EU/US Properties Organoleptics Cosmetics Suppliers Safety Safety in use Safety references References Other Blenders Uses Occurrence Synonyms Articles Notes


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CAS Number: 9001-00-7
Other(deleted CASRN):37187-68-1
ECHA EC Number:232-572-4
Name:stem bromelain
CAS Number: 37189-34-7
ECHA EC Number:253-384-9
Category:enzyme preparations and microorganisms
US / EU / FDA / JECFA / FEMA / FLAVIS / Scholar / Patent Information:
Google Scholar:Search
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Perfumer and Flavorist:Search
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US Patents:Search
EU Patents:Search
JECFA Food Additive: Bromelain
GSFA Codex: Bromelain (1101(iii))
FDA Mainterm (SATF):9001-00-7 ; BROMELAIN
FDA Regulation:
Subpart B--Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1024 Bromelain.
Physical Properties:
Appearance:white to tan powder (est)
Food Chemicals Codex Listed: No
Soluble in:
Organoleptic Properties:
Odor and/or flavor descriptions from others (if found).
Cosmetic Information:
CosIng:cosmetic data
Cosmetic Uses: keratolytics
skin conditioning
American Laboratories
Bromelain 120 GDU 823
American Laboratories
Bromelain 1200 GDU 557
American Laboratories
Bromelain 2000 GDU 558
American Laboratories
Bromelain 2400 GDU 559
American Laboratories
Bromelain 2400 GDU 998
American Laboratories
Bromelain 600 GDU 543
American Laboratories
Bromelain 80 GDU 727
BOC Sciences
For experimental / research use only.
Bromelain 95%
Charkit Chemical
Charkit Chemical
Glentham Life Sciences
Bromelain, 1200 GDU/g
Grau Aromatics
Indis NV
For experimental / research use only.
Maypro Industries
Qingdao Dacon Trading
Shaanxi Y-Herb Biotechnology
Pineapple Stem Bromelain Enzyme Powder Supplement Cosmetic Grade Ananas Comosus Extract
SRS Aromatics
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Universal Preserv-A-Chem Inc.
Odor: characteristic
Use: Bromelain 80 GDU is a protein extract derived from pineapple stems, is a potential anti-inflammatory agent.
Safety Information:
Hazards identification
Classification of the substance or mixture
GHS Classification in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
None found.
GHS Label elements, including precautionary statements
Hazard statement(s)
None found.
Precautionary statement(s)
None found.
Oral/Parenteral Toxicity:
oral-rat LD50 > 10000 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 166, 1963.

intraperitoneal-rat LD50 85.20 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 166, 1963.

intravenous-rabbit LD50 20 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 166, 1963.

oral-mouse LD50 > 10000 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 166, 1963.

intravenous-mouse LD50 30 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 166, 1963.

intraperitoneal-mouse LD50 36.70 mg/kg
Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 145, Pg. 166, 1963.

Dermal Toxicity:
Not determined
Inhalation Toxicity:
Not determined
Safety in Use Information:
enzyme preparations and microorganisms
Recommendation for bromelain usage levels up to:
 not for fragrance use.
Recommendation for bromelain flavor usage levels up to:
 not for flavor use.
Safety References:
AIDS Citations:Search
Cancer Citations:Search
Toxicology Citations:Search
EPA Substance Registry Services (TSCA):9001-00-7
EPA ACToR:Toxicology Data
EPA Substance Registry Services (SRS):Registry
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases:Data
WGK Germany:3
stem bromelain
Canada Domestic Sub. List:9001-00-7
Pubchem (sid):135273553
 stem bromelain
Canada Domestic Sub. List:37189-34-7
Pubchem (sid):135281494
Other Information:
FDA Substances Added to Food (formerly EAFUS):View
HMDB (The Human Metabolome Database):Search
FDA Listing of Food Additive Status:View
VCF-Online:VCF Volatile Compounds in Food
Potential Blenders and core components note
None Found
Potential Uses:
None Found
Occurrence (nature, food, other):note
 pineapple fruit
Search Trop Picture
 pineapple fruit juice
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 pineapple juice
Search Trop Picture
 pineapple leaf
Search Trop Picture
 pineapple pericarp
Search Trop Picture
 pineapple stem
Search Trop Picture
 bromelain juice
 pineapple protease
 pineapple protease and milk clotting enzyme
 plant protease concentrate


PubMed:DNase I and proteinase K impair Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation and induce dispersal of pre-existing biofilms.
PubMed:Bromelain: an overview of industrial application and purification strategies.
PubMed:Seafood-like flavour obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein by-products of seaweed (Gracilaria sp.).
PubMed:Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.
PubMed:Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.
PubMed:Effects of L- and iso-ascorbic acid on meat protein hydrolyzing activity of four commercial plant and three microbial protease preparations.
PubMed:Incomplete stomach emptying as a complication of intragastric balloon treatment and a solution suggestion: Pineapple juice drinking.
PubMed:Application of taste sensing system for characterisation of enzymatic hydrolysates from shrimp processing by-products.
PubMed:The chemopreventive action of bromelain, from pineapple stem (Ananas comosus L.), on colon carcinogenesis is related to antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects.
PubMed:Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.
PubMed:Assessment of viral replication in eggs and HA protein yield of pre-pandemic H5N1 candidate vaccine viruses.
PubMed:The improvement of the endogenous antioxidant property of stone fish (Actinopyga lecanora) tissue using enzymatic proteolysis.
PubMed:Tenderization effect of cold-adapted collagenolytic protease MCP-01 on beef meat at low temperature and its mechanism.
PubMed:Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents.
PubMed:Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from whole anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) prepared using endogenous enzymes and commercial proteases.
PubMed:The role of molecular size in antioxidant activity of peptide fractions from Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) hydrolysates.
PubMed:Pineapple stem bromelain immobilized on different supports: catalytic properties in model wine.
PubMed:Utilisation of chitinous materials in pigment adsorption.
PubMed:Production of defatted palm kernel cake protein hydrolysate as a valuable source of natural antioxidants.
PubMed:Enzyme Hydrolysates from Stichopus horrens as a New Source for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides.
PubMed:Bromelain enzyme from pineapple: in vitro activity study under different micropropagation conditions.
PubMed:Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.
PubMed:Antioxidant, antimicrobial, 15-LOX, and AGEs inhibitions by pineapple stem waste.
PubMed:Peptides derived from atlantic salmon skin gelatin as dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors.
PubMed:Purification of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide with an antihypertensive effect from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).
PubMed:Rice-induced anaphylaxis: IgE-mediated allergy against a 56-kDa glycoprotein.
PubMed:Bromelain-induced apoptosis in GI-101A breast cancer cells.
PubMed:Preparative purification of bromelain (EC from pineapple fruit by high-speed counter-current chromatography using a reverse-micelle solvent system.
PubMed:Production of plant proteases in vivo and in vitro--a review.
PubMed:Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.
PubMed:A review of the use of bromelain in cardiovascular diseases.
PubMed:Physicochemical and flavor characteristics of flavoring agent from mungbean protein hydrolyzed by bromelain.
PubMed:Recombinant HA1 produced in E. coli forms functional oligomers and generates strain-specific SRID potency antibodies for pandemic influenza vaccines.
PubMed:Soybean β-conglycinin bromelain hydrolysate stimulates cholecystokinin secretion by enteroendocrine STC-1 cells to suppress the appetite of rats under meal-feeding conditions.
PubMed:Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.
PubMed:Preparation of antioxidant enzymatic hydrolysates from honeybee-collected pollen using plant enzymes.
PubMed:A comparative study of the effects of bromelain and fresh pineapple juice on the early phase of healing in acute crush achilles tendon injury.
PubMed:Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients.
PubMed:Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to wine glycoproteins in heavy drinkers.
PubMed:Prospective study of sensitization and food allergy to flaxseed in 1317 subjects.
PubMed:IgG2 dominancy and carbohydrate recognition specificity of C3H/He mouse antibodies directed to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) bearing beta-(1,2)-xylose and alpha-(1,3)-fucose.
PubMed:Application of exogenous enzymes to beef muscle of high and low-connective tissue.
PubMed:An alternative method for preparation of pandemic influenza strain-specific antibody for vaccine potency determination.
PubMed:Isolation, purification, and properties of a novel small heat shock protein from the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus.
PubMed:Susceptibility of lupin gamma-conglutin, the plasma glucose-lowering protein of lupin seeds, to proteolytic enzymes.
PubMed:A novel ACE inhibitory peptide isolated from Acaudina molpadioidea hydrolysate.
PubMed:Immunoglobulin-E reactivity to a glycosylated food allergen (peanuts) due to interference with cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in heavy drinkers.
PubMed:Preparation and some functional properties of rice bran protein concentrate at different degree of hydrolysis using bromelain and alkaline extraction.
PubMed:Peanut allergy diagnosis in the context of grass pollen sensitization for 125 patients: roles of peanut and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants specific IgE.
PubMed:Allergy to kiwi in patients with baker's asthma: identification of potential cross-reactive allergens.
PubMed:Evaluation of bitterness in enzymatic hydrolysates of soy protein isolate by taste dilution analysis.
PubMed:Detection and quantification of soy allergens in food: study of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
PubMed:Use of reverse micellar systems for the extraction and purification of bromelain from pineapple wastes.
PubMed:Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates.
PubMed:Oral immunogenicity of the plant proteinase bromelain.
PubMed:Natural rubber latex and hymenoptera venoms share ImmunoglobinE-epitopes accounting for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants.
PubMed:Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity.
PubMed:Cross-linked bromelain inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production involving cellular signaling suppression in rats.
PubMed:Benzodioxole derivatives as negative effectors of plant proteases.
PubMed:Treatment with oral bromelain decreases colonic inflammation in the IL-10-deficient murine model of inflammatory bowel disease.
PubMed:IgE-reactive carbohydrate epitopes--classification, cross-reactivity, and clinical impact.
PubMed:Exfoliation of Helicobacter pylori from gastric mucin by glycopolypeptides from buttermilk.
PubMed:Proteolytic activity and immunogenicity of oral bromelain within the gastrointestinal tract of mice.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of phytocystatins from kiwifruit cortex and seeds.
PubMed:An overview of herbal supplement utilization with particular emphasis on possible interactions with dental drugs and oral manifestations.
PubMed:Application potency of engineered G159 mutants on P1 substrate pocket of subtilisin YaB as improved meat tenderizers.
PubMed:Purification and characterization of hydrolase with chitinase and chitosanase activity from commercial stem bromelain.
PubMed:Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice.
PubMed:Improvement in protein utilization in nursing-home patients on tube feeding supplemented with an enzyme product derived from Aspergillus niger and bromelain.
PubMed:Lupus erythematosus and nutrition: a review of the literature.
PubMed:Natural treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis.
PubMed:Involvement of carbohydrate epitopes in the IgE response of celery-allergic patients.
PubMed:Fruit-pollen-latex cross-reactivity: implication of profilin (Bet v 2).
PubMed:Isolation of peptides from an enzymatic hydrolysate of food proteins and characterization of their taste properties.
PubMed:A cysteine proteinase inhibitor purified from apple fruit.
PubMed:Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain.
PubMed:[Cross-reactivity between bromelain and soluble fraction from wheat flour].
PubMed:Modification of wheat flour with bromelain and baking hypoallergenic bread with added ingredients.
PubMed:Kiwi fruit allergy: a new birch pollen-associated food allergy.
PubMed:IgG1 and IgG2a production by autoimmune B cells treated in vitro with IL-4 and IFN-gamma.
PubMed:Asthma caused by bromelain: an occupational allergy.
PubMed:Bromelain, the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application. An update.
PubMed:Declogging small-bore feeding tubes.
PubMed:Tenderization of beef with bacterial collagenase.
PubMed:[Determination of processing conditions for obtaining a pepitona (Arca zebra) hydrolysate for human consumption].
PubMed:[Proteolytic enzymes: potential allergens for the skin and respiratory tract?].
PubMed:Studies on the specificity of human IgE-antibodies to the plant proteases papain and bromelain.
PubMed:Retinol inhibition of some proteolytic enzymes.
Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. There has been interest in using it for INFLAMMATION and DEBRIDEMENT.protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in pineapple fruit juice and stem tissue. enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. this enzyme was formerly listed as ec Enzymes occurring in pineapple juice (Ananas sativus); used in tenderising meat and chill-proofing beer [DFC] Along with papain, bromelain is one of the most popular substances to use for meat tenderizing.; Bromelain can refer to one of two protease enzymes extracted from the plant family Bromeliaceae, or it can refer to a combination of those enzymes along with other compounds produced in an extract. [BioSpider]
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