EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium hydroxide, inner salt

Supplier Sponsors

CAS Number: 541-15-1Picture of molecule3D/inchi
Other(deleted CASRN):7634-98-2
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:208-768-0
Beilstein Number:4292315
XlogP3-AA:-0.20 (est)
Molecular Weight:161.20115000
Formula:C7 H15 N O3
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Category:nutrient supplements
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
Google Books:Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
Google Patents:Search
US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
Pubchem Patents:Search
 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
GRN 362 Levocarnitine View - notice PDF
FDA Mainterm (SATF):541-15-1 ; L-CARNITINE
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white crystalline powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Flash Point: 32.00 °F. TCC ( 0.00 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -4.729 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 1e+006 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antistatic agents
cleansing agents
hair conditioning
skin conditioning
surfactant - foam boosting
viscosity controlling agents
L-Carnitine Base 97-103%
Atlantic Chemicals
L-Carnitine Base
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
L-(-)-Carnitine >98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: L-carnitine is constituent of striated muscle and liver. It is used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.
Charkit Chemical
For experimental / research use only.
L-Carnitine Inner Salt from Plants ≥98%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Facilitator of long-chain fatty acids through mitochondrial membranes, thus allowing their metabolic oxidn. Regulator of blood lipid levels, used in sport and infant nutrition. Drug used to increase cardiac output and improve myocardial function; often administered after haemodialysis. Used to treat primary carnitine deficiency. The beneficial effects of L-carnitine administration were studied in vivo in isolated perfused working hearts from control and diabetic rats. Control and streptozocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats were treated daily for 6 wk with high-dose L-carnitine (3 gkg-1day-1 i.p.). STZ-D results in loss of body weight and hypoinsulinemia. These effects were not altered by L-carnitine treatment. Myocardial free-carnitine levels were decreased in the untreated diabetic rats. L-Carnitine treatment of the diabetic rats increased myocardial free-carnitine levels, which were comparable with those of control rats. Six weeks after STZ administration, hearts from untreated diabetic animals exhibited depressed left ventricular developed pressure, cardiac contractility, and ventricular relaxation rates compared with control animals. However, this depression was not seen in the L-carnitine-treated diabetic animals. L-Carnitine treatment of diabetic rats significantly reduced plasma glucose and lipid levels but had no effect on control rats. Furthermore, thyroid hormone levels were higher in the L-carnitine-treated diabetic rats than in the untreated diabetic group. The data suggest that high-dose L-carnitine treatment may reduce the severity of diabetes and result in improved cardiac performance.
Foodchem International
Glentham Life Sciences
Graham Chemical
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Jiangyin Healthway
New functional food ingredients
Lonza Group
Odor: characteristic
Use: A natural skin care active with a long history of usage in the nutritional market. Skin care benefits include enhancement of skins cellular energy, up-regulation of the expression of key components of the skins ECM and increases to skin strength and elasticity.
Carnitine 100%
Carnitine 50%
Penta International
Penta International
Qingdao Dacon Trading
L-Carnitine Base
Shaanxi Y-Herb Biotechnology
White Weight Loss Raw Supplement 99% Food Grade Acety L-Carnitine Base Powder
For experimental / research use only.
Levocarnitine Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
United International
Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 02 - Keep out of the reach of children.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 37/39 - Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 750 mg/kg
Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. Vol. 9, Pg. 759, 1967.

Dermal Toxicity:
subcutaneous-mouse LD50 9000 mg/kg
Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica. Vol. 35, Pg. 645, 1976.

Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
nutrient supplements
Recommendation for laevo-carnitine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for laevo-carnitine flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-carnitine and L-carnitine L-tartrate as feed additives for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Lonza Benelux BV
View page or View pdf

Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-carnitine as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by EUROPE-ASIA Import Export GmbH
View page or View pdf

L-carnitine and contribution to normal lipid metabolism: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
Daily Med:search
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :10917
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
RTECS:BP2980000 for cas# 541-15-1
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Canada Domestic Sub. List:541-15-1
Pubchem (cid):10917
Pubchem (sid):134975930
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
Metabolomics Database:Search
KEGG (GenomeNet):C00318
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):HMDB00062
YMDB (Yeast Metabolome Database):YMDB00616
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
•levocarnitine oral solution usp: 100 mgml (carnitor). levocarnitine tablets usp: 330 mg (carnitor). levocarnitine injection: 200 mgml (carnitor). •l-carnitine is avail in a few forms: oral l-carnitine iv l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine, propionyl-l-carnitine. the avail salts are l-carnitine hcl, l-carnitine tartrate and l-carnitine fumarate supplied in capsules, injection, liquid, solution, tablets, wafer •trade names: carnitor carnitine-300 carni fuel mega l-carnitine maximal burner carnitine proxeed ...
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 found in nature
3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium hydroxide, inner salt
(R)-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide
 vitamin BT


PubMed:Risks and Benefits of Carnitine Supplementation in Diabetes.
PubMed:The influence of chronic L-carnitine supplementation on the formation of preneoplastic and atherosclerotic lesions in the colon and aorta of male F344 rats.
PubMed:The effect of dietary α-lipoic acid, betaine, l-carnitine, and swimming on the obesity of mice induced by a high-fat diet.
PubMed:Protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on propofol-induced toxicity in embryonic neural stem cells.
PubMed:Decreased cerebrospinal fluid levels of L-carnitine in non-apolipoprotein E4 carriers at early stages of Alzheimer's disease.
PubMed:Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.
PubMed:'The way to a man's heart is through his gut microbiota'--dietary pro- and prebiotics for the management of cardiovascular risk.
PubMed:Attending rounds: A patient with intradialytic hypotension.
PubMed:Taurine reverses endosulfan-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat testis.
PubMed:Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
PubMed:Comprehensive rehabilitation in chronic heart failure.
PubMed:Acute effect on satiety, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, glucagon-like peptide-1, free fatty acids, and glycerol following consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.
PubMed:Analytical approaches to determination of carnitine in biological materials, foods and dietary supplements.
PubMed:Acetyl L-carnitine protects motor neurons and Rohon-Beard sensory neurons against ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos.
PubMed:[The biological function of L-carnitine and its content in the particular food examples].
PubMed:Impact on L-carnitine Homeostasis of Short-term Treatment with the Pivalate Prodrug Tenofovir Dipivoxil.
PubMed:Food, nutrigenomics, and neurodegeneration--neuroprotection by what you eat!
PubMed:First mass spectrometry metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial metabolism in a model cheese.
PubMed:Processing of meats and cardiovascular risk: time to focus on preservatives.
PubMed:Ergogenic effect of dietary L-carnitine and fat supplementation against exercise induced physical fatigue in Wistar rats.
PubMed:Effect of metformin on the urinary metabolites of diet-induced-obese mice studied by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS).
PubMed:Feed restriction, but not l-carnitine infusion, alters the liver transcriptome by inhibiting sterol synthesis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increasing gluconeogenesis in mid-lactation dairy cows.
PubMed:Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine for ALS.
PubMed:Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: in utero nutrition related to fetal development, postnatal performance, and meat quality of pork.
PubMed:Improvement in insulin resistance and favourable changes in plasma inflammatory adipokines after weight loss associated with two months' consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.
PubMed:Feeding healthy beagles medium-chain triglycerides, fish oil, and carnitine offsets age-related changes in serum fatty acids and carnitine metabolites.
PubMed:Ketamine-induced neuronal damage and altered N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function in rat primary forebrain culture.
PubMed:[Diet supplements in nutrition of sport mastery school students].
PubMed:Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in healthy puppies fed foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil from 8 to 52 weeks of age.
PubMed:L-Carnitine: an adequate supplement for a multi-targeted anti-wasting therapy in cancer.
PubMed:Chronic acetyl-L-carnitine alters brain energy metabolism and increases noradrenaline and serotonin content in healthy mice.
PubMed:Propionyl-L-carnitine corrects metabolic and cardiovascular alterations in diet-induced obese mice and improves liver respiratory chain activity.
PubMed:Bioactive compounds with effects on inflammation markers in humans.
PubMed:Small-molecule modulators of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm development.
PubMed:L-Carnitine rescues ketamine-induced attenuated heart rate and MAPK (ERK) activity in zebrafish embryos.
PubMed:Nutrition delivery for obese ICU patients: delivery issues, lack of guidelines, and missed opportunities.
PubMed:Enhancement of lipid metabolism with L-carnitine during in vitro maturation improves nuclear maturation and cleavage ability of follicular porcine oocytes.
PubMed:Improvement of high-fat diet-induced obesity by a mixture of red grape extract, soy isoflavone and L-carnitine: implications in cardiovascular and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases.
PubMed:[Eating habits of a group of professional volleyball players].
PubMed:[Rapid analysis of L-carnitine in health food by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector].
PubMed:Modulation of myelin basic protein gene expression by acetyl-L-carnitine.
PubMed:A combination of (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols and L-carnitine reduces the plasma lipid levels and increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HepG2 cells.
PubMed:L-carnitine ameliorates cancer cachexia in mice by regulating the expression and activity of carnitine palmityl transferase.
PubMed:A combination of grape extract, green tea extract and L-carnitine improves high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.
PubMed:Effects of l-carnitine supplement on serum amyloid A and vascular inflammation markers in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.
PubMed:Anti-diabetic effects of mildronate alone or in combination with metformin in obese Zucker rats.
PubMed:Acute and subchronic toxicity of FCD, a soybean extract combined with L-carnitine, in Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:Long-term effects of neonatal treatment with dexamethasone, L-carnitine, and combinations thereof in rats.
PubMed:Protective effect of L-carnitine on experimental lead toxicity in rats: a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical study.
PubMed:Bioavailability of organoclay formulations of atrazine in soil.
PubMed:Ameliorating effects of L-carnitine on diabetic podocyte injury.
PubMed:Dietary L-carnitine alters gene expression in skeletal muscle of piglets.
PubMed:Effects of L-Carnitine supplement on plasma coagulation and anticoagulation factors in hemodialysis patients.
PubMed:Effects of L-carnitine supplement on serum inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, lipoprotein (a), and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with Lp (a) hyperlipoproteinemia.
PubMed:Analysis of amprolium by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed:Effect of L-carnitine on liver cell membranes in ethanol-intoxicated rats.
PubMed:L-carnitine-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves fat metabolism but fails to support compensatory growth in premature Korean infants.
PubMed:[Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on the insulin resistance of L6 cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha].
PubMed:L-carnitine attenuates cardiac remodelling rather than vascular remodelling in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.
PubMed:A diet supplemented with L-carnitine improves the sperm quality of Piétrain but not of Duroc and Large White boars when photoperiod and temperature increase.
PubMed:Altered adult locomotor activity in rats from phencyclidine treatment on postnatal days 7, 9 and 11, but not repeated ketamine treatment on postnatal day 7.
PubMed:Effect of Carnitine and herbal mixture extract on obesity induced by high fat diet in rats.
PubMed:Acylcarnitines: role in brain.
PubMed:Carnitine enhances the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in infant formula at 7 degrees C.
PubMed:Oral supplementation of propionyl-l-carnitine reduces body weight and hyperinsulinaemia in obese Zucker rats.
PubMed:Influence of l-carnitine on metabolism and performance of sows.
PubMed:L-Carnitine in the lipid and protein protection against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.
PubMed:[Statistical analysis of the consumption of nutritional and dietary supplements in gyms].
PubMed:Acetyl-l-carnitine inhibits TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance via AMPK pathway in rat skeletal muscle cells.
PubMed:Effects of carnitine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation and vascular inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal in healthy young adults.
PubMed:L-carnitine supplementation and physical exercise restore age-associated decline in some mitochondrial functions in the rat.
PubMed:A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia, soy peptide and L: -carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet.
PubMed:Appraisal of current and experimental approaches to the treatment of cachexia.
PubMed:Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats.
PubMed:Effects of L-carnitine on obesity, diabetes, and as an ergogenic aid.
PubMed:Induction of apoptosis by L-carnitine through regulation of two main pathways in Hepa1c1c 7 cells.
PubMed:The effects of L-carnitine on the combination of, inhalation anesthetic-induced developmental, neuronal apoptosis in the rat frontal cortex.
PubMed:Nonvitamin, nonmineral dietary supplementation in HIV-positive people.
PubMed:Characteristics of L-carnitine import into heart cells.
PubMed:Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on endurance exercise in normobaric/normoxic and hypobaric/hypoxic conditions.
PubMed:A combination of caffeine, arginine, soy isoflavones, and L-carnitine enhances both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 and HepG2 cells in vitro and in KK mice in vivo.
PubMed:Selective modification of clay minerals for the adsorption of herbicides widely used in olive groves.
PubMed:Ghrelin reduces hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation.
PubMed:Involvement of carrier-mediated transport system in uptake of tetrodotoxin into liver tissue slices of puffer fish Takifugu rubripes.
PubMed:Effect of L-carnitine infusion and feed restriction on carnitine status in lactating Holstein cows.
PubMed:L-carnitine increases liver alpha-tocopherol and lowers liver and plasma triglycerides in aging ovariectomized rats.
PubMed:Carnitine revisited: potential use as adjunctive treatment in diabetes.
PubMed:L-carnitine stimulates lipolysis via induction of the lipolytic gene expression and suppression of the adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
PubMed:Effect of genistein with carnitine administration on lipid parameters and obesity in C57Bl/6J mice fed a high-fat diet.
PubMed:L-carnitine protects neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat forebrain culture.
PubMed:Co-regulation of dopamine D1 receptor and uncoupling protein-2 expression in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity: neuroprotective role of L-carnitine.
PubMed:Accumulation of trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing haemodialysis.
PubMed:L-carnitine and neuroprotection in the animal model of mitochondrial dysfunction.
PubMed:Adsorption of pesticides from water by functionalized organobentonites.
PubMed:Capillary electrophoresis determination of carnitine in food supplements.
PubMed:An anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutritional supplement for hypoalbuminemic hemodialysis patients: a pilot/feasibility study.
PubMed:Trimethylamine: metabolic, pharmacokinetic and safety aspects.
PubMed:Increased carnitine-dependent fatty acid uptake into mitochondria of human colon cancer cells induces apoptosis.
PubMed:The prooxidant effect of sodium metabisulfite in rat liver and kidney.
PubMed:Lack of effect of L-carnitine supplementation on weight gain in very preterm infants.
PubMed:Determination of L-carnitine in food supplement formulations using ion-pair chromatography with indirect conductimetric detection.
PubMed:Effect of L-carnitine on plasma glycemic and lipidemic profile in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.
PubMed:Role for compatible solutes glycine betaine and L-carnitine in listerial barotolerance.
PubMed:Common dietary supplements for weight loss.
PubMed:Interaction of food supplement L-carnitine with oral anticoagulant acenocoumarol.
PubMed:Neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine in the 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA)-evoked neurotoxicity in rats.
PubMed:Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces impulsive behaviour in adolescent rats.
PubMed:Protein and energy nutrition among adult patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis.
PubMed:Opportunities in nutraceuticals.
PubMed:Quantification of non-protein nitrogen components of infant formulae and follow-up milks: comparison with cows' and human milk.
PubMed:Potential osmoprotectants for the lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus and Tetragenococcus halophila.
PubMed:Exercise-trained but not untrained rats maintain free carnitine reserves during acute exercise.
PubMed:Carnitine and hemodialysis.
PubMed:Nutritional effects of carnitine supplementation in hemodialysis patients.
PubMed:Modeling, optimization and experimental assessment of continuous L-(-)-carnitine production by Escherichia coli cultures.
PubMed:L-Carnitine changes the levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.
PubMed:Hepatothermic therapy of obesity: rationale and an inventory of resources.
PubMed:The effects of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on the performance, organ weights and circulating hormone and metabolite concentrations of broiler chickens reared under a normal or low temperature schedule.
PubMed:Medical management of peripheral arterial disease.
PubMed:What's L-A-C got to do with it?
PubMed:The role of L-carnitine and glycine betaine in the survival and sub-lethal injury of non-growing Listeria monocytogenes cells during chilled storage.
PubMed:L-Carnitine, a 'Vitamin-like Substance' for functional food. Proceedings Of the symposium on L-carnitine, april 28 to may 1, 2000, zermatt, switzerland
PubMed:Protective effect of L-carnitine in the neurotoxicity induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA).
PubMed:Metabolic functions of L-carnitine and its effects as feed additive in horses. A review.
PubMed:Dietary precursors of trimethylamine in man: a pilot study.
PubMed:Evaluation of carnitine nutritional status in full-term newborn infants.
PubMed:A possible role of ProP, ProU and CaiT in osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by carnitine.
PubMed:L-carnitine supplementation in childhood epilepsy: current perspectives.
PubMed:Enzymic flow injection determination of free L-carnitine in infant formulae.
PubMed:Betaine and L-carnitine transport by Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in response to osmotic signals.
PubMed:Recent nutritional approaches to the prevention and therapy of cardiovascular disease.
PubMed:Carnitine supplementation ameliorates the steatosis and ketosis induced by pivalate in rats.
PubMed:Kinetic properties of purified carnitine acetyltransferase from the skeletal muscle of Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius).
PubMed:Benzoate therapy and carnitine deficiency in non-ketotic hyperglycinemia.
PubMed:Effects of L-carnitine on the hypoxic atria from fed and fasted rats.
PubMed:An ATP-dependent L-carnitine transporter in Listeria monocytogenes Scott A is involved in osmoprotection.
PubMed:Tissue acylcarnitine and acyl-coenzyme A profiles in chronically hyperammonemic mice treated with sodium benzoate and supplementary L-carnitine.
PubMed:[Effects of L-carnitine in poultry].
PubMed:Comment: N,N-dimethylglycine and L-carnitine as performance enhancers in athletes.
PubMed:Ascorbate indirectly stimulates fatty acid utilization in primary cultured guinea pig hepatocytes by enhancing carnitine synthesis.
PubMed:Nutrition support for glutaric acidemia type I.
PubMed:Dietary carnitine did not influence performance and carcass composition of broiler chickens and young turkeys fed low- or high-fat diets.
PubMed:A preterm infant with secondary carnitine deficiency due to MCT formula--effective treatment of L-carnitine.
PubMed:Effects of diet restriction and carnitine on carbon tetrachloride toxicity in the rat.
PubMed:Factors affecting the distribution of ingested propionic acid in the rat forestomach.
PubMed:The effect of enteral carnitine administration in humans.
PubMed:Influence of fatty acid oxidation in lateral hypothalamus on food intake and body composition.
PubMed:Role of carnitine in utilization of dietary medium-chain triglycerides by term infants.
PubMed:Effect of L-carnitine and stimulated lipolysis on muscle substrates in the exercising rat.
PubMed:Secondary carnitine deficiency in handicapped patients receiving valproic acid and/or elemental diet.
PubMed:Feeding preterm infants with L-carnitine supplemented formula.
PubMed:Treatment of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis in cats: 11 cases (1986-1987).
PubMed:The carnitine-deprived newborn rabbit: a potential model to study carnitine deficiency.
PubMed:Changes of plasma free amino acids and renal clearances of carnitines in premature infants during L-carnitine-supplemented human milk feeding.
PubMed:L-carnitine supplementation of a soybean-based formula in early infancy: plasma and urine levels of carnitine and acylcarnitines.
PubMed:[Authorization request for the use of L-carnitine, calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate as nutritional additives in the formulation of food designed for specialized diets].
PubMed:Hepatic and cardiac carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Effects of adriamycin and galactosamine.
PubMed:Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation in low-birth-weight premature infants maintained on human milk.
PubMed:Carnitine and the premature.
PubMed:Studies concerning chronic and acute effects of L-carnitine on some biological parameters in elite athletes.
PubMed:Carnitine balance and effects of intravenous L-carnitine in two patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition.
PubMed:Cholinesterase-catalyzed resolution of D,L-carnitine.
PubMed:The effect of a L-carnitine supplemented soybean formula on the plasma lipids of infants.
constituent of striated muscle and liver. it is used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. Used in sport and infant nutrition. Present in cotyledons of pea (Pisum sativum) Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of lipids (or fats) for the generation of metabolic energy. It is often sold as a nutritional supplement. Carnitine was originally found as a growth factor for mealworms and labeled vitamin Bt. Carnitine exists in two stereoisomers: its biologically active form is L-carnitine, while its enantiomer, D-carnitine, is biologically inactive.; Carnitine is not an essential amino acid; Levocarnitine is a carrier molecule in the transport of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It also exports acyl groups from subcellular organelles and from cells to urine before they accumulate to toxic concentrations. Lack of carnitine can lead to liver, heart, and muscle problems. Carnitine deficiency is defined biochemically as abnormally low plasma concentrations of free carnitine, less than 20 µmol/L at one week post term and may be associated with low tissue and/or urine concentrations. Further, this condition may be associated with a plasma concentration ratio of acylcarnitine/levocarnitine greater than 0.4 or abnormally elevated concentrations of acylcarnitine in the urine. Only the L isomer of carnitine (sometimes called vitamin BT) affects lipid metabolism. The "vitamin BT" form actually contains D,L-carnitine, which competitively inhibits levocarnitine and can cause deficiency. Levocarnitine can be used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.; There is a close correlation between changes in plasma levels of osteocalcin and osteoblast activity and a reduction in osteocalcin plasma levels is an indicator of reduced osteoblast activity, which appears to underlie osteoporosis in elderly subjects and in postmenopausal women. Administration of a carnitine mixture or propionyl-L-carnitine is capable of increasing serum osteocalcin concentrations of animals thus treated, whereas serum osteocalcin levels tend to decrease with age in control animals.; it can be synthesized in the body. However, it is so important in providing energy to muscles including the heart-that some researchers are now recommending carnitine supplements in the diet, particularly for people who do not consume much red meat, the main food source for carnitine. Carnitine has been described as a vitamin, an amino acid, or a metabimin, i.e., an essential metabolite. Like the B vitamins, carnitine contains nitrogen and is very soluble in water, and to some researchers carnitine is a vitamin (Liebovitz 1984). It was found that an animal (yellow mealworm) could not grow without carnitine in its diet. However, as it turned out, almost all other animals, including humans, do make their own carnitine; thus, it is no longer considered a vitamin. Nevertheless, in certain circumstances-such as deficiencies of methionine, lysine or vitamin C or kidney dialysis--carnitine shortages develop. Under these conditions, carnitine must be absorbed from food, and for this reason it is sometimes referred to as a "metabimin" or a conditionally essential metabolite. Like the other amino acids used or manufactured by the body, carnitine is an amine. But like choline, which is sometimes considered to be a B vitamin, carnitine is also an alcohol (specifically, a trimethylated carboxy-alcohol). Thus, carnitine is an unusual amino acid and has different functions than most other amino acids, which are most usually employed by the body in the construction of protein. Carnitine is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism in mammals. It's most important known metabolic function is to transport fat into the mitochondria of muscle cells, including those in the heart, for oxidation. This is how the heart gets most of its energy. In humans, about 25% of carnitine is synthesized in the liver, kidney and brain from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Most of the carnitine in the body comes from dietary sources such as red meat and dairy products. Inborn errors of carnitine metabolism can lead to brain deterioration like that of Reye's syndrome, gradually worsening muscle weakness, Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy and extreme muscle weakness with fat accumulation in muscles. Borurn et al. (1979) describe carnitine as an essential nutrient for pre-term babies, certain types (non-ketotic) of hypoglycemics, kidney dialysis patients, cirrhosis, and in kwashiorkor, type IV hyperlipidemia, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy), and propionic or organic aciduria (acid urine resulting from genetic or other anomalies). In all these conditions and the inborn errors of carnitine metabolism, carnitine is essential to life and carnitine supplements are valuable. carnitine therapy may also be useful in a wide variety of clinical conditions. carnitine supplementation has improved some patients who have angina secondary to coronary artery disease. It may be worth a trial in any form of hyperlipidemia or muscle weakness. carnitine supplements may be useful in many forms of toxic or metabolic liver disease and in cases of heart muscle disease. Hearts undergoing severe arrhythmia quickly deplete their stores of carnitine. Athletes, particularly in Europe, have used carnitine supplements for improved endurance. carnitine may improve muscle building by improving fat utilization and may even be useful in treating obesity. carnitine joins a long list of nutrients which may be of value in treating pregnant women, hypothyroid individuals, and male infertility due to low motility of sperm. Even the Physician's Desk Reference gives indication for carnitine supplements as "improving the tolerance of ischemic heart disease, myocardial insufficiencies, and type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. carnitine deficiency is noted in abnormal liver function, renal dialysis patients, and severe to moderate muscular weakness with associated anorexia." (
Please share your Comments.
Email Address:
Top of Page Home
Copyright © 1980-2021 The Good Scents Company (tgsc) ™ Disclaimer Privacy Policy