
 caffeine, citrate (1:1)
 caffeine, citrated
 citric acid, compd. with caffeine (1:1)
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylicacid;1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
1H-purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-, 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylate (1:1) (salt)
1,3,7-trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (1:1)
 

Articles:

PubMed:Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography shows that doxapram influences the brain activity of preterm infants.
PubMed:Use of methylxanthine therapies for the treatment and prevention of apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:Effects of caffeine on neuronal apoptosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
PubMed:Medication use in the neonatal intensive care unit.
PubMed:Safety profile comparison between extemporaneous and a licensed preparation of caffeine citrate in preterm infants with apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:The use of caffeine for the treatment of apnea of prematurity and bradycardia in a holoprosencephalic child with cleft lip and palate.
PubMed:New protocol for ╬▒Astree electronic tongue enabling full performance qualification according to ICH Q2.
PubMed:Apnea of prematurity: caffeine dose optimization.
PubMed:Association between caffeine citrate exposure and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants.
PubMed:Physical compatibility of various drugs with neonatal total parenteral nutrient solution during simulated Y-site administration.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate: when and for how long. A literature review.
PubMed:Effects of ADORA2A gene variation and caffeine on prepulse inhibition: a multi-level risk model of anxiety.
PubMed:[Establishment of the intestinal microflora and regulation of bacterial translocation after caffeine citrate treatment during postnatal period in rat].
PubMed:Genetic basis of apnoea of prematurity and caffeine treatment response: role of adenosine receptor polymorphisms: genetic basis of apnoea of prematurity.
PubMed:Modification of caffeine effects on the affect-modulated startle by neuropeptide S receptor gene variation.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:ADORA2A Gene variation, caffeine, and emotional processing: a multi-level interaction on startle reflex.
PubMed:What are the main research findings during the last 5 years that have changed my approach to clinical practice?
PubMed:Alteration of carotid body chemoreflexes after neonatal intermittent hypoxia and caffeine treatment in rat pups.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate for very preterm infants: Effects on development, temperament and behaviour.
PubMed:Economic evaluation of caffeine for apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:Comparative investigations on different polymers for the preparation of fast-dissolving oral films.
PubMed:Caffeine reduces apnea frequency and enhances ventilatory long-term facilitation in rat pups raised in chronic intermittent hypoxia.
PubMed:[Apnea of prematurity: what's new?].
PubMed:Nasal CPAP and surfactant for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate treatment for extremely premature infants with apnea: population pharmacokinetics, absolute bioavailability, and implications for therapeutic drug monitoring.
PubMed:Acute hemodynamic effects of caffeine administration in premature infants.
PubMed:Caffeine in children with obstructive sleep apnea.
PubMed:Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:A caffeine challenge test in panic disorder patients, their healthy first-degree relatives, and healthy controls.
PubMed:Practices of pharmacies that compound extemporaneous formulations.
PubMed:Screening for pharmaceutical cocrystal hydrates via neat and liquid-assisted grinding.
PubMed:Therapeutic drug monitoring for caffeine in preterm neonates: an unnecessary exercise?
PubMed:Calibration in non-linear NIR spectroscopy using principal component artificial neural networks.
PubMed:Delayed extubation to nasal continuous positive airway pressure in the immature baboon model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: lung clinical and pathological findings.
PubMed:Therapeutic profile of orphan medicines.
PubMed:[Apnea of prematurity: risk factors and ambulatory treatment with caffeine citrate].
PubMed:[Caffeine citrate utilization for treatment of apnea in French neonatal units].
PubMed:Correlation between plasma and urinary caffeine levels in preterm infants.
PubMed:Summary proceedings from the apnea-of-prematurity group.
PubMed:Reported medication use in the neonatal intensive care unit: data from a large national data set.
PubMed:Lung function in immature baboons with respiratory distress syndrome receiving early caffeine therapy: a pilot study.
PubMed:High dose caffeine citrate for extubation of preterm infants: a randomised controlled trial.
PubMed:Oral and intravenous caffeine for treatment of children with post-sedation paradoxical hyperactivity.
PubMed:Treatment of immature baboons for 28 days with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure.
PubMed:Caffeine dosage in preemies questioned.
PubMed:Periextubation caffeine in preterm neonates: a randomized dose response trial.
PubMed:[Pharmacologic study of monohydrated caffeine in the treatment of apnoea of premature infant].
PubMed:Gateways to Clinical Trials.
PubMed:Caffeine in apnoeic Asian neonates: a sparse data analysis.
PubMed:Sleep organization is unaffected by caffeine in premature infants.
PubMed:Theophylline or caffeine: which is best for apnea of prematurity?
PubMed:Nicotine induced behavioral locomotor sensitization.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate: a review of its use in apnoea of prematurity.
PubMed:Current options in the management of apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate for the treatment of apnea of prematurity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
PubMed:Prediction of postdischarge complications by predischarge event recordings in infants with apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:Human brain metabolic response to caffeine and the effects of tolerance.
PubMed:Low-dose doxapram for treatment of apnoea following early weaning in very low birthweight infants: a randomized, double-blind study.
PubMed:Caffeine in saliva after peroral intake: early sample collection as a possible source of error.
PubMed:Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous caffeine in neonates with apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:Stability of caffeine citrate injection in polypropylene syringes at room temperature.
PubMed:Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine in premature neonates.
PubMed:Saliva as a valid alternative to serum in monitoring intravenous caffeine treatment for apnea of prematurity.
PubMed:Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine in neonates and young infants.
PubMed:Pre-test and post-test error probability.
PubMed:Aminophylline versus caffeine citrate...
PubMed:Aminophylline versus caffeine citrate for apnea and bradycardia prophylaxis in premature neonates.
PubMed:Cerebral blood flow and left ventricular output in spontaneously breathing, newborn preterm infants treated with caffeine or aminophylline.
PubMed:Stability of caffeine oral formulations for neonatal use.
PubMed:Acute maternal and fetal cardiovascular effects of caffeine ingestion.
PubMed:Role of adenosine in the hypoxic ventilatory response of the newborn piglet.
PubMed:Effects of caffeine on perceptual judgment.
PubMed:Effects of caffeine on recognition.
PubMed:Apnea of prematurity: theophylline v. caffeine.
PubMed:Effectiveness and side effects of two different doses of caffeine in preventing apnea in premature infants.
PubMed:Perinatal pharmacology and cerebral blood flow.
PubMed:Pharmacotherapy of neonatal apnea.
PubMed:The caffeine contracture test for malignant hyperthermia: caffeine citrate, caffeine benzoate or caffeine free base?
PubMed:Caffeine clearance by enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique: a simple, inexpensive, and useful indicator of liver function.
PubMed:Percutaneous caffeine application in the treatment of neonatal apnoea.
PubMed:Dissociation of the ventilatory and lactate thresholds following caffeine ingestion.
PubMed:Pharmacokinetic aspects of caffeine in premature infants.
PubMed:Differential effects of caffeine on free recall after semantic and rhyming tasks in high and low impulsives.
PubMed:Caffeine: does it affect your bladder?
PubMed:Cardiovascular effects of caffeine therapy in preterm infants.
PubMed:[Effect of methylxanthines on periodic respiration and acid gastroesophageal reflux in newborn infants].
PubMed:Effect of caffeine on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of aspirin.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate. Pointers in practical pharmacology.
PubMed:Pharmacology of Acorus calamus L.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate in the NICU.
PubMed:Stability of caffeine citrate injection in intravenous admixtures and parenteral nutrition solutions.
PubMed:Maturation of AFMU excretion in infants.
PubMed:Caffeine and cerebral blood flow velocity in preterm infants.
PubMed:Effect of caffeine on cerebral blood flow velocity in preterm infants.
PubMed:Caffeine as a potential risk factor for theophylline neurotoxicity.
PubMed:Maturation of caffeine metabolic pathways in infancy.
PubMed:Does caffeine prevent hypoxaemic episodes in premature infants? A randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Treatment of caffeine intoxication by exchange transfusion in a newborn.
PubMed:Delay in caffeine elimination in breast-fed infants.
PubMed:Effect of caffeine on pneumogram and apnoea of infancy.
PubMed:Influence of caffeine on aspirin pharmacokinetics.
PubMed:Maturational changes of caffeine concentrations and disposition in infancy during maintenance therapy for apnea of prematurity: influence of gestational age, hepatic disease, and breast-feeding.
PubMed:Caffeine citrate: an alternative to theophylline for apnea in prematurity.
PubMed:[Effectiveness of low- and high-dose caffeine on idiopathic bradycardia and hypoxemia in premature infants].
PubMed:Pharmacokinetic and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in the pregnant sheep.
PubMed:Interaction between effects of caffeine and lorazepam in performance tests and self-ratings.
PubMed:Discrimination of sucrose-taste by the rat as a potential bioassay for sweeteners.
PubMed:Interaction of chlorpromazine with tea and coffee.
PubMed:Antimycotic activity of some alkaloidal salts.
PubMed:Effects of caffeine on resting EEG and response to sine wave modulated light.
PubMed:A double-blind comparison of ibuprofen, ASA-codeine-caffeine compound and placebo in the treatment of dental surgery pain.
PubMed:The metabolic effects of caffeine in the newborn infant.
PubMed:Anxiety and muscle tension as consequences of caffeine withdrawal.
PubMed:Role of caffeine citrate on plasma transaminase & glucose levels of albino rats under high altitude stress conditions.
PubMed:A test of anxiety that distinguishes between the actions of benzodiazepines and those of other minor tranquilisers and of stimulants.
PubMed:Plasma electrolytes in relation to altitude tolerance in rats.
PubMed:Efficacy of caffeine in treatment of apnea in the low-birth-weight infant.
PubMed:Alteration of ovine fetal respiratory-like activity by diazepam, caffeine, and doxapram.
PubMed:[The effect of caffeine on the serum insulin level during intravenous glucose tolerance test in patients with chemical diabetes].
PubMed:Individual responses to methylphenidate and caffeine in children with minimal brain dysfunction.
PubMed:The effects of caffeine citrate and white noise on ear asymmetry in the detection of two clicks.
PubMed:Comparison of amphetamine sulphate and caffeine citrate in man.
PubMed:EFFECT OF NATURALLY OCCURRING XANTHINES ON BACTERIA. I. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION AND POTENTIATING EFFECT ON ANTIBIOTIC SPECTRA.
PubMed:Amphetamine and caffeine citrate in anoxaemia.
PubMed:Amphetamine and Caffeine Citrate in Anoxaemia.
 
Notes:
a methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. it also relaxes smooth muscle, stimulates cardiac muscle, stimulates diuresis, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, antagonism of adenosine receptors, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling. used for prophylaxis and treatment of apnea in preterm babies.
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