EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes

beetroot red pigment

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CAS Number: 7659-95-2Picture of molecule3D/inchi
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg:231-628-5
XlogP3-AA:-1.30 (est)
Molecular Weight:550.47482000
Formula:C24 H26 N2 O13
BioActivity Summary:listing
NMR Predictor:Predict (works with chrome, Edge or firefox)
Also(can) Contains:beta vulgaris rapacea extract
 beta vulgaris altissima root extract
Category:coloring agents
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
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 FDA/DG SANTE Petitions, Reviews, Notices:
EU SANCO Beetroot Red, betanin View - review
JECFA Food Additive: Beet Red
GSFA Codex: Beet red (162)
DG SANTE Food Additives:beetroot red pigment
FDA Mainterm (SATF): Dehydrated beets (beet powder).
FDA Regulation:
Subpart A-Foods
73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder).
Physical Properties:
Appearance:red to dark red liquid, paste, powder, solid (est)
Assay: 0.40 to 100.00
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Boiling Point: 983.47 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)
Flash Point:1019.00 °F. TCC ( 548.60 °C. ) (est)
logP (o/w): -3.055 (est)
Soluble in:
 water, 5391 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
Insoluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: cosmetic colorants
Alfa Biotechnology
For experimental / research use only.
Blue Pacific Flavors
Natural Red Beet Root (Powder & Liquid)
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Beetroot Red
Synthite Industries
Beetroot: Pink Red
E-books and Brochures
For experimental / research use only.
Betanin (Red Beet extract diluted with Dextrin)
Safety Information:
Preferred SDS: View
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
Not determined
Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
coloring agents
Recommendation for betanine usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for betanine flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):

Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of beetroot red (E 162) as a food additive
View page or View pdf

Safety of the proposed extension of use of beetroot red (E 162) in foods for special medical purposes in young children
View page or View pdf

EPI System: View
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary :91559
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
RTECS:US7968100 for cas# 7659-95-2
NIST Chemistry WebBook:Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid):91559
Pubchem (sid):135048137
Other Information:
(IUPAC):Atomic Weights of the Elements 2011 (pdf)
Videos:The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc:Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC):Periodic Table of the Elements
KEGG (GenomeNet):C08540
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
Export Tariff Code:3203.00.8000
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
FDA Color Additive Status ListView
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 beet plant
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 beet root
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 pokeweed shoot
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 spinach plant
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 spinach tissue culture
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redbeet root pigment
 beet root red pigment
 beetroot red pigment
 beta orientalis root red pigment
 beta vulgaris root red pigment
 beta vulgaris subsp. orientalis root red pigment
 beta vulgaris var. cicla root red pigment
[S-(R*,R*)-4-[2-[2-carboxy-5-( β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,3-dihydro-6-hydroxy-1H-indol-1-yl)ethenyl]-2,3-dihydro-2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid


PubMed:Application of photo-selective films to manipulate wavelength of transmitted radiation and photosynthate composition in red beet (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva Alef.).
PubMed:Characterisation and identification of triterpene saponins in the roots of red beets (Beta vulgaris L.) using two HPLC-MS systems.
PubMed:Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars.
PubMed:[Effect of stress conditions on the activity and isozyme composition of peroxidase of vacuoles and tissue extract of red beet roots].
PubMed:Effect of trimethyllead chloride on slowly activating (SV) channels in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots.
PubMed:New solvent systems for gradient counter-current chromatography in separation of betanin and its derivatives from processed Beta vulgaris L. juice.
PubMed:Betalain and betaine composition of greenhouse- or field-produced beetroot ( Beta vulgaris L.) and inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation.
PubMed:Isolation of pectin-enriched products from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) wastes: composition and functional properties.
PubMed:Versatile solvent systems for the separation of betalains from processed Beta vulgaris L. juice using counter-current chromatography.
PubMed:Hydrogen peroxide generation in the vacuoles of red beet root cells.
PubMed:Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.
PubMed:Tyrosinase activity of peroxidase of red beet root vacuoles and plastids.
PubMed:Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of betalain extracts from intact plants and hairy root cultures of the red beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit dark red.
PubMed:Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.
PubMed:Improved procedure for nucleus extraction for DNA measurements by flow cytometry of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots.
PubMed:A PPO Promoter from Betalain-Producing Red Swiss Chard, Directs Petiole- and Root-Preferential Expression of Foreign Gene in Anthocyanins-Producing Plants.
PubMed:Biosynthesis and radical scavenging activity of betalains during the cultivation of red beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy root cultures.
PubMed:Batch and fed-batch production of betalains by red beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots in a bubble column reactor.
PubMed:[The dynamics of hormonal status of developing red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) in correlation with the dynamics of sugar accumulation].
PubMed:Formation of decarboxylated betacyanins in heated purified betacyanin fractions from red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) monitored by LC-MS/MS.
PubMed:Multiplicity of vacuolar peroxidase isozymes in higher plants by the example of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots.
PubMed:Combined effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), ascorbic acid, red beet root (Beta vulgaris), and sodium lactate and their mixtures on the stability of fresh pork sausages.
PubMed:Food-grade chemical and biological agents permeabilize red beet hairy roots, assisting the release of betalaines.
PubMed:Trans-epithelial transport of the betalain pigments indicaxanthin and betanin across Caco-2 cell monolayers and influence of food matrix.
PubMed:Evaluation of the effect of beetroot juice on DMBA-induced damage in liver and mammary gland of female Sprague-Dawley rats.
PubMed:Beetroot-pigment-derived colorimetric sensor for detection of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores.
PubMed:Accumulation and distribution of free folic acid content in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.).
PubMed:Tonoplast vesicles of Beta vulgaris storage root show functional aquaporins regulated by protons.
PubMed:In situ and Ex situ adsorption and recovery of betalains from hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris.
PubMed:Immunological Evidence for the Existence of a Carrier Protein for Sucrose Transport in Tonoplast Vesicles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Root Storage Tissue.
PubMed:Blood pressure-lowering effects of beetroot juice and novel beetroot-enriched bread products in normotensive male subjects.
PubMed:Chemoprevention of lung and skin cancer by Beta vulgaris (beet) root extract.
PubMed:Plasma membrane of Beta vulgaris storage root shows high water channel activity regulated by cytoplasmic pH and a dual range of calcium concentrations.
PubMed:Quantitative determination of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.) using headspace solid-phase microextraction.
PubMed:Characterisation of a salt-stimulated ATPase activity associated with vacuoles isolated from storage roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.).
PubMed:[Genetic study of a new color of the beet Beta vulgaris L].
PubMed:Membrane-potential changes in vacuoles isolated from storage roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.).
PubMed:Biosynthetic origin of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.).
PubMed:Phenolics and betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) root: distribution and effect of cold storage on the content of total phenolics and three individual compounds.
PubMed:CHAPS Solubilization and Functional Reconstitution of beta-Glucan Synthase from Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.) Storage Tissue.
PubMed:Relation between ionic and hormonal regulation of proton pumps in red beet tonoplast.
PubMed:Patch clamp characterization of a non-selective cation channel of ER membranes purified from Beta vulgaris taproots.
PubMed:Characteristics of Sucrose Transport and Sucrose-Induced H+ Transport on the Tonoplast of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Storage Tissue.
PubMed:Betalains, phase II enzyme-inducing components from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extracts.
PubMed:Plant Vacuolar ATP-binding Cassette Transporters That Translocate Folates and Antifolates in Vitro and Contribute to Antifolate Tolerance in Vivo.
PubMed:Drinking water with red beetroot food color antagonizes esophageal carcinogenesis in N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-treated rats.
PubMed:Fusarium culmorum: causal agent of foot and root rot and head blight on wheat.
PubMed:Phase II enzyme-inducing and antioxidant activities of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extracts from phenotypes of different pigmentation.
PubMed:Betalains and phenolics in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) peel extracts: extraction and characterisation.
PubMed:Localization of Filipin-Sterol Complexes in the Membranes of Beta vulgaris Roots and Spinacia oleracea Chloroplasts.
PubMed:Detection of vanadate-inhibited ATPase activity on the red beet tonoplast and its relationship with ABC-transporters.
PubMed:Isolation of Vacuoles from Root Storage Tissue of Beta vulgaris L.
PubMed:An inhibitor of salt absorption in root tissue of red beet.
PubMed:Thermal degradation of dehydrated beets; chromatographic separation of red beet-root pigments.
PubMed:Determination of structure and composition of suberin from the roots of carrot, parsnip, rutabaga, turnip, red beet, and sweet potato by combined gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.
PubMed:The regulation of turgor pressure during sucrose mobilisation and salt accumulation by excised storage-root tissue of red beet.
PubMed:Effects of vanadate on the plasma membrane ATPase of red beet and corn.
PubMed:Protective effect of red beetroot against carbon tetrachloride- and N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced oxidative stress in rats.
PubMed:pMAA-Red: a new pPZP-derived vector for fast visual screening of transgenic Arabidopsis plants at the seed stage.
PubMed:Invertase inhibitors from red beet, sugar beet, and sweet potato roots.
PubMed:Density gradient localization of plasma membrane and tonoplast from storage tissue of growing and dormant red beet : characterization of proton-transport and ATPase in tonoplast vesicles.
PubMed:Characterization of a k-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase associated with the plasma membrane of red beet.
PubMed:Development and Characteristics of Sodium-selective Transport in Red Beet.
PubMed:Regulation of the slow vacuolar channel by luminal potassium: role of surface charge.
PubMed:In vitro digestion of betalainic foods. Stability and bioaccessibility of betaxanthins and betacyanins and antioxidative potential of food digesta.
PubMed:Freezing of nonwoody plant tissues: I. Effect of rate of cooling on damage to frozen beet root sections.
PubMed:Effect of sterols on the permeability of alcohol-treated red beet tissue.
PubMed:[Red beet roots: realization of atomizing and freeze-dried extracts].
PubMed:Partial Purification of Digitonin-Solubilized beta-Glucan Synthase from Red Beet Root.
PubMed:Regulation of Plasma Membrane beta-Glucan Synthase from Red Beet Root by Phospholipids : Reactivation of Triton X-100 Extracted Glucan Synthase by Phospholipids.
PubMed:Plant gamma-glutamyl hydrolases and folate polyglutamates: characterization, compartmentation, and co-occurrence in vacuoles.
PubMed:Assessment of glycinebetaine and proline compartmentation by analysis of isolated beet vacuoles.
PubMed:A small scale procedure for the isolation of transport competent vesicles from plant tissues.
PubMed:ATP Levels and their Effects on Plasmalemma Influxes of Potassium Chloride in Red Beet.
PubMed:Alternate energy-dependent pathways for the vacuolar uptake of glucose and glutathione conjugates.
PubMed:The defense substance allicin from garlic permeabilizes membranes of Beta vulgaris, Rhoeo discolor, Chara corallina and artificial lipid bilayers.
PubMed:Identification and Characterization of High-Affinity Binding Sites for Inositol Trisphosphate in Red Beet.
PubMed:[Family studies on betanine excretion in urine (author's transl)].
PubMed:Culture of red beet hairy roots by considering variation in sensitivity of tip meristems to hydraulic stress.
PubMed:Characteristics of fatty acid composition of lipids in higher plant vacuolar membranes.
PubMed:Discovery of Fusarium solani as a naturally occurring pathogen of sugarbeet root maggot (Diptera: Ulidiidae) pupae: prevalence and baseline susceptibility.
PubMed:Direct current electrical field effects on intact plant organs.
PubMed:The structure of plant vacuolar membranes according to infrared spectroscopy.
PubMed:Purification, Characterization, and Submitochondrial Localization of a 58-Kilodalton NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase.
PubMed:N-(jasmonoyl)tyrosine-derived compounds from flowers of broad beans (Vicia faba).
PubMed:Occurrence of plant-uncoupling mitochondrial protein (PUMP) in diverse organs and tissues of several plants.
PubMed:Aminophosphonate-induced changes of betacyanine and ionic efflux.
PubMed:Calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum of higher plants elicited by the NADP metabolite nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate.
PubMed:Transformation of fulvic substances in the rhizosphere during phytoremediation of used motor oil.
PubMed:Effects of oxime carbamate nematicides on development of Heterodera schachtii on sugarbeet.
PubMed:Characterization of solute/proton cotransport in plasma membrane vesicles from Ricinus cotyledons, and a comparison with other tissues.
PubMed:Dissipation of pH Gradients in Tonoplast Vesicles and Liposomes by Mixtures of Acridine Orange and Anions: Implications for the Use of Acridine Orange as a pH Probe.
PubMed:Development of Heterodera schachtii on Large Rooted Crop Plants and the Significance of Root Debris as Substratum for Increasing Field Infestations.
PubMed:separation and Immunological Characterization of Membrane Fractions from Barley Roots.
PubMed:Identification of 3-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate- and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-binding subunits of a higher plant H+-translocating tonoplast ATPase.
PubMed:Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants.
PubMed:Comparison of the Stereospecificity and Immunoreactivity of NADH-Ferricyanide Reductases in Plant Membranes.
PubMed:Fungal isolates from natural pectic substrates for polygalacturonase and multienzyme production.
PubMed:Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.
PubMed:[Possibilities of the regulation of differential DNA activities in higher plants by histone].
PubMed:Release of Ca2+ from individual plant vacuoles by both InsP3 and cyclic ADP-ribose.
PubMed:A new set of regulatory molecules in plants: A plant phospholipid similar to platelet-activating factor stimulates protein kinase and proton-translocating ATPase in membrane vesicles.
PubMed:Food idiosyncrasies: beetroot and asparagus.
PubMed:Biogenesis of oxalate in plant tissues.
PubMed:Amelioration by glucose-6-phosphate and NADP of potato glycoalkaloid inhibition in cell, enzyme and liposome assays.
PubMed:[Determination of elements hazardous to health in vegetables grown in the Siedlece district].
PubMed:Specificity of cycloheximide in higher plant systems.
red pigment in beet root. Red pigment from beetroot, Beta vulgaris var. rubra and other Centrospermae. Used as a food dye Betanin is a betalain pigment, together with isobetanin, probetanin, and neobetanin. Other pigments contained in beet are indicaxanthin and vulgaxanthins.; Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets; its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. As a food additive, its E number is E162. Betanin degrades when subjected to light, heat, and oxygen; therefore, it is used in frozen products, products with short shelf life, or products sold in dry state. Betanin can survive pasteurization when in products with high sugar content. Its sensitivity to oxygen is highest in products with high content of water and/or containing metal cations (eg. iron and copper); antioxidants like ascorbic acid and sequestrants can slow this process down, together with suitable packaging. In dry form betanin is stable in presence of oxygen.
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