hesperetin
5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
 
Notes:
A glycone of hesperidin. The S-form is Isol. from Brickellia vernicosa, Persica vulgaris (preferred genus name Prunus), Citrus and Mentha spp. [CCD] Isol. from Mentha (peppermint) and numerous Citrusspp., with lemons, tangerines and oranges being especially good sources. Nutriceutical with anti-cancer props. Glycosides also widely distributed Hesperetin is a bioflavonoid and, to be more specific, a flavanone. Hesperidin (a flavonone glycoside) is water soluble due to the presence of the sugar part in its structure, so on ingestion it releases its aglycone i.e: hesperetin. Hesperidin is found in Citrus fruits.; Hesperetin is a cholesterol lowering flavanoid found in a number of citrus juices. It appears to reduce cholesteryl ester mass and inhibit apoB secretion by up to 80%. Hesperetin may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, hypolipidemic, vasoprotective and anticarcinogenic actions.
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  • TCI AMERICA
    • TCI AMERICA
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      Product(s):
      H0721 Hesperetin >97.0%(HPLC)(T)
       
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(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chroman-4-one (Click)
CAS Number: 520-33-2Picture of molecule
ECHA EINECS - REACH Pre-Reg: 208-290-2
FDA UNII: Q9Q3D557F1
Nikkaji Web: J9.235E
Beilstein Number: 92705
MDL: MFCD00016956
XlogP3-AA: 2.40 (est)
Molecular Weight: 302.28278000
Formula: C16 H14 O6
BioActivity Summary: listing
NMR Predictor: Predict (works with chrome or firefox)
EFSA/JECFA Comments: CASrn is 69097-99-0 according to Industry, which refers to the (R,S)-hesperitin ((R,S)- 5,7,3'-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone). CASrn to be confirmed by Industry.
Category: cosmetic and flavor agents
 
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar: Search
Google Books: Search
Google Scholar: with word "volatile"Search
Google Scholar: with word "flavor"Search
Google Scholar: with word "odor"Search
Perfumer and Flavorist: Search
Google Patents: Search
US Patents: Search
EU Patents: Search
Pubchem Patents: Search
PubMed: Search
NCBI: Search
JECFA Food Flavoring: 2024  5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
Flavis Number: 16.097 (Old)
DG SANTE Food Flavourings: 16.097  hesperetin
FDA Mainterm: 5,7-DIHYDROXY-2-(3-HYDROXY-4-METHXY-PHENYL)-CHROMAN-4-ONE
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Physical Properties:
Appearance: white powder (est)
Assay: 95.00 to 100.00 % 
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Melting Point: 226.00 to  229.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point: 586.00 to  587.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Flash Point: 433.00 °F. TCC ( 222.78 °C. )
logP (o/w): 2.600
Soluble in:
 water, 272.5 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)
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Organoleptic Properties:
  
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Cosmetic Information:
CosIng: cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: antioxidants
skin conditioning
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Suppliers:
AuNutra® Industries
Hesperitin P.E
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
3,5,7-Trihydroxy-4-methoxyflavanone
Coompo
For experimental / research use only.
Hesperetin from Plants ≥96%
Odor: characteristic
Use: Hesperetin is a citrus flavonoid that has been reported to lower plasma cholesterol. It inhibits histamine release from IgE-challenged RBL-2H3 cells, with a potency comparable to the commercial anti-allergy drug azelastine. It also reduces the transcription of ACAT-2 mRNA in Hep-G2 cells and reduces ApoB protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 for these responses is approximately 50 M. Hesperetin induces Notch1 expression in carcinoid cells, subsequently suppressing tumor cell proliferation and bioactive hormone production. Notch1 signaling pathway acts as a tumor suppressor in carcinoid tumors. This provides evidence for further study into hesperetin as a potential treatment for carcinoid cancer. Hesperetin is an antioxidant flavonoid. Induces G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Anti-inflammatory. Hesperetin suppresses NF-?B activation. Reduces cholesterol biosynthesis. Inhibits lipid peroxidation. Neuroprotective against neuronal oxidative damage. In the concentration range 250-500 M, hesperetin and hesperidin showed potent inhibition of LPS-induced expression of the COX-2 gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds. The ability of hesperetin and hesperidin to suppress COX-2 gene expression may be a consequence of their antioxidant activity.
George Uhe Company
Hesperetin
TCI AMERICA
For experimental / research use only.
Hesperetin >97.0%(HPLC)(T)
Chemical Sources Association
Need This Item for Flavor/Food?: You can contact the Chemical Sources Association
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Safety Information:
European information :
Most important hazard(s):
Xi - Irritant
R 36/37/38 - Irritating to eyes, respiratory system, and skin.
S 26 - In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S 36 - Wear suitable protective clothing.
 
Hazards identification
 
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
 
Pictogram
 
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50  [sex: M,F] > 2000 mg/kg
(Vaeth, 2006)

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
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Safety in Use Information:
Category: cosmetic and flavor agents
Recommendation for hesperetin usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
 
Maximised Survey-derived Daily Intakes (MSDI-EU): 2.40 (μg/capita/day)
Modified Theoretical Added Maximum Daily Intake (mTAMDI): 74000 (μg/person/day)
Threshold of Concern:540 (μg/person/day)
Structure Class: II
 
Food categories according to Commission Regulation EC No. 1565/2000 (EC, 2000) in FGE.06 (EFSA, 2002a). According to the Industry the "normal" use is defined as the average of reported usages and "maximum use" is defined as the 95th percentile of reported usages (EFSA, 2002i).
Note: mg/kg = 0.001/1000 = 0.000001 = 1/1000000 = ppm.
 average usage mg/kgmaximum usage mg/kg
Dairy products, excluding products of category 02.0 (01.0): 200.00000600.00000
Fats and oils, and fat emulsions (type water-in-oil) (02.0): 100.00000500.00000
Edible ices, including sherbet and sorbet (03.0): 100.00000500.00000
Processed fruit (04.1): --
Processed vegetables (incl. mushrooms & fungi, roots & tubers, pulses and legumes), and nuts & seeds (04.2): --
Confectionery (05.0): 100.00000500.00000
Cereals and cereal products, incl. flours & starches from roots & tubers, pulses & legumes, excluding bakery (06.0): 150.00000600.00000
Bakery wares (07.0): 200.00000500.00000
Meat and meat products, including poultry and game (08.0): 100.00000600.00000
Fish and fish products, including molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms (MCE) (09.0): 100.00000500.00000
Eggs and egg products (10.0): --
Sweeteners, including honey (11.0): --
Salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, protein products, etc. (12.0): 200.000001000.00000
Foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (13.0): --
Non-alcoholic ("soft") beverages, excl. dairy products (14.1): 100.00000800.00000
Alcoholic beverages, incl. alcohol-free and low-alcoholic counterparts (14.2): 200.00000800.00000
Ready-to-eat savouries (15.0): 200.00000500.00000
Composite foods (e.g. casseroles, meat pies, mincemeat) - foods that could not be placed in categories 01.0 - 15.0 (16.0): --
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Safety References:
European Food Safety Athority(efsa): Flavor usage levels; Subacute, Subchronic, Chronic and Carcinogenicity Studies; Developmental / Reproductive Toxicity Studies; Genotoxicity Studies...
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) reference(s):
Flavouring Group Evaluation 32 (FGE.32): Flavonoids (Flavanones and dihydrochalcones) from chemical groups 25 and 30
View page or View pdf
EPI System: View
Cancer Citations: Search
Toxicology Citations: Search
Env. Mutagen Info. Center: Search
EPA ACToR: Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS): Registry
Laboratory Chemical Safety Summary : 72281
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Data
 (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chroman-4-one
Chemidplus: 0000520332
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References:
 (2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chroman-4-one
NIST Chemistry WebBook: Search Inchi
Pubchem (cid): 72281
Pubchem (sid): 135030368
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Other Information:
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009
(IUPAC): Atomic Weights of the Elements 2009 (pdf)
Videos: The Periodic Table of Videos
tgsc: Atomic Weights use for this web site
(IUPAC): Periodic Table of the Elements
FDA Everything Added to Food in the United States (EAFUS): View
CHEBI: View
CHEMBL: View
KEGG (GenomeNet): C01709
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database): HMDB05782
FooDB: FDB002677
Export Tariff Code: 2932.99.7000
VCF-Online: VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
ChemSpider: View
Wikipedia: View
RSC Learn Chemistry: View
Read: Under the conditions of intended use - New developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients
Read: A GRAS assessment program for flavor ingredients
Read: Sensory testing for flavorings with modifying properties. Food Technology
Read: Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances
Read: A procedure for the safety evaluation of natural flavor complexes used as ingredients in food: essential oils
Read: FEMA Expert Panel: 30 Years of safety evaluation for the flavor industry
Read: Consumption ratio and food predominance of flavoring materials
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Potential Blenders and core components note
 
None Found
 
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Potential Uses:
 antioxidants 
 skin conditioning 
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Occurrence (nature, food, other): note
 brickellia vernicosa
Search Trop  Picture
 citrus
Search  Picture
 lemon
Search Trop  Picture
 mint
Search Trop  Picture
 orange fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 peach
Search Trop  Picture
 peppermint leaf
Search Trop  Picture
 persica vulgaris
Search Trop  Picture
 sage
Search Trop  Picture
 tangerine fruit
Search Trop  Picture
 tarragon shoot
Search Trop  Picture
 water mint plant
Search Trop  Picture
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Synonyms:
4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-, (2S)-
4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-, (S)-
(S)-2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone
(S)-2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-chroman-4-one
(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)chroman-4-one
 flavanone, 3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-
 hesperetin natural
 hesperitin P.E
4'-methoxy-3',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone
3',5,7-trihydroxy-4-methoxyflavanone
(±)-3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone
3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone
5,7,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone
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Articles:
PubMed: Encapsulation and micronization effectively improve orange beverage flavanones bioavailability in humans.
PubMed: Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production.
PubMed: Effects of antioxidants of bamboo leaves and flavonoids on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) formation in chemical model systems.
PubMed: Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of fermented orange juice (poly)phenols in rats.
PubMed: Hydrolysis of flavanone glycosides by β-glucosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus and its application to the production of flavanone aglycones from citrus extracts.
PubMed: Characterisation of honeys according to their content of phenolic compounds using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
PubMed: Citrus flavanones enhance carotenoid uptake by intestinal Caco-2 cells.
PubMed: Hesperetin Stimulates Cholecystokinin Secretion in Enteroendocrine STC-1 Cells.
PubMed: Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents.
PubMed: Suitability of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and phenolic acids for floral authentication of honey. Impact of industrial thermal treatment.
PubMed: Hesperidin metabolite hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, but not hesperetin-3'-O-glucuronide, exerts hypotensive, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory activities.
PubMed: Major active components in grapefruit, orange, and apple juices responsible for OATP2B1-mediated drug interactions.
PubMed: Indirect homologous competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of a class of glycosylated dihydrochalcones.
PubMed: Bioavailability of dietary (poly)phenols: a study with ileostomists to discriminate between absorption in small and large intestine.
PubMed: Quantification of hesperidin in citrus-based foods using a fungal diglycosidase.
PubMed: Prunin- and hesperetin glucoside-alkyl (C4-C18) esters interaction with Jurkat cells plasma membrane: consequences on membrane physical properties and antioxidant capacity.
PubMed: A comparison study on the binding of hesperetin and luteolin to bovine serum albumin by spectroscopy.
PubMed: Assessment of phytochemical content in human milk during different stages of lactation.
PubMed: Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Schisandra chinensis pollen extract on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice.
PubMed: Major active components in grapefruit, orange, and apple juices responsible for OATP2B1-mediated drug interactions.
PubMed: Identification of flavonoids with trypsin inhibitory activity extracted from orange peel and green tea leaves.
PubMed: Composition of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich fractions and in vitro inhibitory activities against key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.
PubMed: Empirical, thermodynamic and quantum-chemical investigations of inclusion complexation between flavanones and (2-hydroxypropyl)-cyclodextrins.
PubMed: Iron reduction potentiates hydroxyl radical formation only in flavonols.
PubMed: Enzymatic bioconversion of citrus hesperidin by Aspergillus sojae naringinase: enhanced solubility of hesperetin-7-O-glucoside with in vitro inhibition of human intestinal maltase, HMG-CoA reductase, and growth of Helicobacter pylori.
PubMed: Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress.
PubMed: Evaluation of matrix effect in determination of some bioflavonoids in food samples by LC-MS/MS method.
PubMed: The apoptotic effect of hesperetin on human cervical cancer cells is mediated through cell cycle arrest, death receptor, and mitochondrial pathways.
PubMed: Rapid assessment of endpoint antioxidant capacity of red wines through microchemical methods using a kinetic matching approach.
PubMed: Pro-cellular survival and neuroprotection of citrus flavonoid: the actions of hesperetin in PC12 cells.
PubMed: Phytonutrient intake by adults in the United States in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption.
PubMed: In vitro and in vivo structure and activity relationship analysis of polymethoxylated flavonoids: identifying sinensetin as a novel antiangiogenesis agent.
PubMed: Differential effects of flavonoids on barrier integrity in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.
PubMed: Study on the interference of rat feed to pharmacokinetics of flavonoids.
PubMed: Anti-aging effects of hesperidin on Saccharomyces cerevisiae via inhibition of reactive oxygen species and UTH1 gene expression.
PubMed: Evaluation of flavonoids and enterolactone in overnight urine as intake biomarkers of fruits, vegetables and beverages in the Inter99 cohort study using the method of triads.
PubMed: Cytoprotective effects of hesperetin and hesperidin against amyloid β-induced impairment of glucose transport through downregulation of neuronal autophagy.
PubMed: Bioavailability of orally administered water-dispersible hesperetin and its effect on peripheral vasodilatation in human subjects: implication of endothelial functions of plasma conjugated metabolites.
PubMed: Melanogenesis of murine melanoma cells induced by hesperetin, a Citrus hydrolysate-derived flavonoid.
PubMed: Neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoids.
PubMed: Transport mechanisms of flavanone aglycones across Caco-2 cell monolayers and artificial PAMPA membranes.
PubMed: Role of hesperetin (a natural flavonoid) and its analogue on apoptosis in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line--a comparative study.
PubMed: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of hesperetin metabolites obtained from hesperetin-administered rat serum: an ex vivo approach.
PubMed: Phytonutrient Intake by Adults in the United States in Relation to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.
PubMed: Beneficial effect of hesperetin on cadmium induced oxidative stress in rats: an in vivo and in vitro study.
PubMed: Flavonoids in tropical citrus species.
PubMed: Binding of citrus flavanones and their glucuronides and chalcones to human serum albumin.
PubMed: Kaempferol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity through FUBP and HNRP proteins.
PubMed: Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents increase with gamma irradiation in two types of Malaysian honey.
PubMed: Evaluation of antioxidant and inhibitory activities for different subclasses flavonoids on enzymes for rheumatoid arthritis.
PubMed: Effect of hesperetin against oxidative stress via ER- and TrkA-mediated actions in PC12 cells.
PubMed: Molecular structures of citrus flavonoids determine their effects on lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells by primarily suppressing apoB secretion.
PubMed: Hesperetin protects testicular toxicity of doxorubicin in rat: role of NFκB, p38 and caspase-3.
PubMed: Free fruit at workplace intervention increases total fruit intake: a validation study using 24 h dietary recall and urinary flavonoid excretion.
PubMed: Chemical synthesis of citrus flavanone glucuronides.
PubMed: Comparison of hesperetin and its metabolites for cholesterol-lowering and antioxidative efficacy in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.
PubMed: Effects of hesperetin on the production of inflammatory mediators in IL-1beta treated human synovial cells.
PubMed: Stereoselective conjugation, transport and bioactivity of s- and R-hesperetin enantiomers in vitro.
PubMed: Concentration and solubility of flavanones in orange beverages affect their bioavailability in humans.
PubMed: Enzyme technology for precision functional food ingredient processes.
PubMed: Relative bioavailability of the flavonoids quercetin, hesperetin and naringenin given simultaneously through diet.
PubMed: The effect of co-administered flavonoids on the metabolism of hesperetin and the disposition of its metabolites in Caco-2 cell monolayers.
PubMed: Absorption, conjugation and excretion of the flavanones, naringenin and hesperetin from alpha-rhamnosidase-treated orange juice in human subjects.
PubMed: Identification of metabolites in human plasma and urine after consumption of a polyphenol-rich juice drink.
PubMed: Identification of bisprenylated benzoic acid derivatives from yerba santa (Eriodictyon ssp.) using sensory-guided fractionation.
PubMed: Characterization of flavor modulating effects in complex mixtures via high temperature liquid chromatography.
PubMed: Molecular mechanism of hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, the main circulating metabolite of hesperidin, involved in osteoblast differentiation.
PubMed: Greater apparent absorption of flavonoids is associated with lesser human fecal flavonoid disappearance rates.
PubMed: Major phytochemical composition of 3 native Korean citrus varieties and bioactive activity on V79-4 cells induced by oxidative stress.
PubMed: Efficacy of the potential chemopreventive agent, hesperetin (citrus flavanone), on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis.
PubMed: Effect of processing on the flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of Citrus hystrix leaf.
PubMed: The citrus flavanone naringenin inhibits inflammatory signalling in glial cells and protects against neuroinflammatory injury.
PubMed: Yoghurt impacts on the excretion of phenolic acids derived from colonic breakdown of orange juice flavanones in humans.
PubMed: Modulation of Akt, JNK, and p38 activation is involved in citrus flavonoid-mediated cytoprotection of PC12 cells challenged by hydrogen peroxide.
PubMed: Mangiferin and hesperidin metabolites are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of pigs after oral ingestion of a Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush tea) extract.
PubMed: Bioavailability and metabolism of orange juice flavanones in humans: impact of a full-fat yogurt.
PubMed: Naringenin and hesperetin induce growth arrest, apoptosis, and cytoplasmic fat deposit in human preadipocytes.
PubMed: Sodium borohydride/chloranil-based assay for quantifying total flavonoids.
PubMed: Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion.
PubMed: Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1, crocin, amygdalin, geniposide, puerarin, ginsenoside Re, hesperidin, poncirin, glycyrrhizin, and baicalin by human fecal microflora and its relation to cytotoxicity against tumor cells.
PubMed: Dietary flavonoid sources in Australian adults.
PubMed: In vivo pharmacokinetics of hesperidin are affected by treatment with glucosidase-like BglA protein isolated from yeasts.
PubMed: Development of a potential reference material for evaluating antioxidant activity.
PubMed: Dietary flavonoids differentially reduce oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells: role of MAPK- and JAK/STAT-signaling.
PubMed: Peroxynitrite induced formation of the neurotoxins 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and DHBT-1: implications for Parkinson's disease and protection by polyphenols.
PubMed: Dietary flavonoid intake and lung cancer--a population-based case-control study.
PubMed: Analysis of food allergen structures and development of foods for allergic patients.
PubMed: Distinct effects of naringenin and hesperetin on nitric oxide production from endothelial cells.
PubMed: Transepithelial transport of flavanone in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.
PubMed: Neuroprotective effects of the citrus flavanones against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.
PubMed: [Effects of flavonoids with different structures on proliferation of leukemia cell line HL-60].
PubMed: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a byproduct of the essential oil industry.
PubMed: Transepithelial transport of hesperetin and hesperidin in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.
PubMed: Activation of pro-survival Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways underlie the anti-apoptotic effects of flavanones in cortical neurons.
PubMed: Enzymatic acylation of flavonoids: effect of the nature of the substrate, origin of lipase, and operating conditions on conversion yield and regioselectivity.
PubMed: Inhibition of the formation of the neurotoxin 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine by polyphenols.
PubMed: Urine flavonoids and plasma carotenoids in the validation of fruit, vegetable and tea intake during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
PubMed: Urinary excretion of 13 dietary flavonoids and phenolic acids in free-living healthy subjects - variability and possible use as biomarkers of polyphenol intake.
PubMed: Flavanone plasma pharmacokinetics from blood orange juice in human subjects.
PubMed: Polymethoxylated flavones and other phenolic derivates from citrus in their inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of talinolol in Caco-2 cells.
PubMed: Attenuation of monocyte adhesion and oxidised LDL uptake in luteolin-treated human endothelial cells exposed to oxidised LDL.
PubMed: Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts.
PubMed: Age-related variations in flavonoid intake and sources in the Australian population.
PubMed: The reaction of flavonoid metabolites with peroxynitrite.
PubMed: Urinary flavonoids and phenolic acids as biomarkers of intake for polyphenol-rich foods.
PubMed: Modulation of peroxynitrite-induced fibroblast injury by hesperetin: a role for intracellular scavenging and modulation of ERK signalling.
PubMed: Activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation in mice fed citrus flavonoids.
PubMed: Evaluation of the anti-allergic activity of Citrus unshiu using rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells as well as basophils of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis to pollen.
PubMed: Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.
PubMed: Modulatory effects of plant phenols on human multidrug-resistance proteins 1, 4 and 5 (ABCC1, 4 and 5).
PubMed: Xanthine oxidase activity in vitro: effects of food extracts and components.
PubMed: Impact of high pressure and pulsed electric fields on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of orange juice in comparison with traditional thermal processing.
PubMed: Modulation of drug transport by selected flavonoids: Involvement of P-gp and OCT?
PubMed: Interactive effects of polyphenols, tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the Cu2+-mediated oxidative modification of human low density lipoproteins.
PubMed: Protection by food-derived antioxidants from UV-A1-induced photodamage, measured using living skin equivalents.
PubMed: Degradation of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone by human intestinal bacteria.
PubMed: Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis-inhibitory activity of flavanones from Citrus unshiu and Poncirus trifoliata.
PubMed: The pig caecum model: a suitable tool to study the intestinal metabolism of flavonoids.
PubMed: Identification and quantification of the conjugated metabolites derived from orally administered hesperidin in rat plasma.
PubMed: Combined effects of multiple flavonoids on breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2)-mediated transport.
PubMed: Flavonoids promote cell migration in nontumorigenic colon epithelial cells differing in Apc genotype: implications of matrix metalloproteinase activity.
PubMed: Evaluation of hesperetin 7-O-lauryl ether as lipid-lowering agent in high-cholesterol-fed rats.
PubMed: Changes in the levels of polymethoxyflavones and flavanones as part of the defense mechanism of Citrus sinensis (cv. Valencia Late) fruits against Phytophthora citrophthora.
PubMed: Effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice.
PubMed: Inhibitory activity of flavonoids from Prunus davidiana and other flavonoids on total ROS and hydroxyl radical generation.
PubMed: Pro-oxidative properties of flavonoids in human lymphocytes.
PubMed: Lipid-lowering efficacy of hesperetin metabolites in high-cholesterol fed rats.
PubMed: Fasting plasma concentrations of selected flavonoids as markers of their ordinary dietary intake.
PubMed: Plasma concentrations of the flavonoids hesperetin, naringenin and quercetin in human subjects following their habitual diets, and diets high or low in fruit and vegetables.
PubMed: Flavonoids in human urine as biomarkers for intake of fruits and vegetables.
PubMed: In vitro investigation of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of dietary flavonoids.
PubMed: Purification and characterization of a beta-glucosidase from Citrus sinensis var. Valencia fruit tissue.
PubMed: Identification and antioxidant activity of flavonoid metabolites in plasma and urine of eriocitrin-treated rats.
PubMed: Inhibition of neoplastic transformation and bioavailability of dietary flavonoid agents.
PubMed: In vitro biotransformation of flavonoids by rat liver microsomes.
PubMed: Preparation and taste of certain glycosides of flavanones and of dihydrochalcones.
PubMed: Antimutagenic effect of plant flavonoids in the Salmonella assay system.
PubMed: Antihyperlipidemic effect of flavonoids from Prunus davidiana.
PubMed: The influence of food flavonoids on the activity of some hepatic microsomal monooxygenases in rats.
PubMed: Flavonoid sweeteners. Synthesis and intestinal absorption of selected sulfoalkylated hesperetin-3-14C derivatives in the rat.
PubMed: Synthesis and metabolic fate of hesperetin-3-14C.
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