carrageenan
plant material obtained from various members of the gigartinaceae or solieriaceae families of the red seaweed, rodophyceae
 
Notes:
a water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from red algae. chief sources are the irish moss chondrus crispus (carrageen), and gigartina stellata. it is used as a stabilizer, for suspending cocoa in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify beverages. Used for gelling, thickening and emulsion stabilisation of foods (salts may also be used)
  • American International Chemical, LLC.
    • American International Chemical, Inc.
      Consistent sources
      North American supplier for globally sourced ingredients.
      AIC is a Framingham, MA based ISO Certified sales and marketing company serving the food, pharmaceutical, nutritional, personal care, biotech, and industrial markets of North America since 1972. Our success is a result of a company culture built on customer needs, along with partnerships with global manufacturers committed to the rigors and demands of the North American market. Our team of 30 Sales Representatives, along with our 19 strategically located warehouses are ready to supply product when and where you need it.
      Email: Info
      Voice: (800) 238-0001
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      Product(s):
      CGGAUP Carrageenan
       
  • Charkit Chemical
    • Charkit Chemical Corporation
      The Specialty Chemical Specialists
      Explore this website to discover the products and services that Charkit provides for your industry and please contact us directly to find out how we can be of service to you.
      Since 1982, Charkit has been committed to expanding the markets we serve as our roster of products and services continues to grow with us. Our substantial portfolio of personal care ingredients now include a wide array of luxury and exotic components to compliment the key products we have always offered. We have expanded our offerings to the nutraceutical, industrial, and resin markets with a growing roster of versatile and unique ingredients. We continue to lead the way in our traditional markets such as Metal and Water Treatment, Imaging, Flavor & Fragrance, Aroma and Food. Our Pharmaceutical offerings continue to expand, still anchored by the Boronic Derivatives that meet the demands of Suzuki coupling reactions. Please contact us to learn how we can help you reach your goals.
      Email: Sales
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      Products List: View
      Product(s):
      LICHEN T10
       
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search
CAS Number: 9000-07-1 
Other: 78005-48-8
ECHA EC Number: 232-524-2
MDL: MFCD00081480
BioActivity Summary: listing
Category: thickeners, gelling agents, stabalizers and emulsifiers
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
172.620 Carrageenan View-review
EU SANCO Carrageenan View-review
JECFA Food Additive: Carrageenan

Processed Eucheuma Seaweed
GSFA Codex: Carrageenan (407)

Processed eucheuma seaweed (PES) (407a)
DG SANTE Food Additives: carrageenan
FEMA Number: 2596  carrageenan
FDA Mainterm: CARRAGEENAN
FDA Regulation:
FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.


FDA PART 133 -- CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products
Sec. 133.179 Pasteurized process cheese spread.


FDA PART 136 -- BAKERY PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Bakery Products
Sec. 136.110 Bread, rolls, and buns.


FDA PART 139 -- MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products
Sec. 139.121 Nonfat milk macaroni products.


FDA PART 139 -- MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products
Sec. 139.122 Enriched nonfat milk macaroni products.


FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.141 Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.


FDA PART 150 -- FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS
Subpart B--Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related Products
Sec. 150.161 Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION
Subpart G--Gums, Chewing Gum Bases and Related Substances
Sec. 172.620 Carrageenan.


FDA PART 172 -- FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION


FDA PART 182 -- SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE
Subpart H--Stabilizers
Sec. 182.7255 Chondrus extract.
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Physical Properties:
Appearance: yellow to tan coarse to fine powder (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
logP (o/w): -5.570 (est)
Soluble in:
 water @ 80C
Insoluble in:
 alcohol
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor Description:
at 100.00 %. 
odorless
  
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: binding agents
hair conditioning
viscosity controlling agents
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Suppliers:
American International Chemical, LLC.
Carrageenan
Anhui Haibei
Carrageenan
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
carrageenan type I commercial grade
Bristol Botanicals
Irish Moss Chondrus crispus
Bristol Botanicals
Irish Moss powder Chondrus crispus
Cargill, Inc.
Carrageenan
Flavor: characteristic
Carrageenans are polysaccharides (galactose) with varying degree of sulfatation (between 15% and 40%). They are extracted from red seaweeds and are used as thermo reversible gelling and thickening agent. Carrageenans can control syneresis, can be used as a binding agent and can improve texture and mouthfeel.
Charkit Chemical
LICHEN T10
CP Kelco
GENU® PLUS
Flavor: characteristic
types are standardized for use in marinated meat and poultry.
CP Kelco
GENU® Texturizer
Flavor: characteristic
types are blends of carrageenan and other hydrocolloids.
CP Kelco
GENUGEL®
Flavor: characteristic
types are standardized for water and meat applications and are used in personal care and household products.
CP Kelco
GENULACTA®
Flavor: characteristic
types are standardized for milk applications.
CP Kelco
GENUTINE®
Flavor: characteristic
types are gelatine alternatives.
CP Kelco
GENUVISCO®
Flavor: characteristic
types are used as thickening, stabilizing, gelling and texturizing agents.
Foodchem International
Carrageenan Foodgel1000
Foodchem International
Carrageenan Foodgel2000
Foodchem International
Carrageenan Foodgel3000
Graham Chemical
Carrageenan
Kerry
Carrageenan
Flavor: characteristic
Carrageenan belongs to a group of ingredients often referred to as hydrocolloids, natural polysaccharides derived from red seaweed. As the name implies, these ingredients impart texture to food by controlling the way water is held in the food matrix.
Kerry
Deltagel CD2005 for pet food
Flavor: characteristic
Deltagel CD2005 is very effective at providing form and homogeneous texture to meat-based pet foods at low concentrations. It is a natural binder and stabilises canned pet-food products in various forms such as chunks-in-jelly, gravies, loaves and blends with human grade ingredients in gourmet meals, snacks, treats and biscuits.
Kerry
Deltagel™ CE for meats
Flavor: characteristic
Deltagel™ CE is an exciting range of carrageenan products, which provide both excellent functionality and cost effectiveness. It is used in cooked hams and poultry, as well as comminuted meats, such as sausages and hamburgers, to optimise yield and eating quality.
Kerry
Deltagel™ CE1364 and Deltagel™ 1474 for soups and sauces
Flavor: characteristic
Deltagel™ products provide excellent functionality in soups, sauces, and dressings. Deltagel CE1364 keeps particles in suspension, preventing them from settling out in the final product. It can be used in cream-style dressings, dips, ketchup and other cold-consumed, pourable products.
Kerry
Whirlfloc™
Flavor: characteristic
Whirlfloc™ is a purified form of high molecular weight carrageenan extracted from red marine algae and manufactured exclusively for use as a wort fining agent. It accelerates the formation of dense and compact hot and cold trub, saving time, boosting wort recovery and resulting in considerably brighter worts.
Liberty Natural Products
IRISH MOSS POWDER
P.L. Thomas
Carrageenan
Pangaea Sciences
Carrageenan
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Carrageenan
The Ingredient House
RightHydro Carrageenan
TIC Gums
Ticagel® 121-AGF Powder
Flavor: characteristic
Developed to give firm, rigid gels with excellent clarity with little or no syneresis (weeping). It may be used for air gel fresheners and also for food gelling systems that require heat reversibility, high gel strength and good water binding capacity.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® 500 FL
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel® 500 FL is a combination of carrageenan and locust bean gum developed to provide gelation and syneresis control in flan-type products. The usage level for Ticagel 500 FL is 0.4 - 0.75% depending on the desired firmness and texture requirements.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® 795 Powder
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel 795 is a carrageenan especially designed to yield a soft, flexible gel that forms a stable film after drying. It is compatible with polyols and other bulking agents and may be used to formulate confectionery coatings, bakery icings, glazes and similar products. It may also be used as a gelatin replacer at a reduced usage level, thus saving cost and gaining use in vegetarian foods.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® 822
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel® 822 is a specialized carrageenan designed to combine the thickening and soft gelling characteristics of this hydrocolloid. Ticagel 822 requires the presence of milk proteins to exhibit optimum functionality. It works equally well in both high solids systems like variegates and sauces and low solids systems like custards and flan.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® AP-10
Odor: characteristic
Use: Ticagel® AP-10 is a system designed for air gel fresheners. It forms firm, slightly elastic gels and controls syneresis, even in freeze-thaw conditions.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® Bind-KX EC
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel® Bind-KX EC is a synergistic blend of gums used in the production of gelled products or to increase suspension in beverages and sauces. When used at a 1.5 - 2.0% level, this product forms a very elastic gel that has excellent tensile strength as well as cohesive and adhesive properties. At this concentration, its solution still flows and is pourable, making it easily moldable into a smooth gel. For most beverage and sauce applications, usage levels range from 0.03-0.10%. For soya milk applications, usage levels range from 0.025-0.030%.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® Bind-KX
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel Bind KX is a synergistic blend of gums used in the production of gelled products or to increase suspension in beverages and sauces. When used at a 1.5 - 2.0% level, this product forms a very elastic gel that has excellent tensile strength as well as cohesive and adhesive properties. At this concentration, its solution still flows and is pourable, making it easily moldable into a smooth gel. For most beverage and sauce applications, usage levels range from 0.03-0.10%. For soya milk applications, usage levels range from 0.025-0.030%.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® GC-564 S
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel® GC-564 S is a gelatin replacer for use in gelatin-free gummy candy. A usage level of 3.9% replaces 6.4% gelatin 275 Bloom, but usage range is 3.7-4.2% by weight. It is processing friendly and can be added or activated the same way as gelatin using 180°F water and activation time of 10 minutes. At depositing Brix of 78°, it has a slightly higher viscosity than gelatin between temperatures of 203-160°F (95-70 C) but it can still be deposited with ease. Like gelatin it is best deposited at the higher end of this temperature range. Ticagel GC-564 S gives a softer, more chewy gummy candy compared to gelatin but yields a springiness or elasticity more comparable to fruit slice texture. It has the same melting point as gelatin gummy of 55 C when compared side by side in lab trials.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® Natural GC-581 B
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel® Natural GC-581 B is a clean label gelatin replacer for use in gelatin-free gummy candy. A usage level of 3.9% replaces 6.4% gelatin 275 Bloom, but usage range is 3.7-4.2% by weight. It is processing friendly and can be added or activated the same way as gelatin using 180°F water and activation time of 10 minutes. At depositing Brix of 78°, it has comparable viscosity as gelatin between temperatures of 203-160°F (95-70 C), and like gelatin it is best deposited at the higher end of this temperature range. Ticagel Natural GC-581 B gives a firmer gummy candy compared to gelatin but yields a decent springiness or elasticity compared to fruit slice texture.
TIC Gums
Ticagel® PPS-2
Flavor: characteristic
Ticagel® PPS-2 is designed to improve pumpkin pie filling during all stages of manufacture and distribution. It provides good cold viscosity to the filling, optimum water binding during baking, and a firm set to the finished pumpkin pie that is not prone to syneresis. Ticagel PPS-2 prevents boil out and imparts stability to uncooked filling during freezing.
TIC Gums
Ticaloid® 710 H-96 Powder
Flavor: characteristic
Widely used for gel formation. Also used at low level for thickener (such as variegated Syrup and Caramel Toppings), Aloe Gel Thickener. In Puddings used to prevent weeping (.2% to .5%). Synergistic with most Starches (in Bakery Applications -- use only 0.1% to 0.15%).
TIC Gums
Ticaloid® 750
Flavor: characteristic
Ticaloid® 750 provides creamy viscosity and mouthfeel to milk and non-milk based beverage applications. Synergistic with most starches. In heated milk, 0.2% will form a gel. Used at 0.1% to 0.3% for milk shakes, 0.8% to 1.2% for instant puddings.
TIC Gums
Ticaloid® 881 M Powder
Flavor: characteristic
Ticaloid® 881 M develops a soft, elastic gel (unlike other Carrageenans which develop brittle gels). Suitable for fruit spreads or with starches as partial fat replacer in minced & emulsified meats. Use .8% to 1.2% . Adds sliceability to Cheese Slices (.6% to .9%). Ticaloid 881 M is also a proven stabilizer for pasteurized whole egg products, providing suspension and excellent mouthfeel.
Whole Herb
Irish Moss
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety Information:
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intravenous-guinea pig LDLo  20 mg/kg
KIDNEY, URETER, AND BLADDER: OTHER CHANGES
Nature. Vol. 202, Pg. 401, 1964.

intravenous-rabbit LDLo  5 mg/kg
BLOOD: CHANGE IN CLOTTING FACTORS
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Vol. 17, Pg. 647, 1965.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety in Use Information:
Category: thickeners, gelling agents, stabalizers and emulsifiers
Recommendation for carrageenan usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Use levels for FEMA GRAS flavoring substances on which the FEMA Expert Panel based its judgments that the substances are generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
The Expert Panel also publishes separate extensive reviews of scientific information on all FEMA GRAS flavoring substances and can be found at FEMA Flavor Ingredient Library
publication number: 3
Click here to view publication 3
 average usual ppmaverage maximum ppm
baked goods: -1300.00000
beverages(nonalcoholic): -300.00000
beverages(alcoholic): --
breakfast cereal: --
cheese: --
chewing gum: --
condiments / relishes: --
confectionery froastings: --
egg products: --
fats / oils: --
fish products: --
frozen dairy: -390.00000
fruit ices: -390.00000
gelatins / puddings: 1700.0000020000.00000
granulated sugar: --
gravies: --
hard candy: 3.00000500.00000
imitation dairy: --
instant coffee / tea: --
jams / jellies: -200.00000
meat products: --
milk products: --
nut products: --
other grains: --
poultry: --
processed fruits: --
processed vegetables: --
reconstituted vegetables: --
seasonings / flavors: --
snack foods: --
soft candy: --
soups: --
sugar substitutes: --
sweet sauces: --
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Safety References:
ClinicalTrials.gov: search
NLM Hazardous Substances Data Bank: Search
Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System: Search
AIDS Citations: Search
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Carcinogenic Potency Database: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
NLM Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity: Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA): 9000-07-1
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 11966249
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
WGK Germany: 2
 [(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-6-[[(1R,3S,4R,5R,8S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-yl]oxy]-4-[[(1R,3R,4R,5R,8S)-8-[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymet
Chemidplus: 0009000071
RTECS: FI0700000 for cas# 9000-07-1
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
References:
 [(2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-6-[[(1R,3S,4R,5R,8S)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,6-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-yl]oxy]-4-[[(1R,3R,4R,5R,8S)-8-[(2S,3R,4R,5R,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymet
Canada Domestic Sub. List: 9000-07-1
Pubchem (cid): 11966249
Pubchem (sid): 135284744
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Other Information:
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C08818
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB32195
FooDB: FDB001181
Haz-Map: View
Household Products: Search
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
FAO: CARRAGEENAN
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Potential Uses:
 binding agents 
 emulsion stabilisers 
 skin conditioning 
 viscosity controlling agents 
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 irish moss
Search  PMC Picture
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Synonyms:
 chondrus crispus powder
 chondrus ocellatus powder
 danish agar
 eucheuma cottonii powder
 eucheuma spinosum powder
 eucheuman
 furcellaran
 gigartina acicularis powder
 gigartina pistillata powder
 gigartina radula powder
 gigartina stellata powder
 hypnean
 iridophycan
 irish moss
 irish moss gelose
 irish moss powder
 plant material obtained from various members of the gigartinaceae or solieriaceae families of the red seaweed, rodophyceae
 pre-hydrated ticaloid 5415 powder
 pre-hydrated ticaloid 750
 pre-hydrated ticaloid syrup 5490
 TICagel 822
 TICaloid 1000
 TICaloid 1020
 TICaloid 32311 FF
 TICaloid 33444
 TICaloid 710 H-96 powder
 TICaloid 825 powder
 TICaloid 881 M powder
 TICaloid GE-705
 TICaloid PM-9399 powder
 TICaloid syrup OC1
 TICaloid syrup SF1
 TICorganic certified organic ticaloid 1023 T OG
 TICorganic certified organic ticaloid OG 1155
Synonyms   Articles   Notes   Search   Top
Articles:
PubMed: Carrageenan: A natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications.
PubMed: RT-qPCR normalization genes in the red alga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Intertidal population genetic dynamics at a microgeographic seascape scale.
PubMed: Population studies and carrageenan properties in eight Gigartinales (Rhodophyta) from Western Coast of Portugal.
PubMed: Community composition of the Planctomycetes associated with different macroalgae.
PubMed: Anti-biofilm performance of three natural products against initial bacterial attachment.
PubMed: Components of the cultivated red seaweed Chondrus crispus enhance the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa through the pmk-1, daf-2/daf-16, and skn-1 pathways.
PubMed: Complete mitochondrial genome of the marine red alga Grateloupia angusta (Halymeniales).
PubMed: Photosynthesis in Chondrus crispus: the contribution of energy spill-over in the regulation of excitonic flux.
PubMed: Genome structure and metabolic features in the red seaweed Chondrus crispus shed light on evolution of the Archaeplastida.
PubMed: Intergametophytic selfing and microgeographic genetic structure shape populations of the intertidal red seaweed Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Geographic variation in feeding preference of a generalist herbivore: the importance of seaweed chemical defenses.
PubMed: A physicochemical study of Al(+3) interactions with edible seaweed biomass in acidic waters.
PubMed: Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.
PubMed: Determination of water-soluble arsenic compounds in commercial edible seaweed by LC-ICPMS.
PubMed: Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from North Atlantic and tropical seas.
PubMed: Unique genetic variation at a species' rear edge is under threat from global climate change.
PubMed: Post-pleistocene demographic history of the North Atlantic endemic Irish moss Chondrus crispus: glacial survival, spatial expansion and gene flow.
PubMed: Chlorophyll-binding proteins revisited--a multigenic family of light-harvesting and stress proteins from a brown algal perspective.
PubMed: The cyclization of the 3,6-anhydro-galactose ring of iota-carrageenan is catalyzed by two D-galactose-2,6-sulfurylases in the red alga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Postharvest culture in the dark: An eco-friendly alternative to alkali treatment for enhancing the gel quality of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan from Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).
PubMed: Tracing back EFL gene evolution in the cryptomonads-haptophytes assemblage: separate origins of EFL genes in haptophytes, photosynthetic cryptomonads, and goniomonads.
PubMed: New members of the glutathione transferase family discovered in red and brown algae.
PubMed: Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the red alga Griffithsia okiensis.
PubMed: Composition and distribution of carrabiose moieties in hybrid kappa-/iota-carrageenans using carrageenases.
PubMed: Response of the transcriptome of the intertidal red seaweed Chondrus crispus to controlled and natural stresses.
PubMed: Sensitivity of the early life stages of macroalgae from the Northern Hemisphere to ultraviolet radiation.
PubMed: Evidence for oxylipin synthesis and induction of a new polyunsaturated fatty acid hydroxylase activity in Chondrus crispus in response to methyljasmonate.
PubMed: Expression profiling of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta) after exposure to methyl jasmonate.
PubMed: Characterization of the flavin association in hexose oxidase from Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: The hydrodynamic effects of shape and size change during reconfiguration of a flexible macroalga.
PubMed: NADPH oxidases in Eukaryotes: red algae provide new hints!
PubMed: Evaluation of certain food additives.
PubMed: Apoplastic oxidation of L-asparagine is involved in the control of the green algal endophyte Acrochaete operculata Correa & Nielsen by the red seaweed Chondrus crispus Stackhouse.
PubMed: Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus).
PubMed: Seasonal acclimatization of antioxidants and photosynthesis in Chondrus crispus and Mastocarpus stellatus, two co-occurring red algae with differing stress tolerances.
PubMed: Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from seawater.
PubMed: Evaluation of heat shock protein 70 as a biomarker of environmental stress in Fucus serratus and Lemna minor.
PubMed: A monochromatic action spectrum for the photoinduction of the UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acid shinorine in the red alga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: The innate immunity of a marine red alga involves oxylipins from both the eicosanoid and octadecanoid pathways.
PubMed: Analysis and modeling of the ferulic acid oxidation by a glucose oxidase-peroxidase association. Comparison with a hexose oxidase-peroxidase association.
PubMed: Use of FTIR, FT-Raman and 13C-NMR spectroscopy for identification of some seaweed phycocolloids.
PubMed: Carrageenophytes of occidental Portuguese coast: 1-spectroscopic analysis in eight carrageenophytes from Buarcos bay.
PubMed: Safety evaluation of a hexose oxidase expressed in Hansenula polymorpha.
PubMed: A signal released by an endophytic attacker acts as a substrate for a rapid defensive reaction of the red alga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Capacity of edible seaweeds to modify in vitro starch digestibility of wheat bread.
PubMed: Drag, drafting, and mechanical interactions in canopies of the red alga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Optimization of the production of Chondrus crispus hexose oxidase in Pichia pastoris.
PubMed: Hexose oxidase from Chondrus crispus: improved purification using perfusion chromatography(*).
PubMed: On the structure of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenans.
PubMed: Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae), Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) in outdoor culture systems.
PubMed: Sulfated Oligosaccharides Mediate the Interaction between a Marine Red Alga and Its Green Algal Pathogenic Endophyte.
PubMed: mRNA expression in mitochondria of the red alga chondrus crispus requires a unique RNA-processing mechanism, internal cleavage of upstream tRNAs at pyrimidine 48.
PubMed: Transcription initiation and RNA processing in the mitochondria of the red alga Chondrus crispus: convergence in the evolution of transcription mechanisms in mitochondria.
PubMed: Directionally evolving genetic code: the UGA codon from stop to tryptophan in mitochondria.
PubMed: A deviant mitochondrial genetic code in prymnesiophytes (yellow-algae): UGA codon for tryptophan.
PubMed: Hexose oxidase from the red alga Chondrus crispus. Purification, molecular cloning, and expression in Pichia pastoris.
PubMed: Characterization of hexose oxidase from the red seaweed Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: A 5 S rRNA gene is present in the mitochondrial genome of the protist Reclinomonas americana but is absent from red algal mitochondrial DNA.
PubMed: UAG is a sense codon in several chlorophycean mitochondria.
PubMed: Genes for two subunits of succinate dehydrogenase form a cluster on the mitochondrial genome of Rhodophyta.
PubMed: DNA sequence, structure, and phylogenetic relationship of the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA from the red alga Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales rhodophytes).
PubMed: Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the rhodophyte Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales). Gene content and genome organization.
PubMed: Structural features and phylogeny of the actin gene of Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta).
PubMed: The marine red alga Chondrus crispus has a highly divergent beta-tubulin gene with a characteristic 5' intron: functional and evolutionary implications.
PubMed: Physical map and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales).
PubMed: Confirmation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of two unusual trans-3-monoethylenic fatty acids from the Nova Scotian seaweeds Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Nucleotide sequence of the cox3 gene from Chondrus crispus: evidence that UGA encodes tryptophan and evolutionary implications.
PubMed: The evolutionary origin of red algae as deduced from the nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and chloroplast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: The GAPDH gene system of the red alga Chondrus crispus: promoter structures, intron/exon organization, genomic complexity and differential expression of genes.
PubMed: Structure of the oxidized long-chain flavodoxin from Anabaena 7120 at 2 A resolution.
PubMed: Crystal structure of oxidized flavodoxin from a red alga Chondrus crispus refined at 1.8 A resolution. Description of the flavin mononucleotide binding site.
PubMed: Heterogeneity of carrageenans from Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Conformational changes in Chondrus crispus flavodoxin on dissociation of FMN and reconstitution with flavin analogues.
PubMed: Tertiary structure of oxidized flavodoxin from an eukaryotic red alga Chondrus crispus at 2.35-A resolution. Localization of charged residues and implication for interaction with electron transfer partners.
PubMed: Protoplast production in Chondrus crispus gametophytes (gigartinales, rhodophyta).
PubMed: The amino acid sequence of a flavodoxin from the eukaryotic red alga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of oxidized flavodoxin from Chondrus crispus, a red alga.
PubMed: Mechanism of Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Uptake by the Red Macroalga, Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Carbonic Anhydrase-Dependent Inorganic Carbon Uptake by the Red Macroalga, Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: On the nature of the oxygen uptake in the light by Chondrus crispus. Effects of inhibitors, temperature and light intensity.
PubMed: [A potent inhibitor of bacterial growth from a seaweed, Chondrus crispus].
PubMed: Dark respiration in the marine macroalga Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae).
PubMed: Preferential Photosynthetic Uptake of Exogenous HCO(3) in the Marine Macroalga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Continuous Measurements of the Free Dissolved CO(2) Concentration during Photosynthesis of Marine Plants: Evidence for HCO(3) Use in Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Oxygen Uptake and Photosynthesis of the Red Macroalga, Chondrus crispus, in Seawater: Effects of Oxygen Concentration.
PubMed: Oxygen Uptake and Photosynthesis of the Red Macroalga, Chondrus crispus, in Seawater: Effects of Light and CO(2) Concentration.
PubMed: Redox potentials of algal and cyanobacterial flavodoxins.
PubMed: Efficiency of ferredoxins and flavodoxins as mediators in systems for hydrogen evolution.
PubMed: Apoflavodoxin aggregation following dissociation of flavin.
PubMed: Glycosulphatase from Pseudomonas carrageenovora. Purification and some properties.
PubMed: Incorporation of [S]Sulfate and [C]Bicarbonate into Karyotype-specific Polysaccharides of Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of halogen elements in biological specimens.
PubMed: The immunochemistry of lambda-type carrageenans from certain red algae.
PubMed: Sulfohydrolase Activity and Carrageenan Biosynthesis in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae).
PubMed: The occurrence and seasonal variation of gigartinine and L-citrullinyl-L-arginine in Chondrus crispus Stackh.
PubMed: H(2) metabolism in photosynthetic organisms: I. Dark h(2) evolution and uptake by algae and mosses.
PubMed: Carrageenans in the gametophytic and sporophytic stages of Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of hexose oxidase from the red alga Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Plasmalemmal extensions in Chondrus crispus (L.) Stackh.
PubMed: The Incorporation of S-Labeled Sulfate into Carrageenan in Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Sterols in Irish moss (Chondrus crispus).
PubMed: Amino acids, peptides, and proteins of Irish Moss, Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Effect of processing and storage on the quality of gelose from Irish moss (Chondrus crispus).
PubMed: Seasonal variations in Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: A note on the nitrogen of the polysaccharide complex from Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: Some properties of the polysaccharide complex extracted from a marine alga, Chondrus crispus.
PubMed: On carrageen (Chondrus crispus): The hydrolysis of carrageen mucilage.
PubMed: On Carrageen (Chondrus crispus). III: The Constitution of the Cell Wall.
PubMed: On Carrageen (Chondrus crispus). II: On the Occurrence of Ethereal Sulphates in the Plant.
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